• Title, Summary, Keyword: 소핵분석

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Analysis of radiation-induced micronuclei and aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 and 4 by FISH technique (FISH 기법을 이용한 방사선에 의한 소핵과 이수성 분석)

  • Chung, Hai-Won;Kim, Tae-Yon;Cho, Yoon-Hee;Kim, Su-Young;Kang, Chang-Mo;Ha, Sung-Whan
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.243-249
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    • 2004
  • The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in combination with FISH technique using chromosome-specific centromeric probes for chromosome 1 and 4 was performed in mitogen stimulated human lymphocytes which were exposed to x-radiation to identify different sensitivity of chromosomes to the induction of micronuclei(MN) and aneuploidy by radiation. The frequencies of micronucleated cytokinesis-blocked(MNCB) cells and MN in binucleated lymphocytes(BN) increased with the increase in radiation dose. A significant induction of aneuploidy of chromosome 1 and 4 were found. The frequency of aneuploidy of chromosome 1 and 4 in the control were 9 per 2,000 BN cells and this increased to 47 and 71 following irradiation at a dose of 1 and 2 Gy, respectively. The induction of aneuploidy of chromosome 1 was higher than that of chromosome 4. The frequency of aneuploid BN cells with MN exhibiting positive centromere signal for either chromosome 1 and/or 4 increased in a dose dependent manner, and that for chromosome 1 is higher than that for chromosome 4. Among the total induced MN in irradiated lymphocytes, smaller proportion of MN exhibit centromeric signal of chromosome indicating that radiation-induced MN are mainly originated from chromosomal breakage rather than chromosomal non-disjunction. These results suggest that x-radiation can induce aneuploidy and supports the finding that chromosome vary in their sensitivity to aneuploidy induction by x-irradiation.

Effect of Cytosine Arabinoside, 3-Aminobenzamide and Hydroxyurea on the frequencies of radiation-induced micronuclei and aneuploidy in human lymphocytes (DNA 회복 저해제 Cytosine Arabinoside, 3-Aminobenzamide 및 Hydroxyurea가 방사선에 의해 유도된 소핵과 이수성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Yoon-Hee;Kim, Yang-Jee;Kang, Chang-Mo;Ha, Sung-Whan;Chung, Hai-Won
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.209-219
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to examine the effect of the DNA repair inhibitors, Cytosine Arabinoside(Ara C), 3-Aminobenzamide(3AB) and Hydroxyurea(HU) on the frequencies of radiation-induced micronuclei(MNi) and aneuploidy. Irradiated lymphocytes(1-3Gy) were treated with DNA repair inhibitors, Ara C, 3AB and HU for 3 hours and CBMN assay - FISH technique with DNA probe for chromosome 1 and 4 was performed. The frequencies of x-ray induced MNi and aneuploidy of chromosome 1 and 4 were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Ara C, 3AB and HU enhanced the frequencies of radiation-induced MNi and the frequencies of radiation-induced aneuploidy of chromosome 1 and 4 were enhanced by HU and Ara C while no effect was observed by 3AB. The frequency of radiation-induced aneuploidy of chromosome 1 was higher than that of chromosome 4. These results suggest that there are different mechanisms involved in the formation of MNi and aneuploidy by radiation.

The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the Chromosomal Instability in Bleomycin Treated Fibroblast Cells (Bleomycin이 처리된 사람 섬유아세포에서 극저주파 전자기장의 효과)

  • Cho, Yoon-Hee;Kim, Yang-Jee;Lee, Joong-Won;Kim, Gye-Eun;Chung, Hai-Won
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.161-166
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    • 2008
  • In order to determine the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the frequency of micronuclei (MN), aneuploidy and chromosomal rearrangement induced by bleomycin (BLM) in human fibroblast cells, a 60 Hz ELF-EMF of 0.8 mT field strength was applied either alone or with ELM throughout the culture period and a micronucleus-centromere assay was performed. Our results indicate that the frequencies of MN, aneuploidy and chromosomal rearrangement induced by ELM increased in a dose-dependent manner. The exposure of cells to 0.8 mT ELF-EMF followed by ELM exposure for 3 hours led to significant increases in the frequencies of MN and aneuploidy compared to BLM treatment for 3 hours alone (p<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between field exposed and sham exposed control cells. The obtained results suggest that low density ELF-EMF could act as an enhancer of the initiation process of BLM rather than as an initiator of mutagenic effects in human fibroblast.

Evaluation of in vivo Genotoxicity of Plant Flavonoids, Quercetin and Isoquercetin (식물유래 플라보노이드 Quercetin과 Isoquercetin의 생체 내 유전독성평가)

  • Pak, Bumsoo;Han, Sehee;Lee, Jiyeon;Chung, Young-Shin
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.356-364
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    • 2016
  • In vivo genotoxic potential of isoquercetin, a plant common flavonoid, in comparison with quercetin was investigated for the DNA breakage and the clastogenicity endpoints. Male ICR mice were administered by oral gavage for 3 days with $3{\times}0.5%$ carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), 3 ${\times}$ isoquercetin (250, 500 mg/kg/day), 3 ${\times}$ quercetin (250, 500 mg/kg/day) and 2 ${\times}$ ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS, 200 mg/kg/day). Tissues were collected 48 hours after the first treatment and within 3 hours after the last treatment. The DNA damages were evaluated using Comet assay in liver and stomach, while the clastogenicities were determined using micronucleus test in bone marrow of same animals. The treatment of isoquercetin as well as quercetin did not cause the DNA damages in liver and stomach, and not induce the frequencies of micronucleus polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow. In conclusion, isoquercetin as well as quercetin did not cause the DNA breakages and the chromosomal damages in vivo system in these study conditions.

Redescription of Three Newly Recorded Gastrostyla Ciliates (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea: Stichotrichida) with Morphological Variations from Korea (한국미기록 Gastrostyla 섬모충 (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea: Stichotrichida) 3종의 형태적 변이와 재기재)

  • Jo Jong O;Kim YeonUk;Shin Mann Kyoon
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 2005
  • Three species of Gastrostyla ciliates collected from the sewage treatment plant and a puddle in the valley from Korea were identified as Gastrostyla minima Hemberger, 1985, G. steinii Engelmann, 1862 and G. setifera (Engelmann, 1862). The description was based on the observation of living specimens, protargol impregnated specimens and biometric analysis. The morphological variations among the populations of these species were investigated with morphometry. These species have not been reported in Korea and their diagnostic characteristics are as follows: G. minima normally has two oval macronuclei (Ma) with one spherical micronucleus (Mi) respectively, continuous ventral cirral row (VCR) with additional one postoral ventral cirrus (poVC), five transverse cirri (TC), six dorsal kineties (DK) with broken 4th kinety, and cortical granules. G. steinii has four oval Ma with three to five Mi, discontinuous VCR with additional one poVC, four TCs, six DKs, and no cortical granules. G. setifera has two oval Ma with one spherical Mi respectively, five TCs which distinctly separate in two groups, six DKs, discontinuous VCR with additional two poVCs, and no cortical granules.

Genotoxicological Safety Evaluation of X-ray Irradiated Four Foods (X-선 조사식품 4종의 유전독성학적 안전성 평가)

  • Jung, Da-Woon;Huang, Yu-Hua;Song, Beom-Seok;Byun, Myung-Woo;Kang, Il-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.10
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    • pp.1588-1593
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    • 2014
  • This study evaluated the genotoxic effects of 30 kGy of X-ray irradiation to four foods (chicken, egg powder, dried green onion, and black pepper). In bacterial reversion assay with Salmonella Typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, the X-ray irradiated foods did not show a significantly increased number of revertant colonies in the presence or absence of the S9 metabolic activation system. In chromosomal aberration tests with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the X-ray irradiated foods showed no increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, the X-ray irradiated foods did not show any increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results indicate that 30 kGy of X-ray irradiation to four foods (chicken, egg powder, dried green onion, and black pepper) showed no genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions.

자기핵융합과 KSTAR

  • Gwon, Myeon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.1-1
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    • 2010
  • 핵융합에너지는 1930년대 한스 베테에 의해 태양과 별 에너지의 근원임이 밝혀진 후 소핵 폭탄실험 성공으로 그 위력적인 에너지를 인공적으로 만들 수 있음을 세상에 드러내게 된다. 그 뒤 이 에너지의 평화적인 이용 노력이 시작되었고 1958년 스위스에서 핵융합에너지의 평화적 이용에 대한 첫 국제회의가 열리게 되면서 에너지원으로서의 연구를 통해 냉전시대의 경쟁 대상의 과학기술의 하나로 부각되면서 눈부신 성능 향상을 보여주게 되었다. 아직 여러 어려운 관문이 남아있지만 기후변화와 에너지원 고갈에 의한 새로운 에너지원에 대한 강력한 필요성이 제기되면서 ITER와 같은 대형 국제공동연구시설 건설이 시작되었고 2030년대에는 최초의 핵융합발전소를 건설하려는 꿈도 그려가고 있다. 핵융합에너지를 얻는 방식에는 여러 방법이 시도되었는데 현재는 자기장을 이용해 플라즈마를 핵융합반응이 일어나기에 충분한 시간동안 가두는 자기핵융합방식과 관성으로 플라즈마를 가두는 관성핵융합방식으로 크게 구분할 수 있다. 자기핵융합방식의 경우 플라즈마를 만들고 가열하여 핵융합반응 확률이 높은 고온으로 가열하고 그 조건을 오래 지속시키는 기술들이 필요한데 이 기술들은 오늘날의 거의 모든 극한기술들이 망라되어 적용되는데 초전도, 고주파/ 초고주파, 대전력 공급, 대형 시설 실시간 제어기술, 대규모 신호처리기술, 고온 플라즈마 진단 기술, 대규모 시스템 시뮬레이션 기술 등이 그것이다. 여기에 또한 중요한 기술의 하나로 초고진공 기술이 필요하다. 이러한 기술이 집약되고 서로 통합되어 하나의 목적을 위해 쓰여지도록 고안되고 만들어진 장치가 자기핵융합 장치이며 따라서 현대의 자기핵융합장치들은 굉장히 복잡하며 대형 시설로 지어질 수밖에 없다. 우리나라는 1970년대 말부터 소형의 플라즈마 연구시설을 시작으로 자기핵융합 연구를 시작하면서 인력 양성을 시작하였으며 가속기 등 대형 연구시설이 본격적으로 지어지던 1990년대에 세계적으로 유래가 없는 초전도 자기핵융합장치인 KSTAR장치 건설 프로젝트를 시작하게 되었다. 총 11년이 넘는 건설기간 동안 여러 학교와 연구기관, 그리고 산업체가 참여하여 성공적으로 시운전을 실시하였으며 당당히 세계적인 장치를 통한 핵융합연구 대열에 동참하게 되었다. 이를 통한 기술 개발의 결과로 국제적 공동연구장치 ITER의 건설사업에 참여하게 되었고 KSTAR와 ITER를 통해 핵융합 에너지 상용화 기술 개발을 국가적인 기술개발의 목표로 결정하고 연구개발계획을 전략적으로 세워 진행하고 있다. 이번 논문에서는 자기핵융합의 특징과 연구 동향을 통해 우리나라의 기술 수준을 조망하고 특히 진공 기술 분야와의 상호 의존적 영향 분석을 통해 공동의 발전 방향을 모색해 보려고 한다.

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Computerized Image Analysis of Micronucleated Reticulocytes in Mouse Bone Marrow (컴퓨터 이미지 분석법을 이용한 마우스 골수세포에서 소핵의 계수)

  • 권정;홍미영;고우석;정문구;이미가엘
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.369-374
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    • 2002
  • The present study was performed to validate an automated image analysis system (Loats Automated Micronucleus Scoring System) for the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay, comparing with conventional microscopic scoring. Two studies were conducted to provide slides for a comparison of micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) values collected manually to those collected by the auto-mated system. Test article A was used as an example of a compound negative for the induction of micronuclei and test article B was wed as a micronucleus-inducing agent to elicit a positive response. Cyclophosphamide was included to provide an positive control in two studies. Bone marrow samples were collected 24 h after administration of test article A and B in male ICR mice. The cells were fixed with absolute methanol and stained with May-Grunwald and Giemsa. The number of MNPCEs was determined by the analysis of 1000 total PCEs per bone marrow sample. In addition to micronucleus scoring, an index of bone marrow toxicity based on PCE ratio (% of PCEs to total erythrocytes) was determined for each sample. The automated and manual scoring was similar when the MNPCEs incidence induced by each test article was less than 10. However manual scoring was able to effectively enumerate micronucleated PCEs in mouse bone marrow when MNPCEs incidence was more than 10, such as cyclophosphamide treatment. Conversely, PCE ratio was superior in computer-assisted image analysis. Taken together, it is suggested that improvement of the automated image analysis may be necessary to render the automatic scoring as sensitive as manual scoring for routine counting of micronuclei, especially because it is superior in objectivity and high throughput scoring.