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Nanoscale Pattern Formation of Li2CO3 for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material by Pattern Transfer Printing (패턴전사 프린팅을 활용한 리튬이온 배터리 양극 기초소재 Li2CO3의 나노스케일 패턴화 방법)

  • Kang, Young Lim;Park, Tae Wan;Park, Eun-Soo;Lee, Junghoon;Wang, Jei-Pil;Park, Woon Ik
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2020
  • For the past few decades, as part of efforts to protect the environment where fossil fuels, which have been a key energy resource for mankind, are becoming increasingly depleted and pollution due to industrial development, ecofriendly secondary batteries, hydrogen generating energy devices, energy storage systems, and many other new energy technologies are being developed. Among them, the lithium-ion battery (LIB) is considered to be a next-generation energy device suitable for application as a large-capacity battery and capable of industrial application due to its high energy density and long lifespan. However, considering the growing battery market such as eco-friendly electric vehicles and drones, it is expected that a large amount of battery waste will spill out from some point due to the end of life. In order to prepare for this situation, development of a process for recovering lithium and various valuable metals from waste batteries is required, and at the same time, a plan to recycle them is socially required. In this study, we introduce a nanoscale pattern transfer printing (NTP) process of Li2CO3, a representative anode material for lithium ion batteries, one of the strategic materials for recycling waste batteries. First, Li2CO3 powder was formed by pressing in a vacuum, and a 3-inch sputter target for very pure Li2CO3 thin film deposition was successfully produced through high-temperature sintering. The target was mounted on a sputtering device, and a well-ordered Li2CO3 line pattern with a width of 250 nm was successfully obtained on the Si substrate using the NTP process. In addition, based on the nTP method, the periodic Li2CO3 line patterns were formed on the surfaces of metal, glass, flexible polymer substrates, and even curved goggles. These results are expected to be applied to the thin films of various functional materials used in battery devices in the future, and is also expected to be particularly helpful in improving the performance of lithium-ion battery devices on various substrates.

Resarch on Manufacturing Technology of Red-Burnished Pottery Excavated from Samdeok-ri, Goseong, Korea (고성 삼덕리유적 출토 적색마연토기의 제작 특성 연구)

  • Han, Leehyeon;Kim, Sukyoung;Jin, Hongju;Jang, Sungyoon
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.170-187
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    • 2020
  • Dolmens bearing the burial layout and stone coffin tombs of the late Bronze Age were excavated from Samdeok-ri, Goseong, Gyeonsangnsamdo, and grave items such as red-burnished pottery, arrowheads, and stone swords were also discovered. In the case of the red-burnished pottery that was found, it retains a pigment layer with a thickness of about 50 to 160㎛, but with most of the other items, exfoliation and peeling-off of pigment layers can be observed on the surface. The raw materials of the red-burnished pottery contained moderately sorted minerals such as quartz, feldspar, and hornblende, and partly opaque iron oxide minerals were also identified. In particular, the raw materials of the red-burnished pottery from stone coffin tomb #6 were different from those of the other pottery, containing large amounts of hornblende and feldspar. The pottery's red pigment was identified as hematite and showed similar mineral content of raw materials such as fine grained quartz, feldspar, and hornblende. The firing temperature is estimated to have been approximately 900℃, based on their mineral phase. The possibility exists that the raw materials had been collected from the Samdeok-ri area, because diorite and granite diorite with dominant feldspar and hornblende have been identified within 3km of that area. During the pottery manufacturing process, it is estimated that the pigment was painted on the entire surface of the red-burnished pottery after it had been molded and then finished using the abrasion technique. In other words, the red-burnished pottery was made by the process of vessel forming - semi drying - coloring - polishing. The surface and cross-section of the pottery appears differently depending on the concentration of the pigment and the coloring method used after vessels were formed. Most of the excavated pottery features a distinct boundary between pigment and body fabric. However, in the case of pottery in which fine-grained pigments penetrate the body fabric so that layers cannot be distinguished, there is the possibility that the fine-grained pigment layer was applied at a low concentration or immediately after vessel forming. Many cracks can be seen on the surface pigments in thickly painted pottery items, and in many cases, only a small portion of the pigment layers remain due to surface exfoliation and abrasion in the burial environment. It is reported that pottery items may be more easily damaged by abrasion if coated with pigment and polished, so it is believed that the red-burnished pottery of the Samdeok-ri site suffered from weathering in the burial environment. This damage was more extensive in the potsherds that were scattered outside the tomb.

Clinical and Radiographic Characteristics of 12 Patients with Mycobacterium abscessus Pulmonary Disease (Mycobacterium abscessus 폐질환 환자 12명의 임상적, 방사선학적 특징)

  • Koh, Won-Jung;Kwon, O Jung;Kang, Eun Hae;Jeon, Ik Soo;Pyun, Yu Jang;Ham, Hyoung Suk;Suh, Gee Young;Chung, Man Pyo;Kim, Hojoong;Han, Daehee;Kim, Tae Sung;Lee, Kyung Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 2003
  • Background : Mycobacterium abscessus is the most common respiratory pathogen in rapidly growing mycobacteria and is resistant to all of the first-line antituberculosis drugs. This report describes the clinical and radiographic characteristics in patients with pulmonary disease caused by M. abscessus. Materials and Methods : Twelve patients with pulmonary disease caused by M. abscessus who fulfilled the 1997 American Thoracic Society diagnostic criteria for a nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infection were observed over a five-and-a-half year period. The clinical characteristics and chest radiographic findings were analyzed, retrospectively. Results : The patients were predominantly female(11/12, 92%) and nonsmokers(12/12, 100%). Coughing (10/12, 83%), sputum(10/12, 83%) and hemoptysis(10/12, 83%) were the common symptoms and they had prolonged periods from the onset of symptoms to the diagnosis of their disease(median 6.5 years). Eleven (92%) patients had a previous history of being treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. The sputum specimens were acid-fast bacilli smear-positive in all patients. All patients were administered antituberculosis drugs. Six (50%) patients were treated with second-line antituberculosis drugs on account of persistent smear-positive sputum specimens. The chest radiographs showed that reticulonodular opacities(11/12, 92%) were the most common pattern of abnormality, followed by cavitary lesions(5/12, 42%). The computed tomography findings suggested bronchiolitis from the centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud appearances(9/10, 90%) and bronchiectasis (9/10, 90%) were the most common, followed by well-defined nodules smaller than 10-mm in diameter(7/10, 70%). Conclusions : M. abscessus pulmonary disease should be recognized as a cause of chronic mycobacterial lung disease, and respiratory isolates should be assessed carefully.