• Title, Summary, Keyword: 삼중수소

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Analysis of Minimum Detectable Activity Concentration of Water Samples and Evaluation of Effective Dose (물 시료의 최소검출가능 농도 분석과 유효선량 평가)

  • Jang, Eun-sung;Kim, Yang-su;Lee, Sun-young;Kim, Jung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.857-862
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    • 2020
  • In March 2011, a tsunami off Japan caused radioactive material that had seeped into the sea from the Fukushima nuclear accident to flow to the Pacific Ocean, causing pollution to sea life. For a comparative evaluation with the area surrounding the site of a nuclear power plant by the release of radioactive materials, an area 20 to 30 km away from the emergency protection plan area was selected as a comparative point considering weather conditions, population distribution, etc. In addition, the government intends to analyze the minimum detection radiation received by residents around the nuclear power plant and evaluate the effective dose. Analysis of tritium radiation from water samples showed that most of the samples were not detected and that 0.0014 % to 0.777 % of the annual legal standard of 1 mSv for the general public had little effect on the human body. Therefore, the measurement and analysis of water samples around the nuclear power plant site is expected to help relieve anxiety, such as exposure to the general public and neighboring residents due to radiation release.

국제핵융합실험로(ITER) 시험을 위한 한국형 시험증식블랑켓 개념설계 및 성능해석

  • Lee, Dong-Won;Jin, Hyeong-Gon;Lee, Eo-Hwak;Yun, Jae-Seong;Kim, Seok-Gwon;Park, Seong-Dae;Jo, A-Ra;An, Mu-Yeong;Jo, Seung-Yeon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.255-255
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    • 2015
  • 국제핵융합실험로(ITER)의 3대 목표 중 하나는 핵융합로 개발을 위한 삼중수소증식블랑켓 개념을 시험하고 검증하는 것이며, 이를 위해 시험증식블랑켓(TBM, Test Blanket Module) 프로그램을 마련, 각국이 참여할 수 있도록 하고 있다. 한국도 2012년 국가핵융합위원회 결정에 따라, EU, 일본, 중국, 인도와 함께 TBM 프로그램에 참여하고 있으며, 2021년 설치를 목표로 헬륨냉각 고체증식재 개념의 HCCR (Helilum Cooled Ceramic Reflector) TBM을 설계, 개발하고 있다. 한국형 TBM은 총 4개의 서브모듈과 하나의 후벽(Back Manifold, BM) 으로 구성되며, 각 서브모듈은 플라즈마와 대면하는 일차벽(First Wall, FW), 증식재와 증배재, 반사재를 담고 있는 증식영역(Breeding Zong, BZ), 냉각재 매니폴드 및 구조물 역할을 하는 측벽(Side Wall, SW) 등의 기능부품으로 구성되어 있다. 냉각재는 8 MPa, $300-500^{\circ}C$의 고온고압헬륨을 사용하고, Li2SiO4 혹은 Li2TiO4 형태의 Li 세라믹 증식재를 사용하며, 중성자 증배를 위해 Be 증배재 및 흑연 반사재를 사용한다 [1-3]. 2015년 2월 개념설계검토(CDR, Conceptual Design Review)를 위해, TBM-shield를 포함한 TBM-set 설계가 완료되었으며, 열수력, 구조, 지진, 전자기, 복합하중에 대한 평가가 진행되었다. 본 논문에서는 이 중 H/He-phase에 시험될 EM-TBM과 D-T phase에 시험될 INT-TBM에 대한 열수력 성능 결과를 소개하였다[5]. 각각의 열부하 조건은 0.17과 $0.3MW/m^2$이며, 중성자 조사는 D-T phase 에서만 고려되었다. 구조재 및 사용된 기능소재별 온도 요건을 정의하고, 성능해석 결과와 비교하였으며, 이를 통해 모든 온도 요건을 만족함을 최종 확인하였다. 이러한 온도 분포는 열응력 평가를 위해 구조해석 입력자료로 활용되었다.

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Efficient Oxidative Scission of Alkenes or Alkynes with Heterogeneous Ruthenium Zirconia Catalyst (루테늄 지르코니아 불균일 촉매를 이용한 알켄 또는 알킨의 효과적인 산화절단반응)

  • Irshad, Mobina;Choi, Bong Gill;Kang, Onyu;Hong, Seok Bok;Hwang, Sung Yeon;Heo, Young Min;Kim, Jung Won
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.659-663
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    • 2016
  • The efficiency of a heterogeneous ruthenium zirconia catalyst ($Ru(OH)_x/ZrO_2$) was demonstrated to the selective oxidative transformation of alkenes or alkynes. The scissions of C-C double bonds to aldehydes and triple bonds to diketones or carboxylic acids were carried out with (diacetoxyiodo)benzene as an oxidant under dichloromethane (5 mL)/water (0.5 mL) solvent system at $30^{\circ}C$ for wide range of substrates. The $Ru(OH)_x/ZrO_2$composite showed higher catalytic activity and selectivity than other ruthenium-based homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts for the scission reaction. The catalyst exhibited a high mechanical stability, and no leaching of the metal was observed during the reaction. These features ensured the reusability of the catalyst for several times for the oxidative cleavage of unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Geochemistry of Geothermal Waters in Korea: Environmental Isotope and Hydrochemical Characteristics I. Bugok Area (한반도 지열수의 지화학적 연구: 환경동위원소 및 수문화학적 특성 I. 부곡 지역)

  • Yun, Seong-Taek;Koh, Yong-Kwon;Kim, Chun-Soo;So, Chil-Sup
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.185-199
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    • 1998
  • Hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope studies were undertaken for various kinds of water samples collected in 1995-1996 from the Bugok geothermal area. Physicochemical data indicate the occurrence of three distinct groups of natural water: Group I ($Na-S0_4$ type water with high temperatures up to $77^{\circ}C$, occurring from the central part of the geothermal area), Group II (warm $Na-HCO_{3}-SO_{4}$ type water, occurring from peripheral sites), Group III ($Ca-HCO_3$ type water, occurring as surface waters and/or shallow cold groundwaters). The Group I waters are further divided into two SUbtypes: Subgroup Ia and Subgroup lb. The general order of increasing degrees of hydrogeochemical evolution (due to the degrees of water-rock interaction) is: Group III$\rightarrow$Group II$\rightarrow$Group I. The Group II and III waters show smaller degrees of interaction with rocks (largely calcite and Na-plagioclase), whereas the Group I waters record the stronger interaction with plagioclase, K-feldspar, mica, chlorite and pyrite. The concentration and sulfur isotope composition of dissolved sulfate appear as a key parameter to understand the origin and evolution of geothermal waters. The sulfate was derived not only from oxidation of sedimentary pyrites in surrounding rocks (especially for the Subgroup Ib waters) but also from magmatic hydrothermal pyrites occurring in restricted fracture channels which extend down to a deep geothermal reservoir (typically for the Subgroup Ia waters). It is shown that the applicability of alkaliion geothermometer calculations for these waters is hampered by several processes (especially the mixing with Mg-rich near-surface waters) that modify the chemical composition. However, the multi-component mineral/water equilibria calculation and available fluid inclusion data indicate that geothermal waters of the Bugok area reach temperatures around $125^{\circ}C$ at deep geothermal reservoir (possibly a cooling pluton). Environmental isotope data (oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium) indicate the origin of all groups of waters from diverse meteoric waters. The Subgroup Ia waters are typically lower in O-H isotope values and tritium content, indicating their derivation from distinct meteoric waters. Combined with tritium isotope data, the Subgroup Ia waters likely represent the older (at least 45 years old) meteoric waters circuated down to the deep geothermal reservoir and record the lesser degrees of mixing with near-surface waters. We propose a model for the genesis and evolution of sulfate-rich geothermal waters.

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Geochemical Studies of $CO_2$-rich Waters in Chojeong area II. Isotope Study (초정지역 탄산수의 지화학적 연구 II. 동위원소)

  • 고용권;김천수;배대석;최현수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Groundwater Environment
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.171-179
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    • 1999
  • The $CO_2$-rich waters in the Chojeong area are characterized by low pH (5.0~5.8), high $CO_2$pressure (about 1 atm) and high amounts of total dissolved iou (up to 989 mg/L) and chemically belong to Ca-HC $O_3$type. The oxygen. deuterium and tritium isotope data indicate that the mixing process occurred between $CO_2$-rich water and surface water and/or shallow groundwaters and also suggest that the $CO_2$-rich water has been derived from meteoric waters. According to $\delta$$^{13}$ C values (-8.6~-5.3$\textperthousand$). the $CO_2$ in the water is attributed from deep seated $CO_2$gas. The high dissolved carbon (-14.4~-6.8$\textperthousand$. $\delta$$^{13}$ C) in groundwater of the granitic terrain might be affected by $CO_2$-rich water, whereas the dissolved carbon (-17.9~-15.2$\textperthousand$. $\delta$$^{13}$ C) in groundwater of the metamorphic terrain is likely controlled by soil $CO_2$ and from the reaction with calcite in phyllite. Sulfur isotope data (+3.5~+11.3$\textperthousand$,$\delta$$^{34}$ $S_{SO4}$) also support the mixing process between $CO_2$-rich water and shallow groundwater. Strontium isotopic ratio ($^{87}$ Sr/$^{86}$ Sr) indicates that the $CO_2$-rich water (0.7138~0.7156) is not related to vein calcite (0.7184) of Buak mine or calcite (0.7281~0.7346) in phyllite. By nitrogen isotope ($\delta$$^{15}$ $N_{NO3}$) the sources of nitrogen (up to 55.0 mg/L, N $O_3$) in the $CO_2$-rich water are identified as fertilizer and animal manure. It also indicates the possibility of denitrification during the circulation of nitrogen in the Chojeong area. The possible evolution model of the $CO_2$-rich water based on the hydrochemical and environmental isotopic data was proposed in this study. The $CO_2$-rich waters from the Chojeong area were primarily derived from the reaction with granite by supply of deep seated $CO_2$. and then the $CO_2$-rich water was mixed and diluted with the local groundwater.ter.

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Geochemistry and Isotope Studies of the Shinchon $CO_2$ -rich Waters in the Gyeongsang Province (경상지역 신촌 탄산약수의 지화학적 및 동위원소 특성)

  • 김건영;고용권;배대석;김천수;박맹언
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.71-88
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    • 2001
  • The Geochemica] and isotope studies on the $CO_2$-rich water from the Shinchon area were carried out. The Shinchon $CO_2$-rich water belongs to Ca(Na)-$HCO_3$ type showing very high $P_{CO_{2}}$ ( $10^{-0.35}$ ~ $10^{0.29}$ atm) and TDS (835-3,144 mg/L). The results of geochemical and isotope analysis indicate that $CO_2$ gas is originated from the deep seated source such as mantle or magmatic gases. The $CO_2$-rich water was evolved by interaction with deep-seated granite and major water-rock interaction was dissolution of p]agioclase resulting high Na content of $CO_2$-rich water. Precipitation and dissolution of secondary calcite might be accompanied with the dissolution of plagioclase maintaining Na/Ca ratio. High contents of K and $SO_4$ indicate that the geochemical characteristics of $CO_2$-rich water were partially affected by interaction with upper sedimentary rock during uprising to surface. N03 and tritium contents suggest that the $CO_2$-rich water was mixed with low $CO_2$ groundwater at some locations. The oxygen-hydrogen isotopes show that all water samples were derived from meteoric waters and the $CO_2$-rich water was isotopically re-equilibrated with lighter $CO_2$ gas. Although some carbon isotope data show isotopically heavy values, carbon isotope data indicate that the $CO_2$ gas was possib]y derived by deep source.

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Geochemical Studies of Geothermal Waters in Yusung Geotheraml Area (유성 지역 지열수의 지구화학적 특성 연구)

  • 김건영;고용권;김천수;배대석;박맹언
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Groundwater Environment
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.32-46
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    • 2000
  • Hydrogeochemical and isotope ($\delta$$^{18}$ O, $\delta$D, $^3$H, $\delta$$^{13}$ C, $\delta$$^{34}$ S, $^{87}$ Sr/$^{86}$ Sr) studies of various kinds of waters (thermal groundwater, deep groundwater, shallow groundwater, and surface water) from the Yusung area were carried out in order to elucidate their geochemical characteristics such as distribution and behaviour of major/minor elements, geochemical evolution, reservoir temperature, and water-rock interaction of the thermal groundwater. Thermal groundwater of the Yusung area is formed by heating at depth during deep circlulation of groundwater and is evolved into Na-HCO$_3$type water by hydrolysis of silicate minerals with calcite precipitation and mixing of shallow groundwater. High NO$_3$contents of many thermal and deep groundwater samples indicate that the thermal or deep groundwaters were mixed with contaminated shallow groundwater and/or surface water. $\delta$$^{18}$ O and $\delta$D are plotted around the global meteoric water line and there are no differences between the various types of water. Tritium contents of shallow groundwater, deep groundwater and thermal groundwater are quite different, but show that the thermal groundwater was mixed with surface water and/or shallow groundwater during uprising to surface after being heated at depths. $\delta$$^{13}$ C values of all water samples are very low (average -16.3$\textperthousand$%o). Such low $\delta$$^{13}$ C values indicate that the source of carbon is organic material and all waters from the Yusung area were affected by $CO_2$ gas originated from near surface environment. $\delta$$^{34}$ S values show mixing properties of thermal groundwater and shallow groundwater. Based on $^{87}$ Sr/$^{86}$ Sr values, Ca is thought to be originated from the dissolution of plagioclase. Reservoir temperature at depth is estimated to be 100~1$25^{\circ}C$ by calculation of equilibrium method of multiphase system. Therefore, the thermal groundwaters from the Yusung area were formed by heating at depths and evolved by water-rock interaction and mixing with shallow groundwater.

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Hydraulic-Thermal-Mechanical Properties and Radionuclide Release-Retarding Capacity of Kyungju Bentonite (경주 벤토나이트의 수리-열-역학적 특성 및 핵종 유출 저지능)

  • Jae-Owan Lee;Won-Jin Cho;Pil-Soo Hahn
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.87-96
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    • 2004
  • Studies were conducted to select the candidate buffer material for a high-level waste (HLW) repository in Korea. This paper presents the hydraulic properties, the swelling properties, the thermal properties, and the mechanical properties as well as the radionuclide release-retarding capacity of Kyungju bentonite as part of those studies. Experimental results showed that the hydraulic conductivities of the compacted bentonite were very low and less than $10^{-11}$m/s. The values decreased with increasing the dry density of the compacted bentonite. The swelling pressures were in the range of 0.66 MPa to 14.4 ㎫ and they increased with increasing the dry density. The thermal conductivities were in the range of 0.80 ㎉/m $h^{\circ}C$ to 1.52 ㎉/m $h^{\circ}C$. The unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poison's ratio showed the range of 0.55 ㎫ to 8.83 ㎫, 59 ㎫ to 1275 ㎫, and 0.05 to 0.20, respectively, when the dry densities of the compacted bentonite were 1.4 Ms/㎥ to 1.8 Mg/㎥. The diffusion coefficients in the compacted bentonite were measured under an oxidizing condition. The values were $1.7{\times}10^{-10}$m^2$/s to 3.4{\times}10^{-10}$m^2$/s for electrically neutral tritium (H-3), 8.6{\times}10^{-14}$m^2$/s to 1.3{\times}10^{-12}$m^2$/s for cations (Cs, Sr, Ni), 1.2{\times}10^{-11}$m^2$/s to 9.5{\times}10^{-11}$m^2$/s for anions (I, Tc), and 3.0{\times}10^{-14} $m^2$/s to 1.8{\times}10^{-13}$m^2$/s $for actinides (U, Am), when tile dry densities were in the range of 1.2 Mg/㎥ to 1.8 Mg/㎥. The obtained results will be used in assessing the barrier properties of Kyungju bentonite as a buffer material of a repository in Korea.n Korea.

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Radiological Dose Analysis to the Public Resulting from the Operation of Daedeok Nuclear Facilities (대덕부지 원자력관련시설 운영에 따른 주민피폭선량 현황분석)

  • Jeong, Hae Sun;Kim, Eun Han;Jeong, Hyo Joon;Han, Moon Hee;Park, Mi Sun;Hwang, Won Tae
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.38-45
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    • 2014
  • This paper describes the results of assessment of radiological dose resulting from operation of the Daedeok nuclear facilities including the HANARO research reactor, which has been performed to assure whether or not to comply with the regulation standards of the radioactive effluents releases. Based on the meteorological data and the radiation source term, the maximum individual doses were evaluated from 2010 to 2012. The atmospheric dispersion and the deposition factors of gaseous effluents were calculated using the XOQDOQ computer code. ENDOS-G and ENDOS-L code systems were also used for maximum individual dose calculation from gaseous and liquid effluents, respectively. The results were compared with the regulation standards for the radioactive effluents presented by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC). The effective doses and the thyroid doses of the maximum individual were calculated at the maximum exposed point in the Daedeok site, and contributions of exposure pathways to the radiological doses resulting from gaseous and liquid radioactive effluents were evaluated at each facility of the Daedeok site. As a result, the maximum exposed age was analysed to be the child group, and the operation of HANARO research reactor had a major effect more than 90% on the individual doses. The main exposure pathways for gaseous radioactive effluent were from ingestion and inhalation. The effective doses and the thyroid doses were considerably influenced by tritium and iodine, respectively. The gaseous radioactive effluents contributed more than 90% on the total doses, whereas the contributions of the liquid radioactive effluents were relatively low. Consequently, the maximum individual dose due to radioactive effluents from the nuclear facilities within the Daedeok site were less than 3% of the regulation standard over 3 years; therefore, it can be concluded that radioactive effluents from the nuclear facilities were well managed, with the radiation-induced health detriment for residents around the site being negligible.

Establishment of Release Limits for Airborne Effluent into the Environment Based on ALARA Concept (ALARA 개념(槪念)에 의한 기체상방사성물질(氣體狀放射性物質)의 환경방출한도(環境放出限度) 설정(設定))

  • Lee, Byung-Ki;Cha, Moon-Hoe;Nam, Soon-Kwon;Chang, Si-Young;Ha, Chung-Woo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.50-63
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    • 1985
  • A derivation of new release limit, named Derived Release Limit(DRL), into the atomsphere from a reference nuclear power plant has been performed on the basis of the new system of dose limitation recommended by the ICRP, instead of the (MPC)a limit which has been currently used until now as a general standard for radioactive effluents in Korea. In DRL Calculation, a Concentration Factor Method was applied, in which the concentrations of long-term routinely released radionuclides were in equilibrium with dose in environment under the steady state condition. The analytical model used in the exposure pathway analysis was the one which has been suggested by the USNRC and the exposure limits applied in this analysis were those recommended by the USEPA lately. In the exposure pathway analysis, all of the pathways are not considered and some may be excluded either because they are not applicable or their contribution to the exposure is insignificant compared with other pathways. In case, the environmental model developed in this study was applied to the Kori nuclear power plant as the reference power plant, the highest DRL value was calculated to be as $9.10{\times}10^6Ci/yr$ for Kr-85 in external whole body exposure from the semi-infinite radioactive cloud, while the lowest DRL value was observed 3.64Ci/yr for Co-60 in external whole body exposure from the contaminated ground, by the radioactive particulates. The most critical exposure pathway to an individual in the unrestricted area of interest (Kilchun-Ri, 1.3 km to the north of the release point) seems to be the exposure pathway from the contaminated ground and the most critical radionuclide in all pathways appears to be Co-60 in the same pathway. When comparing the actual release rate from KNU-l in 1982 with the DRL's obtained here the release of radionuclides from KNU-1 were much lower than the DRL's and it could be conclued that the exposure to an individual had been kept below the exposure limits recommended by the USEPA.

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