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Comparison of dietary behavior and consumption of processed beverage depend on food insecurity status of adolescents in vientiane, Lao PDR (라오스 비엔티안 지역 청소년의 식품 불안정 상태에 따른 식행동 및 가공 음료 섭취 비교 연구)

  • Lee, Yena;Kim, Ji-Myung;Yi, Kyungock;Hansana, Visanou;Kim, Yuri
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.580-589
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the food insecurity status and dietary behavior and examine the association between the food insecurity status and consumption of processed beverage for secondary school students in Vientiane, capital city of Lao PDR. Methods: The study subjects are 714 students (boys = 307 and girls = 407) in four secondary schools (Chao_Anouvong, Phiavat, Saysetha, and Chansavang) of Vientiane, Lao PDR. Data on study subject's demographic characteristics, dietary behavior, food insecurity, and Mini Dietary Assessment (MDA) index were collected. A "Self-Administered Food Security Survey Module for Children Aged 12 Years and Older" developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was used for the food insecurity assessment. Results: As a result, 72.7% of the subjects were in a state of food insecurity, and food security was associated with higher socioeconomic status (higher life satisfaction, higher parent's education attainment, higher item ownership, fewer number of siblings, and having more lunches at the school restaurant than at home). Compared to the food insecurity group, the frequency of breakfast, self-rated diet, and the total score of MDA index were higher in the food security group. On the other hand, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that 'food security' was also associated with a higher consumption of processed beverages (OR 1.544; 95% CI 1.078-2.213; p = 0.018). Conclusion: Improving the quality of the diet is essential for adolescents in both the food insecurity and food security groups in Lao PDR. Therefore, it is necessary to provide well organized nutrition education and establish adequate nutrition policy for adolescents in Lao PDR.

Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Taste Disorders (미각 장애 환자의 임상적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Eun-Jin;Park, Won-Kyu;Nam, Jin-Woo;Yun, Jong-Il;Kho, Hong-Seop
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.341-351
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    • 2009
  • There is tremendous variability in the ways patients present with taste problems. Because of complex and multifactorial etiological background, it is not simple to evaluate patients with taste disorders. Accurate assessment of patients' status by prudent, thorough history taking and symptom analysis is the most essential for exact diagnosis of taste disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with taste problems as a primary complaint. Consecutive series of 50 patients (12 males and 38 females, mean age $53.6\;{\pm}\;14.7$ years) were included for the present study. All subjects were requested to complete a comprehensive questionnaire. Clinical evaluation procedures included oral examination, interview, questionnaire analysis, panoramic radiography, blood test and measurement of salivary flow rate. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Among the patients, 36 patients (72%) complained of oral mucosal pain or burning sensation. Of these patients, 18 patients (36%) were diagnosed as burning mouth syndrome. 2. Nineteen patients (38%) complained of subjective oral dryness. The flow rate of unstimulated whole saliva was less than 0.1 mL/min in 14 patients (28%) and 17 (34%) had a stimulated whole salivary flow rate of less than 0.5 mL/min. 3. Among the types of taste disorders, hypogeusia, the most frequently reported, was found in 25 patients (50%), dysgeusia in 18 patients (36%), phantogeusia in 15 patients (30%), hypergeusia in 10 patients (20%), and ageusia in 5 patients (10%). Nineteen patients (38%) reported more than one type of taste disorder and the most frequent combination was dysgeusia + hypogeusia (n=6, 12%). 4. Based on data from the medical and dental histories and examinations, the patients were assigned to 12 probable causal categories. Taste disorders due to oral mucosal diseases and idiopathic taste disorder were the most frequent (n=9; 18%, each), followed by psychogenic taste disorder (n=8; 16%), drug-induced taste disorder (n=7; 14%), and taste disorder due to dry mouth (n=6; 12%). These 5 categories of taste disorder accounted for 78% of all cases in this study.

The Legal Response and Future Tasks regarding Oil-Spill Damage to Korea - Focusing on the Hebei Spirit oil-spill (한국의 해양유류오염피해에 대한 법적 대응과 과제 - HEBEI SPIRIT호 유류유출사고를 중심으로 -)

  • Han, Sang-Woon
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.89-120
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    • 2008
  • With petroleum being a major source of energy in Korea, the quantity of petroleum transported via ocean routes is on its way up due to increased consumption. Due to the increase, more than 300 cases of pollution caused by petroleum occur annually. Moreover, the number of oil-spill accidents is also on the rise. Causes of such accidents, not including the disposal of waste oil on purpose, turn out to be human error during navigation or defects in the vessels, showing that most accidents are caused by humans. Therefore, to prevent future oil spills, it is imperative that navigation efficiency be enhanced by improving the quality of navigators and replacing old vessels with newer ones. Nevertheless, such improvements cannot occur overnight, so long- and mid-term efforts should be made to achieve it institutionally. As large-scale oil-spill accidents can happen at anytime along the coastal waters of Korea, it is necessary to set-up institutional devices which go beyond the compensation limit of 92FC. The current special law regarding this issue has its limits in that it prescribes compensation be supplemented solely by national taxes. Therefore, the setting-up of a new 'national fund' is recommended for consideration rather than to subscribe to the '2003 Convention for the Supplementary Fund'. It is strongly suggested that a National fund be created from fees collected from oil companies based on the risks involved in oil transportation and according to the profiteers pay principle. In addition, a public fund should be created to handle general environmental damage, such as the large-scale destruction of the ecosystem, which is distinct from the economic damage that harms the local people. The posterior responses to the large-scale oil spill have always been unsatisfactory because of the symbolic nature of the disasters included in such accidents. Oil-spills can be prevented in advance, because they are caused by human beings. But once they occur, they inflict long-term damage to both human life and the natural ecosystem. Therefore, the best response to future oil-spills is to work to prevent them.

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A Study on the Meaning Landscape and Environmental Design Techniques of Yoohoedang Garden(Hageowon : 何去園) of Byulup(別業) Type Byulseo(別墅) (별업(別業) '유회당' 원림 하거원(何去園)의 의미경관 해석과 환경설계기법)

  • Shin, Sang-sup;Kim, Hyun-wuk
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.46-69
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    • 2013
  • The results of study on the meaning landscape and environmental design techniques of the Byulup, Yoohoedang garden(Hageowon) based on the story in the collection of Kwon Yi-jin (Yoohoedangjip, 有懷堂集), are as below. First, Yoohoedang Kwon Yi-jin (有懷堂 權以鎭 : 1668~1734) constructed a Byulup garden consisting of ancestor grave, Byulup, garden, and a school, through 3 steps for 20 years in the back hill area of Moosoo-dong village, south of Mountain Bomun in Daejeon. In other words, he built the Byulup(別業, Yoohoedang) by placing his father's grave in the back hill of the village, and then constructed Yoegeongam(餘慶菴) and Geoupjae(居業齋) for protection of the pond(Napoji, 納汚池), garden(Banhwanwon, 盤桓園), and ancestor graves, and descendants' studying in the middle stage. He built an extension in Yoohoedang and finally completed the large-size garden (Hageowon) by extending the east area. Second, in terms of geomancy sense, Yoohoedang Byulup located in Moosoo-dong village area is the representative example including all space elements such as main living house (the head family house of Andong Kwon family), Byulup (Yoohoedang), ancestor graves, Hagoewon (garden) and Yoegeongam (cemetery management and school) which byulup type Byulseo should be equipped with. Thirdly, there are various meaning landscape elements combining the value system of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism value, including; (1) remembering parents, (2) harmonious family, (3) integrity, (4) virtue, (5) noble personality, (6) good luck, (7) hermit life, (8) family prosperity and learning development, (9) grace from ancestors, (10) fairyland, (11) guarding ancestor graves, and (12) living ever-young. Fourth, after he arranged ancestor graveyard in the back of the village, he used surrounding natural landscapes to construct Hagoewon garden with water garden consisting of 4 mountain streams and 3 ponds for 13 years, and finally completed a beautiful fairyland with 5 platforms, 3 bamboo forests, as well as the Seokgasan(石假山, artificial hill). Fifth, he adopted landscape plantation (28 kinds; pine, maple, royal azalea, azalea, persimmon tree, bamboo, willow, pomegranate tree, rose, chinensis, chaenomeles speciosa, Japanese azalea, peach tree, lotus, chrysanthemum, peony, and Paeonia suffruticosa, etc.) to apply romance from poetic affection, symbol and ideal from personification, as well as plantation plan considering seasonal landscapes. Landscape rocks were used by intact use of natural rocks, connecting with water elements, garden ornament method using Seokyeonji and flower steps, and mountain Seokga method showing the essence of landscape meanings. In addition, waterscape are characterized by active use of water considering natural streams and physio-graphic condition (eastern valley), ecological corridor role that rhythmically connects each space of the garden and waterways following routes, landscape meaning introduction connecting 'gaining knowledge by the study of things' values including Hwalsoodam(活水潭, pond), Mongjeong(蒙井, spring), Hosoo(濠水, stream), and Boksoo(?水, stream), and sensuous experience space construction with auditory and visualization using properties of landscape matters.

A Study on the Menu Development for the Elderly during Busy Farming Season in Gyeongbuk Andong (경북 안동시 농번기 농촌노인 식단개발 연구)

  • Kim, Hae-Young;Park, Chan-Eun;Lee, Hae-Jin;Park, Young-Hee;Lee, Jin-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.10
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    • pp.1381-1391
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    • 2009
  • Dietary life style of the elderly living in rural areas of Gyeongbuk Andong during the busy farming season was surveyed and a monthly meal plan for the elderly was developed using eco-friendly native crops and considering the characteristics of a busy farming season and their preferences. A week meal plan was selected and applied to those fields. The meal plan was developed for an elder's house in Gyeongbuk Andong during the busy farming season. Especially, to increase the intake of calcium and dietary fiber, bamboo sprouts, pepper leaves, dried slices of whitebait, and fried anchovies were used. Considering the busy farming season, the ginseng chicken soup and the soybean noodle soup were served to provide high quality of protein and to improve health condition. A cold soup of cucumber and brown seaweed was used to supplement liquid, vitamins, and minerals. The results are as follows: the highest score of the preference on a staple was 8.77 for the boiled barley of menu 5; the favorite soup was the ginseng chicken soup (8.73) in menu 4; for side dishes, those in menu 5 were most popular (8.69); the favorite meal was the ginseng chicken soup of menu 4 (8.69). Regarding the amount of leftover foods, the lightest was 30.14 g in Gyeongbuk Andong menu 3 which significantly indicates high preference (p<0.05). The current study was a planned meal service menu using local crops and seasonal foods, which was actually applied to the field resulting in high preference and satisfaction levels.

Study on Recognition Attitudes of Residents on Safety Management against Disasters of Local Governments: Focused on Chungcheongbuk-do (지방자치단체의 재난안전 관리에 대한 주민 인식태도 연구 - 충청북도 지역을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Sang-Yeol;Nam, Jae-Sung
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.58
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    • pp.81-106
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    • 2019
  • This study analyzed safety management system against disasters perceived by local residents of Chungcheongbuk-do and then examined the policy directions to be considered in order for local governments to improve the safety level of residents and build an effective safety management system against disasters. The findings were as follows. First, in their recognition of risks of safety against disasters, recognition on the possibility of the occurrence of natural disasters was higher than that of social disasters or safety accidents. Secondly, also in the aspect of the importance of category of safety management against disasters, they recognized that of natural disasters far higher than others. Third, they showed satisfaction higher than average with basic job performance of local governments related with safety management, whereas they showed relatively less satisfaction with the aspects of check and publicity of risk factors, and short-term restoration system out of phased job performance. Fourth, in the aspect of capability of local governments for safety management against disasters, they rated positively capability of the responsible departments and the professionality, whereas they relatively underestimated the scale or budget of safety-related organizations. Fifth, the policy directions to be taken for safety against disasters by local governments included strengthening of regular education like experience-based training, expansion of education among local residents, more support for relevant facilities and resources, activation of residents-participating campaigns, improvement of apparatus and personnel treatment related with firefighting and security, frequent patrol and oversight, more exercises against disasters. So, to strengthen safety management system against disasters in local governments and build a effective responding system may need to extend programs assisting vulnerable class to safety against disasters, build a community-friendly safety management system, extend the cooperation system by participation of residents, enhance collaboration and support system with safety-related bodies like police, firefighters.

A Study on the Influence of the Selective Attributes of Home Meal Replacement on Perceived Utilitarian Value and Repurchase Intention: Focus on Consumers of Large Discount and Department Stores (HMR(Home Meal Replacement) 선택속성이 지각된 효용적 가치, 재구매 의도에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구: 대형 할인마트와 백화점 구매고객을 대상으로)

  • Seo, Kyung-Hwa;Choi, Won-Sik;Lee, Soo-Bum
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.934-947
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze products for good taste and convenience, which become an engine to constantly create customers. In addition, this study is aimed at investigating the relationship between the selective attributes of Home Meal Replacement, the perceived utilitarian value, and the repurchase intention, and drawing new suggestions on the Home Meal Replacement market from a new marketing perspective. Based on a total of 215 samples, this study reviewed the reliability and fitness of the research model and verified a total of 5 hypothesized using the Amos program. The result of study modeling was GFI=0.905, AGFI=0.849, NFI=0.889, CFI=0.945, and RMR=0.0.092 at the level of $x^2$=230.22 (df=126, p<0.001). First, the food quality (${\beta}$=0.221), convenience (${\beta}$=0.334), packing (${\beta}$=0.278), and employee service (${\beta}$=0.204) of home meal replacement consideration attributes had a positive (+) influence on perceived utilitarian value. Second, perceived utilitarian value (${\beta}$=0.584) had a positive (+) influence on repurchase intention. The factors to differentiate one company from other competitors in terms of the utilitarian value are the quality of food, convenience, wrapping, and services by employees. This study has illustrated the need to focus on the development of a premium menu to compete with other companies and to continue to research and develop nutritious foods that are easy to cook. Moreover, the key factors to have a distinct and constant competitive edge over other companies are the alleviation of consumer anxiety over wrapping container materials, the development of more designs, and the accumulation of service know-how. Therefore, it is necessary for a company to strongly develop the key factors based on its resources as a core capability.