• Title, Summary, Keyword: 사마천

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A Study on the Archival Basis of History by Simaqian and Herodotus (『사기』와 『역사』에 담긴 기록학의 기초 역사-인간[Homo Historicus], 사마천과 헤로도토스)

  • Oh, Hang Nyeong
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.65
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    • pp.365-396
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    • 2020
  • I examined the archival basis of two historians who wrote history books with the same title of 'History'; Simaqian of ancient China and Herodotus of Halikarnassos. I examined a prejudice to these two history books, a misunderstanding of them as an imagination rather than a history. How can an imagination become a history? First, I explained the common characteristics found in their compilation and writing of 'History.' Simaqian and Herodotus did their field-works in historical sites, gathered oral-histories, and arranged archives they collected. These two historians heavily engaged in archival works in terms of verifying authenticity and reliability of their sources on the basis of historical empiricism. There are some misunderstanding on their archival endeavor and on the very nature of archives and historical studies as empirical studies. Furthermore, this misunderstanding regarding them as literature came from a confusion over the concept of literature. The creativity of literature is not equal to the "fictitiousness" of history despite historical works sometimes may give us an impression by the way of describing and providing insight into a certain event(s) and a person(s). As Herodotus said, a recognition of the differences of each race and human is a departure of historical archiving of the valuable experiences of human-beings. By doing so, natural results of archival behaviors, preservation of the records, and consistent inquiry of historian-archivists become a humanistic passage overcoming the current wrong trends of historical studies confined to a narrow nation-history.

The Overview of Layered structures in Mafic - Ultramafic Macheon Intrusion (고철질-초고철질 마천관입암의 층상구조 개관)

  • Song, Yong-Sun;Kim, Dong-Yeon;Park, Kye-Hun
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.162-179
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    • 2007
  • Macheon Layered Intrusion (MLI) which intruded into Precambrian gneiss complex of the northern Jirisan area, southeastern part of Youngnam (or Sobaeksan) Massif, is a layered mafic-ultramafic complex of Triassic age (ca. 223 Ma). The MLI is divided into Layered Series and Laminated Series. Layered Series is subdivided into Central Zone (Lower Zone) consisting of olivine gabbros and Peripheral Zone (Middle or Upper Zone) consisting of hornblende gabbros based on the type of cumulus texture and the main mafic phase. The Central Zone of Layered Series comprises thinly laminated olivine gabbros and uniform or thickly laminated coarse olivine gabbros which consist of mela-gabbro, troctolite, leuco-troctolite, and anorthositic rocks. Laminated Series is also subdivided into quartz-bearing biotite-pyroxene gabbros and homblende diorite and both have variable amount of interstitial quartz and microcline. Laminated series display moderately to slightly developed igneous lamination which is defined by the planar alignment of lath-shape plagioclases. Chilled margin of quartz-bearing biotite-pyroxene gabbro with surrounding Precambrian gneisses insists shallower intrusion of more felsic cognate magma evolved in the deep a little later. Rocks of Layered Series have orthocumulus to adcumulus olivine, adcumulus to intercumulus plagioclase, and intercumulus to heteradcumulus pyroxene and hornblende. Magmatic modally grading, folding, and cross-lamination are not rarely occurred in thinly layered rocks. These textural characteristics define main mechanisms of the formation of layered and laminated structure in mafic-ultramafic rocks of Macheon Layered Intrusion are gravity settling and in-situ crystallization associated with slumping and density current.

The Impact of Supervision Process and Function on Customer Orientation of Social Workers (슈퍼비전 실행과정과 기능이 사회복지사의 고객지향성에 미치는 영향 -슈퍼비전 만족의 매개효과-)

  • Choi, Won-Hee;Jung, Eun Jue;Kim, Sun Hwa
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.404-416
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study is to examine the effects of the supervision process and functions in social welfare practice on the supervision satisfaction of social workers and their customer orientation. For this, 196 social workers were asked to answer to the questionnaire and their responses were analyzed. The courses between variables were analyzed using structural equation model. The findings from this study show that the supervision process impact on supervision satisfaction, but didn't influence customer orientation. The functions of supervision positively impacted on both supervision satisfaction and customer orientation. Furthermore, the supervision process and functions influence customer orientation with supervision satisfaction as a mediating factor. In addition. this study proposes a supervision practice system as a means to provide customer-oriented service to clients.

The Theory of Yin and Yang and the Five Elements of Mohism - Focusing on the Comparison with Hundred Schools of Thought (묵가(墨家)의 음양오행론(陰陽五行論) - 제가(諸家)와의 비교를 중심으로 -)

  • Yun, Muhak;Cho, Jueun
    • The Journal of Korean Philosophical History
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    • no.38
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    • pp.189-220
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, the discussion on Yin and Yang and the Five Elements in Mohism is examined through the comparison with Hundred Schools of Thought. The ideas of School of Naturalists including Zou Yan or those of the Five Elements were fundamentally for the purpose of observing the regularity of changing dynasty. However, this perspective had not been emphasized as a subject of Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought until the end of the Era of Warring States. Even though it is true that Hundred Schools of Thought applied the theory of Yin and Yang and the Five Elements in common based on the understanding of the idea, but it failed to be connected to each ideological system. The fundamental reason for this can be found in the difference between the awareness of a reality and the concept of history in Hundred Schools of Thought. Where were the characteristics and reasonable opinions of the theory of Yin and Yang and the Five Elements in Mohism from? The most important feature of Mohism is to form independent, collective, cooperative groups based on the people of lower classes at that time and to consider God an ideological presumption. Therefore, in reality, it concentrated only on sociopolitical stability and maintenance of their own labor activities, and it was difficult for them to focus on an objective regularity of a national system or change of dynasty. In addition, due to the characteristics of individual groups, it was hard to have a macroscopic viewpoint not only on a national system, but also on others as in Zou Yan's Dae-gu-ju-seol(大九州說). With respect to this, at least, Xunzi, before the unification, gives a valid criticism. In the end, the effort to design a new political system and to secure ideological legitimacy on the assumption of the unification of the nations of the Warring States period became more specific through the edition of $L{\ddot{u}}shi$ Chunqiu (呂氏春秋), so-called Mixed School(雜家) or Synthesized School(綜合家).

Confucius's Theory of Poetics in Analects (공자의 『시경』 재구성과 시론(詩論) - 『논어』를 중심으로)

  • Lim, Heon-gyu
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • v.137
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    • pp.439-462
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    • 2016
  • This Article's aim is to articulate Confucius's theory of poetics in analects. Confucius tried to establish Humanism and educate the idea of 'learning to become a sage' based upon six classics. He empathized with the education of The Book of Poetry. Sze-ma Tseen said that the old poems amounted to more than 3,000. Confucius removed those which were only repetitions of others and sang to them with his lute, bringing them into accordance with the appropriate musical style. This is the first notice which we have of any compilation of the ancient poems by Confucius. Confucius said, "If you do not learn the Odes, you are not fit to converse with. The Odes 1) serve to stimulate the mind, 2) may be used for purposes of self-contemplation, 3) teach the art of sociability, 4) show how to regulate feelings of resentment, 5-6.) 'From them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one's father, and the remoter one of serving one's prince. and from them we become largely acquainted with the names of birds, beasts, and plants.' Confucius' said, 'In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence-- "Having no depraved thoughts."' This sentence is the final definition of Poetics.

Study on the ength of the Pitch Pipes Preserved in Korean Sources (동양의 율관에 관한 연구(II) -낙학궤범』소재 율장의 문제점 및 율산에 관한 연구-)

  • 남상숙
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.81-95
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    • 1988
  • In Akhakkyebom, one of the greatest Korean Sources, a great mistake was found in the lengths of the pitch pipes. Whanjong from which the other eleven pitches are calculated, is nine inches by decimal system. But the rest are from 9inches by nonary system. To find out how such a contradictory combination could put into so great a book, all the sources available wereexamined. In the process of investigating the numeral change of the lengths of the pitchpipes, it was found that fixation of this contradictory combination was due to the tradiction of Confucianism, which is specialized by its adherence of the old. SongHyon couldn't understand well enough Tsai Yuan-ting's Account of the science of the pitch pipes in Lu-luhsin-shui, Neither could Yi Hye-gu who translated Akhakkwebom into Korean. The parts they misunderstood were pointed out and explained as it should be in this thesis. Several other accounts of the science of the pitch pipes like Chu Tsai-yu's and Jing Farng's are also explained. The Pitch-pipes which were said to have been made by Pak Yon were found out to be of Chu Tsai-yu's. Those which Yi Sang dok wrote were one of Pak Yon's achievements turned out to be of Tsai Yuen-ting's, And othe interesting mistakes were pointed out in thesis thesis. Most of these mistakes were made, I think, because of the lack of the study on the historical background. That's why I tried to examine all the sources available on pitch-pipes. In the lengths of the pitch-pipes preserved in Shih-chi by Ssu-ma Ch'ien, several letters were found to have been misprinted. Some chil's should be “sip” and the letter “il” in Hyopchong should be “chil”. I couldn't deal with all the lengths of the pitch-pipes in this thesis. Especially the real length of the old measure of Whangjong made by PakYon is remained still unknown. I believe a lot more study should be poured on this field to know our traditional music as it was.

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Discussions on the Distribution and Genesis of Mountain Ranges in the Korean Peninsular (I) : The Identification Mountain Ranges using a DEM and Reconsideration of Current Issues on Mountain Range Maps (한국 산맥론(I) : DEM을 이용한 산맥의 확인과 현행 산맥도의 문제점 및 대안의 모색)

  • Park Soo Jin;SON ILL
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.126-152
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    • 2005
  • In recent years, there are some confusions related to the definition and existence of mountain ranges, which have been described in current geography text books. We contend that these confusions came from the lack of understanding on the geomorphological processes that form the mountain system in Korea. This research attempts to clarify the definition of mountain ranges and offer geological and geomorphological explanations about the formation of them. Based on the analyses of the social and cultural causes underlying the recent debates on the existence of mountain ranges, we tried to identify the relationships among the definition of mountain ranges, geological structure of Korea, and the forming processes of mountain ranges. The current and past mountain range maps were compared with geological structures, geological maps, surface curvature, and hill shade maps. The latter two maps were derived from a Digital Elevation Model of the Korean Peninsular. The results show that we are able to prove the existence of most mountain ranges, which provides a useful framework to understand the geological evolution of Korean peninsular and formation of mountainous landscape of Korea. In terms of their morphological continuity and genesis, however, we identified five different categories of mountain ranges: 1) Uplift mountain ranges(Hamkyeong Sanmaek, Nangrim Sanmaek, Taebaek Sanmaek), which were formed by the uplift processes of the Korean Peninsular during the Tertiary; 2) Falut mountain ranges(Macheonryeong Sanmaek, Sobaek Sanmaek, Buksubaek Sanmaek), whirh were directly related to the uplift processes of the Korean Peninsular during the Tertiary; 3) Trust mountain ranges(Jekyouryeong Sanmaek, Kwangju Sanmaek, Charyeong Sanmaek, Noryeong Sanmaek), which were formed by the intrusion of granite and consequent orogenic processes during the Mesozoic era; 4) Drainage divide type mountain ranges, which were formed by the erosion processes after the uplift of Korean Peninsular; 5) Cross-drainage basin type mountain ranges (Kangnam Sanmaek, Eunjin Sanmaek, Myelak sanmaek), which were also formed by the erosion processes, but the mountain ranges cross several drainage basins as connecting mountains laterally We believe that the current social confusions related to the existence of mountain ranges has partly been caused by the vague definition of mountain ranges and the diversity of the forming processes. In order to overcome theses confusions, it is necessary to characterize the types of them according the genesis, the purpose of usages and also the scale of maps which will explains the mountain systems. It is also necessary to provide appropriate educational materials to increase the general public's awareness and understanding of geomorphological processes.

On the Bibliographies of Chinese Historical Books - Classifying and cataloguing system of six historical bibliographies - (중국의 사지서목에 대하여 -육사예문$\cdot$경적지의 분류 및 편목체재 비교를 중심으로-)

  • Kang Soon-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science
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    • v.24
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    • pp.289-332
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    • 1993
  • In china, six bibliographies of offical historical books are evaluated at the most important things among the systematically-editing bibliographies. These bibliographies would be usful to study the orign of classical sciences and their development, bibliographic research of Chinese classics, bibliographic judgement on genuine books, titles, authors, volumes. They could be refered to research into graving, correcting, and existence of ancient books. therefore, these bibliographies would be applied to estimation the phase of scientific and cultural development. The study of these bibliographies has been not yet made in Korea. This thesis lays its importance on the background of their appearance, their classification norms, organizing system of their catalogue, and comparison between their difference. 1. Editing and compiling of Chilyak (칠약) by Liu Chin (유흠) and official histories played an important role of entering an apperance of historical book's bibliographies. Chilyak has been lost. However, its classification and compiling system of classical books would be traced by Hansoyemunji(한서예문지) of which basic system is similar to Chilyak. It classified books according to their scientific characteristic. If a few books didn't have their own categories, they were combined by the circles parallel to the books' characteristic. With the books classified under the same scientific characteristic, they were again divided into the scientific schools or structures. It also arranged the same kinds of books according to the chronology. The some books wi th duplicate subjects were classified multiplely by their duplicate subject. 2. Ssu-ma Chon's (사마천) The Historical Records (Saki, 사기) and Pan Ku's (반고) The History of the Former Han Dynasty (Hanso, 한서) has also took effects on appearance of historical books' bibliographies. Covering overall history, Saki was structured by the five parts: The basic annals(본기), the chronological tables (표), the documents (서), the hereditary houses (세가), biographies (열전). The basic annals dealt with kings and courts' affairs according to the chronology. The chronological tables was the records of the annals. The documents described overall the social and cultural systems. The hereditary houses recorded courts' meritorious officials and public figures. The biographies showed exemplars of seventy peoples selected by their social status. Pan Ku(반구)'s The History of the Former Han Dynasty(한서) deserved to be called the prototype for the offical histories after Saki's (사기; The Historical Records) apperance. Although it modelled on Saki, it had set up its own cataloguing system. It was organized by four parts; the basic annals (본기), the chronological tables (표), treatises(지), biographies (열전). The documents in the Hanso(한서) was converted into treatises(지). The hereditary houses and biographies were merged. For the first time, the treatise with The Yemunji could operate function for historical bibliographies. 3. There were six historical bibliographies: Hansoyemunji(한서예문지), Susokyongjeokji (수서경적지), Kudangsokyongjeokji(구당서경적지), Shindangsoyemunji (신당서예문지), Songsayemunji (송사예문지), Myongsayemunji (명사예문지). 1) Modelling on Liu Chin's Chilyak except Chipryak(집략), Hansoyemunji divided the characteristic of the books and documents into six parts: Yukrye(육예), Cheja(제자), Shibu(시부), Pyongsoh(병서), Susul(수술), Pangki(방기). Under six parts, there were thirty eight orders in Hansoyemunji. To its own classification, Hansoyemunji applied the Chilyak's theory of classification that the books or documents were managed according to characteristic of sciences, the difference of schools, the organization of sentences. However the overlapped subjects were deleted and unified into one. The books included into an unsuitable subject were corrected and converted into another. The Hansoyemunji consisted of main preface (Taesoh 대서), minor preface (Sosoh 소서) , the general preface (Chongso 총서). It also recorded the introduction of books and documents, the origin of sciences, the outline of subjects, and the establishment of orders. The books classified by the subject had title, author, and volumes. They were rearranged by titles and the chronological publication year. Sometimes author was the first access point to catalogue the books. If it was necessary for the books to take footnotes, detail notes were formed. The Volume number written consecutively to order and subject could clarify the quantity of books. 2) Refering to Classfication System by Seven Norms (칠분법) and Classification System by Four Norms(사분법), Susokyongjeokji(수서경적지) had accomplished the classification by four norms. In fact, its classification largely imitated Wanhyosoh(완효서)'s Chilrok(칠록), Susokyongjeokji's system of classification consisted of four parts-Kyung(경), Sa(사), Cha(자), Chip(칩). The four parts were divided into 40 orders. Its appendix was again divided into two parts, Buddihism and Taiosm. Under the two parts there were fifteen orders. Totally Susokyongjeokji was made of six parts and fifty five orders. In comparison with Hansoyemunji(한서예문지), it clearly showed the conception of Kyung, Sa, Cha, Chip. Especially it deserved to be paid attention that Hansoyemunji laied history off Chunchu(춘추) and removed history to Sabu(사부). However Chabu(사부) put many contrary subjects such as Cheja(제자), Kiye(기예), Sulsu(술수), Sosol(소설) into the same boundary, which committed errors insufficient theoretical basis. Anothor demerit of Susokyongjeokji was that it dealt with Taiosm scriptures and Buddism scriptures at the appendix because they were considered as quasi-religion. Its compilation of bibliographical facts consisted of main preface(Taesoh 대서), minor preface(Sosoh 소서), general preface (Chongsoh 총서), postscript (Husoh 후서). Its bibliological facts mainly focused on the titles. Its recorded authors' birth date and their position. It wrote the lost and existence of books consecutive to total number of books, which revealed total of the lost books in Su Dynasty. 3) Modelling on the basis of Kokumsorok(고분서록) and Naewaekyongrok(내외경록), Kudangsokyongjeokji(구당서경적지) had four parts and fourty five orders. It was estimated as the important role of establishing basic frame of classification by four norms in classification theory's history. However it had also its own limit. Editing and compling orders of Kudangsokyongjeokji had been not progressively changed. Its orders imitated by and large Susokyongjeokji. In Its system of organizing catalogue, with its minor preface and general preface deleting, Kudangsokyongjeokji by titles after orders sometimes broke out confusion because of unclear boundaries between orders. 4) Shindangsoyemunji(신당서예문지), adding 28,469 books to Kudangsokyongjeokji, recorded 82,384 books which were divided by four parts and fourty four orders. In comparison with Kudangkyongjeokj, Sindangsoyemunji corrected unclear order's norm. It merged the analogical norms four orders (for instance, Kohun 고훈 and Sohakryu 소학류) and seperated the different norms four orders (for example, Hyokyong 효경 and Noneuhryu 논어류, Chamwi 참위 and Kyonghaeryu 경해류, Pyonryon 편년 and Wisaryu 위사류). Recording kings' behaviors and speeches (Kikochuryu 기거주류) in the historical parts induced the concept of specfication category. For the first time, part of Chipbu (집부) set up the order of classification norm for historical and literatural books and documents (Munsaryu 문사류). Its editing and compiling had been more simplified than Kudangsokyongjeokji. Introduction was written at first part of bibliographies. Appendants except bibliographic items such subject, author, title, volume number, total were omitted. 5) Songsayemunji(송사예문지) were edited in the basis of combining Puksong(북송) and Namsong(남송), depending on Sabukuksayemunji(사부국사예문지). Generally Songsayemunji had lost a lot of bibliographical facts of many books. They were duplicated and wrongly classified books because it committed an error of the incorrectly annalistic editing. Particularly Namsong showed more open these defaults. Songsayemunji didin't include the books published since the king Youngchong(영종). Its system of classification was more better controlled. Chamwiryu(참위류) in the part of Kyongbu(경부) was omitted. In the part of history(Sabu 사부), recordings of kings' behaviors and speeches more merged in the annals. Historical abstract documents (Sachoryu 사초류) were seperately arranged. In the part of Chabu(자부), Myongdangkyongmaekryu(명당경맥류) and Euisulryu(의술류) were combined. Ohangryu(오행류) were laied off Shikuryu(시구류). In the part of Chipbu(집부), historical and literatural books (Munsaryu 문사류) were independentely arranged. There were the renamed orders; from Wisa(위사) to Paesa(패사), Chapsa (잡사) to Pyolsa(열사), Chapchonki(잡전기) to Chonki(전기), Ryusoh(류서) to Ryusa(류서). Introduction had only main preface. The books of each subject catalogued by title, the volume number, and author and arranged mainly by authors. Annotations were written consecutively after title and the volume number. In the afternote the number of not-treated books were revealed. Difference from Singdangsohyemunji(신당서예문지) were that the concept and boundary of orders became more clearer. It also wrote the number of books consecutive to main subject. 6) Modelling on Chonkyongdangsomok (경당서목), Myongsayemunji(명사예문지) was compiled in the basis of books and documents published in the Ming Danasty. In classification system, Myongsayemunji partly merged and the seperated some orders for it. It also deleted and renamed some of orders. In case of necessity, combining of orders' norm was occured particulary in the part of Sabu(사부) and Chabu(자부). Therefore these merging of orders norm didn't offer sufficient theretical background. For example, such demerits were seen in the case that historical books edited by annals were combined with offical historical ones which were differently compiled and edited from the former. In the part of Chabu(자부), it broke out another confusion that Pubga(법가), Meongga(명가), Mukga(묵가), Chonghweongka's(종횡가) thoughts were classified in the Chapka(잡가). Scriptures of Taiosim and Buddhism were seperated from each other. There were some deleted books such as Mokrokryu(목록류), Paesaryu(패사류) in the part of history (Sabu 사부) and Chosaryu(초사류) in the part of Chipbu(집부). The some in the each orders had been renamed. Imitating compiling system of Songsayemunji(송사예문지), with reffering to its differ-ence, Myongsayemunji(명사예문지) wrote the review and the change of the books by author. The number of not-treated books didn't appear at the total. It also deleted the total following main subject.

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