• Title, Summary, Keyword: 블랙코어

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The mechanism of black core formation (블랙코어 형성 메커니즘)

  • Park Jiyun;Kim Yootaek;Lee Ki-Gang;Kang Seunggu;Kim Jung-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.208-215
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    • 2005
  • The 10mm diameter aggregates made of clay, carbon and $Fe_2O_3$ were prepared to investigate the mechanism of black core formation. The specific gravity, absorption rate, percent of black core area, fracture strength, total Fe analysis, and XRF were measured at various compositions, sintering temperatures, sintering times, sintering atmospheres, and sintering methods. Small addition of $Fe_2O_3$ did not affect physical properties of the aggregates; however, the percent of black core area increased with increasing carbon contents and increasing sintering temperature. Specific gravity of the aggregates decreased and the water absorption ratio increased with increasing percent of black core area. The aggregates sintered at oxidation atmosphere showed clear border between shell and black core area. Hence, the aggregates sintered at reduction atmosphere showed only black core area in the cross-section of the aggregates. The specific gravity of the aggregates sintered at reduction atmosphere increased with increasing carbon contents and that was the lowest of all comparing other aggregates sintered at different atmospheres. Adsorption rate increased with increasing carbon contents at all atmospheres. The fast sintered aggregates showed lower specific gravity, higher absorption rate, and more black core area than the normally sintered aggregates. It was turned out that the aggregates having more black core area showed higher fracture strength than that of aggregates with no black core area. From the total Fe analysis, the concentration of Fe and FeO was higher at black core area than at shell. Because the concentration of $Fe_2O_3$ in the shell was higher than other area, the color of the shell appeared red. It was also turned out from the XRF analysis that carbon was exist only at black core area.

Microstructural observation of artificial aggregates at various sintering atmospheres (소성 분위기에 따른 인공골재의 미세구조 관찰)

  • Park, Ji-Yun;Kim, Yoo-Taek
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.71-75
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    • 2006
  • The aggregates made of clay, carbon and $Fe_2O_3$ were prepared to investigate the mechanism of black core formation and the property differences at various sintering atmospheres. The aggregates were sintered at oxidized, neutralized and reduced atmospheres. The specific gravity, absorption rate, percent of black core area were measured at various compositions and sintering atmospheres. The aggregates sintered at oxidized atmosphere showed clear border between shell and black core area. Hence, the aggregates sintered at reduced and neutralized atmospheres showed only black core area in the cross-section of the aggregates. The specific gravity of the aggregates sintered at reduced atmosphere increased with increasing carbon contents and that was the lowest of all aggregates sintered at various atmospheres. Adsorption rate increased with increasing carbon contents at all atmospheres.

A study on the black core formation of artificial lightweight aggregates at various sintering atmospheres (인공경량골재의 소성조건이 블랙코어에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yoo-Taek;Ryu, Yu-Gwang;Jang, Chang-Sub;Lee, Ki-Gang;Kang, Seung-Gu;Kim, Jung-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.318-323
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    • 2009
  • The lightweight aggregates made of bottom ash (70 wt%) and dredged soil (30 wt%) were prepared to investigate the property differences at various sintering atmospheres. The green aggregates were sintered at $1150^{\circ}C$ and $1200^{\circ}C$ with oxidized, neutralized and reduced atmospheres. The aggregates sintered with oxidized atmosphere showed a clear border between shell and black core area. However, the aggregates sintered with a reduced atmosphere showed only black core area in the entire cross-section of the aggregates. The black core area of the aggregates sintered with a neutralized atmosphere increased with increasing $N_2$ gas flow rates. It was determined that the sintering atmosphere was similar to that of rotary kiln when the CO gas flow was 100 cc/min to make a reduced atmosphere in tube furnace. The water absorption rates of both aggregates from tube furnace with reduced atmosphere and rotary kiln were very similar to each other.

Bloating mechanism of artificial lightweight aggregate with reject ash (잔사회를 이용한 인공경량골재의 발포기구)

  • Lee, Ki-Gang
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.158-163
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to improve recycling rate of the coal reject ash by investigating bloating mechanism for artificial lightweight aggregate of reject ash. In this study, we use reject ash (R/A) and dredged soil (D/S) as raw materials. The artificial lightweight aggregates were formed by plastic forming (${\phi}$ = 10 mm) and sintered by temperature raising method at different temperatures (between 1200 and $1275^{\circ}C$). The physical properties of the aggregates such as bulk specific gravity, adsorption and microstructure of surface and cross-section are investigated with the sintering temperature and rate of R/A-D/S contents. As the result of the bulk specific gravity graphs, we can found out the inflection point at content of R/A 80 wt.%. From the microstructure images, we considered the artificial lightweight aggregates content of R/A over 80 wt.% are distributed numerous uniform micro-pores by vitrification without Black Core and the artificial lightweight aggregates of R/A below 80wt.% are distributed macro-pores with Black Core.

Characterization of artificial aggregates fabricated with direct sintering method (직화소성법으로 제조된 인공골재의 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Kang-Duk;Kang, Seun-Ggu
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2011
  • The bulk density, water absorption and microstructure of the artificial aggregates were controlled as a function of sintering temperature (1100 and $1200^{\circ}C$) and time (10~60 min) in the fabrication process of the artificial aggregates by the direct sintering process using dredged soil, the inorganic wastes. Also, the physical properties of the artificial aggregates fabricated according to the different sintering methods such as the direct sintering method used in this study and the increasing temperature sintering method used in the previous report, were compared and analysed. The bulk density of aggregates sintered at $1200^{\circ}C$ by the direct sintering method showed below 1.0, and the thickness of a shell and the pore size of the black core were increased with sintering temperature. Also, in the same sintering temperature, the area of black core was decreased, the thickness of shell was increased and the water absorption was decreased with sintering time. The black core of artificial aggregates of bulk density below 1.0 had the similar microstructure, regardless of sintering methods. In contrast, the shell of aggregates fabricated by the increasing temperature sintering method showed more dense microstructure than that by direct sintering method, hence the water absorption of aggregate sintered using direct sintering was relatively high. Thus, the direct sintering method is suitable for fabrication of artificial aggregates in ceramic carriers or absorbents applications.

Influence of red mud additive on lightening of artificial aggregates containing coal bottom ash (석탄바닥재가 포함된 인공골재의 경량화에 미치는 적니 영향)

  • Kang, Min-A;Kang, Seung-Gu
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2011
  • The artificial aggregates (AAs) composing of 2 wastes, coal bottom ash and dredged soil (7 : 3, weight ratio) were fabricated as a function of red mud contents,0~30 wt% using direct sintering method at $1050{\sim}1250^{\circ}C$ for 10 min, and those physical properties were evaluated. Especially, in order to analyze the red mud addition effect on the bloating phenomenon of AAs manufactured, the specific gravity and water absorption were measured and studied linked with the microstructural observation results. The lightening of AAs was enhanced due to increased bloating with increasing temperature and red mud contents. The AAS sintered at $1050{\sim}1150^{\circ}C$ showed well-developed black-coring structure, but for the specimens containing red mud sintered over $1200^{\circ}C$ generated excessive liquid and gas caused by reduction of $Fe_2O_3$, thus the black-coring part was gradually burst open out of shell of AAs. Particularly, all specimens containing 30 wt% red mud was burst up when sintered over $1100^{\circ}C$. The AAs containing no red mud sintered at $1200^{\circ}C$ had a specific gravity of about 1.2 and those containing 20 wt% had below 1.0 which are characters of lightweight aggregate.

Design of Parallel Processing of Lane Detection System Based on Multi-core Processor (멀티코어를 이용한 차선 검출 병렬화 시스템 설계)

  • Lee, Hyo-Chan;Moon, Dai-Tchul;Park, In-hag;Heo, Kang
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.1778-1784
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    • 2016
  • we improved the performance by parallelizing lane detection algorithms. Lane detection, as a intellectual assisting system, helps drivers make an alarm sound or revise the handle in response of lane departure. Four kinds of algorithms are implemented in order as following, Gaussian filtering algorithm so as to remove the interferences, gray conversion algorithm to simplify images, sobel edge detection algorithm to find out the regions of lanes, and hough transform algorithm to detect straight lines. Among parallelized methods, the data level parallelism algorithm is easy to design, yet still problem with the bottleneck. The high-speed data level parallelism is suggested to reduce this bottleneck, which resulted in noticeable performance improvement. In the result of applying actual road video of black-box on our parallel algorithm, the measurement, in the case of single-core, is approximately 30 Frames/sec. Furthermore, in the case of octa-core parallelism, the data level performance is approximately 100 Frames/sec and the highest performance comes close to 150 Frames/sec.

Formation Identification using Anisotropic Parameters from Sonic and Density Logs (음파검층과 밀도검층 자료에서 산출된 이방성 변수를 이용한 지층 구분)

  • Jang, Seonghyung;Kim, Tae Youn;Hwang, Seho
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.323-330
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    • 2017
  • For the formation identification, surface geological survey, drill core analysis, core description and well log analysis are widely used. Among them well log analysis is a popular method with drill core analysis, since it measures continuously physical properties at in-situ. In this study we calculated Thomsen anisotropic parameters (${\varepsilon},\;{\delta},\;{\eta}$) after applying Backus averaging method to the P wave velocity, S wave velocity, and density logs. The well log data application of Blackfoot, Canada, shows the formation could be divided by 12 layers. This shows that Thomsen anisotropic parameters for identifying formation using anisotropic parameters is useful if there is no natural gamma log that is widely used for the formation identification.

Properties of artificial aggregates fabricated with various heating conditions (다양한 승온조건으로 제조된 인공골재의 특성)

  • Kim, Kang-Duk;Kang, Seung-Gu
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.301-306
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    • 2010
  • The artificial aggregates were fabricated by using the inorganic wastes, dredged soil produced at a dredging work. The input temperature ($800{\sim}1000^{\circ}C$), output temperature ($1100{\sim}1200^{\circ}C$) and heating rate ($5{\sim}10^{\circ}C$/min) in sintering process were controlled to fabricate the aggregates with various value of density and water absorption, and their properties were analyzed as a function of those factors. The specimens sintered at the lower input temperature showed the higher density and the lower water absorption while those with higher input temperature had many pores inside of the aggregates, lower density and higher water absorption. Also increasing the input temperature accelerated the black core phenomenon in the aggregates. The bloating phenomena which the gigantic pores were generated inside the aggregates were improved as increasing the output temperature, but its effect was lower than that of input temperature. It could be realized that the bloating tendency was improved from the results that the density was increased and water absorption was decreased with increasing heating rate from 5 to $10^{\circ}C$/min. It was found that the artificial aggregates of light or heavy weight with various value of density and water absorption could be fabricated by using dredged soils naturally involving gas and fluxing components by controlling the sintering conditions.

Manufacturing of Artificial Lightweight Aggregates using a Coal Fly Ash Discharged from Fluidized Bed Combustor (유동층(流動層) 연소기(撚燒器)로 부터 발생(發生)된 석탄(石炭) 비산(飛散)재를 이용(利用)한 인공경량골재(人工輕量骨材) 제조(製造))

  • Kang, Min-A;Kang, Seung-Gu
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.54-60
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    • 2011
  • The spherical artificial aggregates (AAs) with a diameter of 8 mm, which contains fly ashes discharged from the fluidized bed combustion in a thermal power plant and clay were manufactured by direct sintering method at $1050{\sim}1250^{\circ}C$ for 10 minutes. The effect of fly ash contents on the bloating phenomenon in the AAs was analyzed. The AAs containing fly ash of the amount under 50 wt% showed the black-coring and bloating phenomena. The AAs containing fly ash of the amount over 5Owt%, however, the specific gravity was increased and the color of specimens fully changed to black. These color change phenomena were caused from the formation of FeO by the reduction reaction of almost $Fe_2O_3$ component by the excessive reducing atmosphere formed simultaneously with the rapid emission of the gases generated from the high contents of unburned carbon of with increasing the added fly ash amount. Specific gravity was decreased as fly ash contents increased in the case of sintering at the same temperature condition. Water absorption of all specimens except of the specimens containing 10 wt% fly ashes decreased with increasing sintering temperature. These were because a liquid phase was formed as the increasing the sintering temperature. In the case of the specimens manufactured in this study containing fly ashes discharged from the fluidized bed combustor in a the thermal power plant and 10~90 wt% of clay, the specific gravity was 0.9~1.8 and the water absorptivity was 8~60%, therefore it is considered that those results can be applied to the light or heavy aggregates.