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A Comparative Study of Juvenile Black-faced Spoonbills Platalea Minor Home Range in Gujido and Chilsando Islets, South Korea (구지도, 칠산도 저어새 유조의 행동권 비교 연구)

  • Son, Seok-Jun;Kang, Jung-Hoon;Kwon, In-Ki;Kim, Dal-Ho;Lee, Ki-Sup;Yoo, Jeong-Chil
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 2020
  • Migratory birds use a variety of breeding and wintering sites, and it is particularly important to understand more information on breeding and feeding sites for the conservation and management of endangered species. Black-faced spoonbills (Platalea minor) are an international endangered species distributed in East Asia. The majority of black-faced spoonbills breed on uninhabited islets off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula during the breeding season, and they are distributed in East Asia such as Taiwan, Hong Kong, southern China, Japan, and Jeju island during the winter season. In this study, we used a wild animal location tracking system to analyze and compare home ranges of three black-faced spoonbills spending the post-fledging stage in Gujido islet in Incheon and Chilsando islet in Yeonggwang each in 2015. The tree black-faced spoonbills in Guji islet showed a home range in coastal areas in Hwanghaenam-do and Gangneung-gun. The home range size (mean±SD) was estimated to be 425.49±116.95 ㎢ using 100% MCP, 43.61±18.51 ㎢ using KDE 95%, and 7.46±3.68 ㎢using KDE 50%. The tree black-faced spoonbills in Chilsando islet showed a home range in the Baeksu tidal flat and the Buan Saemangeum area with a size of 99.38±55.29 ㎢ using 100% MCP, 19.87±6.05 ㎢ using KDE 95%, and 1.16±0.53 ㎢ using KDE 50%. The figured indicated that the tree black-faced spoonbills breeding in Gujido islet had a wider home range than those breeding in Chilsando islet. During the post-fledging stage, the home ranges of black-faced spoonbills were mostly breeding in mudflats. Therefore, it is necessary to minimize human intervention, such as the construction of roads and structures and the human access, to protect the habitats during the period.

Occurrence of Pesticide Residues in Han River Basin in 2012 and 2014 (2012, 2014년 한강수계 하천수 중 잔류농약 검출 양상)

  • Kim, Chan-Sub;Lee, Hee-Dong;Son, Kyeong-Ae;Lee, Eun-Young;Oh, Jin-A
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.338-351
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND: To investigate distribution and seasonal variation of concentration and flux of pesticides in Han river basin, water samples were examined at 24 sites in 2012 and 2014. METHODS AND RESULTS: Water samples were collected four times per year and subjected to liquid-liquid partition extraction followed by GC-ECD/NPD analysis. Of fifteen pesticides detected, iprobenfos, diazinon, isoprothiolane, endosulfan sulfate and oxadiazon were detected in a higher frequency, while fenoxanil, carbofuran, fenitrothion, butachlor and metolachlor were only detected in a sample. Pesticides with high occurrences, iprobenfos, diazinon, isoprothiolane, endosulfan sulfate and oxadiazon were detected in residue level of 0.01-0.46, 0.01-0.24, 0.03-0.85, 0.02-0.06 and 0.05-0.24 ㎍/L, respectively. Carbofuran and acetanilide herbicides were found at lower frequencies, but their concentrations were one order of magnitude higher than those of the others. CONCLUSION: Discharge of pesticides in downstream area were mainly contributed from rice farming and suburban horticulture, while pesticide occurrences in upstream area, such as Donggang river basin were caused by highland agriculture for cabbage and potato production. Despite the influx of pesticides from tributaries through intensive agriculture areas, pesticide concentration in the main stream water was low due to the dilution effect from the upstream. Therefore, the water quality was considered to be good at the most downstream, the effluent of Paldang dam.

Effects of Growth Period and Cumulative Temperature on Flowering, Ripening and Yield of Soybean by Sowing Times (파종시기별 생육일수 및 적산온도 변화가 콩의 개화, 등숙 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae Eun;Jung, Gun Ho;Kim, Sung Kook;Kim, Min Tae;Shin, Su Hyeon;Jeon, Weon Tai
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.64 no.4
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    • pp.406-413
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of different sowing times on the flowering and maturing of major soybean cultivars by varying day length and temperature in the central plain region. The average of growth period and cumulative temperature in five test cultivars by sowing times were 121 days and 2,972℃ on June 1, respectively and gradually decreased to 85 days, 2,042℃, respectively on July 20. Analysis of the flowering response according to the sowing times showed that flowering was greatly influenced by the decrease of photoperiod until the sowing on July 10, and the minimum number of days for flowering were 27 days, 36 days, respectively in early and mid-rate maturing type in the central plain region. Daepung 2 is classified to the same ecotype with Daewonkong, the total number of growing days was not different between two cultivars, but ripening period (R2-R6) was longer by 5 days and yield was higher by 11% in Daepung 2. The maturity rate was also high and safe enough to maintain more than 90% through the entire sowing times. This ecological characteristic can be usefully applied as a section index for breeding environmental stress resistant and high yielding soybean varieties. The yield of 4 domestic cultivars (except TI196944) sowing on July 20 were 85~92% levels compared to sowing on June 20.

A Study on the Support System for Reinforcement of Competitiveness of Small Business persons - Mainly Focused on Support System for Small Business Persons - (소상공인 경쟁력 강화의 지원제도에 관한 연구 - 소상공인 지원제도를 중심으로 -)

  • Woo, Dae-IL;Lee, Sang-Youn
    • The Korean Journal of Franchise Management
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.95-110
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    • 2011
  • As global economic conditions are getting uneasy and polarization of our economy is intensified, the economic sentiment of small businesses is still low and unstable. The collapse of worldwide banking systems due to sub prime crisis in 2007 became the catalyst that shakes financial industries in each country in the world; the most sentiment people, small businesspersons, also have hard time facing survival way out, facing a great crisis. All organizing powers including manufactures, wholesales and retails are being gradually greater in mutual relations and dependence, and unstable factors about risks are also increasing. For exterior environmental and physical risk factors which cannot make small businesses survive themselves by developing ways out are eventually increasing, those who cannot cope with these factors face a great crisis. Although the government tries hard to overcome this situation conducting many ways, the effect does not continue. It is the real state that independent business markets including overall employment and establishing business have vicious cycle that they cannot be improved, due to increase of employment centered on short-term labors which lack durability in creation of employment and decline of household income. Recently, growth shows indication of slowdown because of multinational risk factors including financial crisis in each country in Europe, the death of Kim Jung-il, relationship with North Korea, and unstability of war situation in the Middle East Asia. Experts expect that growth rate will be about 4%, and independent business that ordinary people feel is still gloomy. It's reality that there is no adequate alternative for lack of jobs, unstable employment and a means of living after retirement. Also, the fact that large companies enter the market which is narrow and in the excessive competition should be an environmental factor that makes the situation worse. The business concept, a franchise, is the part we should think about whether it is the institutional solution that can guarantee independent businessmen stable life. Major companies are frightfully entering the market today, breaking the barrier to entry and shouting of a win-win with independent businesses. It's the small businesspersons who go through painful domestic recession, cannot predict the future and manage confusing and unstable independent business. It's very important to restore the domestic economy through wisely boosting consumption as soon as possible. It's also important to lead the situation by gathering powers of the government and related organizations, agonizing, suggesting solutions, and establishing accurate directions. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to suggest ways to strengthen competitiveness of small businesspersons by examining small business support policies which are currently implemented.

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Factors associated with the attitude of South Korean adults toward food aid to North Korea (남한 성인의 대북식량지원에 대한 태도 관련 요인)

  • Nam, Youngmin;Yoon, Jihyun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.215-229
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study examines the attitude of South Korean adults toward food aid to North Korea and factors associated with it. Methods: An online survey involving 1,000 adults aged 19-69 years was conducted between September-October 2019. Throughout South Korea, the subjects were proportionally distributed with respect to gender, age, and region, to represent South Korean adults. Results: A total of 44.6% of the respondents agreed (Agreement group), 36.7% disagreed (Disagreement group), and 18.7% neither agreed nor disagreed to food aid to North Korea. Compared to the Disagreement group, the Agreement group had a higher concern of food aid to North Korea and a more positive perception on the effect of it. The Agreement group selected "direct assistance from the government" whereas the Disagreement group chose "support through international organizations" as the most appropriate channel for food aid to North Korea. Logistic regression analysis revealed that South Korean adults showing a more positive perception on the effect of food aid to North Korea were more likely to agree to the aid (odds ratio [OR], 19.32). Moreover, compared to the conservatives, the progressives were more likely to agree to food aid to North Korea (OR, 5.94). South Korean adults in their 40-50s were more likely to agree to food aid to North Korea than those in their 20-30s (OR, 2.81). South Korean adults with a higher concern of food aid to North Korea (OR, 3.93) and a greater positive perception on Korean unification (OR, 1.88) were more likely to agree to food aid to North Korea. Conclusion: The most important factor associated with the attitude of South Korean adults toward food aid to North Korea was their perception on the subsequent effect. As strategies to draw social consensus on food aid to North Korea, we recommend systematizing the monitoring process on the effect of providing food aid to North Korea and informing the public of the outcomes.

The Characteristics of Dolmen Culture and Related Patterns during the End Phase in the Gyeongju Region (경주 지역 지석묘 문화의 특징과 종말기의 양상)

  • Lee, Soohong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.216-233
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    • 2020
  • This study set out to review tomb culture in the Gyeongju region during the Bronze Age, and also examine the patterns of dolmens during their end phase. For these purposes, the study analyzed 18 tomb relics from the Bronze Age and nine from the early Iron Age. Gyeongju belongs to the Geomdan-ri cultural zone. Approximately 120 tombs from the Bronze Age have been excavated in the Gyeongju region. There are fewer tombs than dwellings in the region, which is a general characteristic of the Geomdan-ri cultural zone. Although the number of tombs is small, the detailed structure of the dead body is varied. During the Bronze Age, tombs in the Gyeongju region were characterized by more prolific construction of pit tombs, dolmens with boundaries, and stacked stone altars than were the cases in other areas. There is a great possibility that the pit tombs in the Gyeongju region were influenced by their counterparts in the northeastern parts of North Korea, given the spindle whorl artifacts buried at the Dongsan-ri sites. Dolmens with boundaries and stacked stone altars are usually distributed in the Songguk-ri cultural zone, and it is peculiar that instances of these are found in large numbers in the Gyeongju region as part of the Geomdanri cultural zone. Even in the early Iron Age, the building of dolmens with boundaries and stacked stone altars continued in the Gyeongju region under the influence of the Bronze Age. A new group of people moved into the area, and they crafted ring-rimmed pottery and built wooden coffin tombs. In the early Iron Age, new rituals performed in high places also appeared, and were likely to provide venues for memorial services for heavenly gods in town-center areas. The Hwacheon-ri Mt. 251-1 relic and the Jukdong-ri relic are ruins that exhibit the aspect of rituals performed in high places well. In these rituals performed in high places, a stacked stone altar was built with the same form as the dolmens with boundaries, and a similar rock to the cover stone of a dolmen was used. People continued to build and use dolmens with boundaries and stacked stone altars while sustaining the Bronze Age traditions, even into the early Iron Age, because the authority of dolmens was maintained. Some dolmens with boundaries and stacked stone altars, known as being Bronze Age in origin, would have continued to be used in ritual practices until the early Iron Age. Entering the latter half of the second century B.C., wooden coffin tombs began to propagate. This was the time when the southern provinces, including the Gyeongju region, were included in the East Asian network, with the spread of ironware culture and the arrival of artifacts from central China. Around this time, dolmen culture faded into history with a new era beginning in its place.

Korean Ginseng in "The Veritable Records of King Sejong" (『세종실록』을 통해 본 고려인삼)

  • Joo, Seungjae
    • Journal of Ginseng Culture
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    • v.3
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    • pp.11-37
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    • 2021
  • Korean ginseng is the one of the most famous medicinal herbs globally and has long been a representative item of East Asian trade, including across China and Japan. Since Joseon (1392-1910) ginseng trade was entirely controlled by the state, The Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty are a valuable resource that can shed light on the history of the ginseng industry at that time. By studying the subsection "The Veritable Records of King Sejong" (世宗實錄), when ginseng was used even more widely, we assess the purpose and scale of its trade in the 15th century, identify its original listing in the geographical appendix, develop a distribution map, and explore similarities to current ginseng cultivation areas. During the reign of King Sejong (1418-1450), ginseng was sent to China as a tribute 101 times, with a combined weight of 7,060 kilograms, with less than one-third of that amount given to Japan and Okinawa. It was used to cover the travel expenses of foreign envoys and servants, but this can be seen to gradually decrease after the regnal mid-term, primarily due to a decrease in the amount of ginseng being collected. At the time, there were 113 areas of naturally growing ginseng as listed in the records' geographical appendix, including 12 recorded in the 'tributes' category: Yeongdeok-gun, Yeongju, and Cheongsong-gun in Gyeongsangbuk-do; Ulju-gun and Ulsan in Gyeongsangnam-do; Jeongeup, Wanju-gun, and Jangsu-gun in Jeollabuk-do; Hwasun-gun in Jeollanam-do; Goksan-gun and Sinpyeong-gun in Hwanghaebuk-do; Jeongju and Taecheon-gun in Pyeonganbuk-do; and Jaseong-gun and Junggang-gun in Jagang-do. A total of 101 places are recorded in the 'medicinal herbs' category, located throughout the mountains of the eight Joseon provinces, except the islands. In comparison with current ginseng cultivation sites, many of these historical areas are either consistent with or adjacent to contemporary locations. The geographical appendix to "The Veritable Records of King Sejong" was compiled in the early days of the king's reign (1432) when there was a lot of wild ginseng. The appendix is a valuable resource that indicates the possibility of growing ginseng on the Korean Peninsula in the future. The apparently natural habitats in the south, where ginseng is not currently cultivated, could be candidates for the future. Moreover, areas in the north where ginseng has not been grown, except Kaesǒng, could be a good alternative under sustainable inter-Korean exchange should cultivation sites move north due to climate warming.

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Domestic Legislative Problems on the Civil Liability of Air Carrier in Korea Focus on the Example of Every Countries' Legislation (한국(韓國)에 있어서 항공안전인(航空運送人)의 민사책임(民事責任)에 관한 국내입법(國內立法)의 제문제(諸問題) ${\sim}$각국(各國)의 입법례(立法例)를 중심(中心)으로 하여${\sim}$)

  • Kim, Doo-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.9-53
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    • 2004
  • This paper described the contents of theme entitled "Domestic Legislative Problems on the Civil Liability of Air Carrier in Korea" including the current example of fourteen countries' legislation ((1) Great Britain, (2) United States of America, (3) Canada, (4)European Union), (5) Germany, (6) France, (7) Italy, (8) Spain, (9) Swiss, (10) Australia, (11) Japan, (12) People's Republic of China, (13) Taiwan, (14) North Korea) relating to the aviation law or air transport law. Though the Korean and Japanese aviation act has provided only the public items such as (1) registration of aircraft, (2) persons engaged in aviation, (3) operation of aircraft, (4) aviation facilities including airport, (5) air transport business, (6) investigate of aircraft accidents etc., but they could not regulated the private items such as the legal relations of the air transport contract (1) air passenger ticket, (2) air luggage ticket, (3) airway bill, (4) liability of air carrier, (5) amount of compensation for damage caused by aircraft accidents, (6)jurisdiction, (7) arbitration, (8) limitation of action, (9) combined carriage, (10) carriage by air performed by an actual carrier other than contracting carrier, damage caused by aircraft to the third parties etc. in their aviation act until now. In order to solve speedily the legal problems on the limitation of air carrier's liability and long law suit and disputes between wrongdoers and survivors etc, it is necessary and desirable for us to enact a new "Draft for the Air Transport Act" including the abovementioned private items. I would like to propose personally and strongly the legislation of "Draft for the Air Transport Act" in Korea in emphasizing the importance of ensuring protection of the interests of consumers air passengers and shippers in carriage by air and the need for equitable compensation between air carriers and survivors caused by the aircraft accidents such as the German Air Transport Act (Luftverkerhrsgesetz).

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The Origin of Changseung and Ongjung Stone (장승의 기원과 옹중석)

  • Chung, Seung Mo
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.160-175
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    • 2013
  • There is the need to make a sharp distinction as regards JANGSEUNGs (Korean traditional totem poles) that are different in origin, history and function. This study is to identify the functions of the figures, as well as to trace stone JANGSEUNGs to their origins. In this regard, researched were conducted into the origins of JANGSEUNGs and their changes in history. There was a tradition in the GORYEO Dynasty (an ancient dynasty in the Korean Peninsula) that it erected JANGSAENGs (the archaic name of JANGSEUNGs) or allied stone figures within temples; especially, 'TONGDOSA GUKJANGSAENG SEOKPYO (a stone JANGSAENG that was erected by the royal command and is at the entrance of TONGDO Temple located in YANGSAN, South GYEONGSANG Province, South Korea)' functions as a stone monument rather than as a stone sign. In the engraved inscription, it is written that it should be erected in the form of PANA as before. 'PANA' refers to 'ZHONGKUI', a god in Chinese Taoism believed to exorcise devils that spread diseases. The inscription is to define the territory of TONGDO Temple. The article on HAN JUN GYEOM in a book 'WORAKGI (a travelogue on WORAK Mountain in North CHUNGCHEONG Province, South Korea)' written by HEO MOK makes it possible to guess the scale of GUKJANGSAENGs erected in DOGAP Temple. The stones, on which 'GUKJANGSAENG' or 'HWANGJANGSAENG' were engraved, are not JANGSAENGs but are demarcation posts. In the JOSEON Dynasty (the last dynasty in the Korean Peninsula) JANGSAENGs functioned as signposts. Unlike JANGSAENGs in temples, they were made of wood. At first, the word 'JANGSAENG' was written '長生' in Chinese characters, but in the JOSEON Dynasty another character '木 (wood)' was added to them, and thus the orthography was likely to change into 'JANGSEUNG.' In the JOSEON Dynasty, in addition, optative or geomantic figures were not called 'JANGSEUNG.' Historically, for instance, there has been no case where 'DOL HARBANGs (stone figures found only in JEJU ISLAND, South Korea)' are called 'JANGSEUNG.' In a book 'TAMRA GINYEON (a historical record on JEJU Island, South Korea)' it is written that KIM MONG GYU, JEJU governor, erected ONGJUNG Stones outside the fortress gate. ONGJUNG Stones usually refer to stone statues erected in front of ancient kings or dignitaries' mausoleums. Moreover, they were geomantic figures erected to suppress miasma. A magazine 'GWANGJUEUPJI (a journal on old GWANGJU, South Korea, 1899)' shows that two two ONGJUNG Stones were so erected that they might look at each other to suppress miasma from a pathway through which lucks lose. On the two stone figures located in BUAN-EUP, North JEOLLA Province, South Korea, inscriptions 'SANGWON JUJANGGUN' and 'HAWON DANGJANGGUN' were engraved. The words are to identify the figures' sexes. They are a kind of optative geomantic figures, and therefore there is no reason to call them 'JANGSAENG' or 'JANGSEUNG' or 'DANGSAN.' The words 'SANGWON' and 'HAWON' are closely associated with Taoism. Since then, the words have been widely used as inscriptions on stone figures in temples, and subsequently are used for JANGSEUNGs. A hatted ONGJUNG Stone, found in BUKANSAN Fortress, disappeared and other ones may be being buried somewhere. Meanwhile, ONGJUNG Stones in JEJU Island and stone figures in BUAN-EUP have hardly been displaced and thus have properly functioned. Stone figures, made in those days, seem to be most similar in function to JANGSAENGs made during the GORYEO Dynasty. Specifically, like earlier JANGSAENGs, stone figures made during the early to mid-18th century were likely to function not only as optative figures but as boundary stones. Most of stone figures in temples were made whenever the land use survey was conducted throughout the nation, but given that at the same period of time, the commonalty filed many lawsuits against grave sites, temples might erect many stone figures to mark their territories. Currently, wooden or stone figures are commonly called 'JANGSEUNG', but they were erected in different epochs and for different reasons. Their origins are to be sought in stone figures that functioned not only as optative figures in temples but as boundary stones during the GORYEO Dynasty.

Element Dispersion and Wallrock Alteration from Samgwang Deposit (삼광광상의 모암변질과 원소분산)

  • Yoo, Bong-Chul;Lee, Gil-Jae;Lee, Jong-Kil;Ji, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Hyun-Koo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.177-193
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    • 2009
  • The Samgwang deposit consists of eight massive mesothermal quartz veins that filled NE and NW-striking fractures along fault zones in Precambrian granitic gneiss of the Gyeonggi massif. The mineralogy and paragenesis of the veins allow two separate discrete mineralization episodes(stage I=quartz and calcite stage, stage II-calcite stage) to be recognized, temporally separated by a major faulting event. The ore minerals are contained within quartz and calcite associated with fracturing and healing of veins that occurred during both mineralization episodes. The hydrothermal alteration of stage I is sericitization, chloritization, carbonitization, pyritization, silicification and argillization. Sericitic zone occurs near and at quartz vein and include mainly sericite, quartz, and minor illite, carbonates and chlorite. Chloritic zone occurs far from quartz vein and is composed of mainly chlorite, quartz and minor sericite, carbonates and epidote. Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios of sericite and chlorite range 0.45 to 0.50(0.48$\pm$0.02) and 0.74 to 0.81(0.77$\pm$0.03), and belong to muscovite-petzite series and brunsvigite, respectiveIy. Calculated $Al_{IV}$-FE/(FE+Mg) diagrams of sericite and chlorite suggest that this can be a reliable indicator of alteration temperature in Au-Ag deposits. Calculated activities of chlorite end member are $a3(Fe_5Al_2Si_3O_{10}(OH)_6$=0.0275${\sim}$0.0413, $a2(Mg_5Al_2Si_3O_{10}(OH)_6$=1.18E-10${\sim}$7.79E-7, $a1(Mg_6Si_4O_{10}(OH)_6$=4.92E-10${\sim}$9.29E-7. It suggest that chlorite from the Samgwang deposit is iron-rich chlorite formed due to decreasing temperature from high temperature(T>450$^{\circ}C$). Calculated ${\alpha}Na^+$, ${\alpha}K^+$, ${\alpha}Ca^{2+}$, ${\alpha}Mg^{2+}$ and pH values during wallrock alteration are 0.0476($400^{\circ}C$), 0.0863($350^{\circ}C$), 0.0154($400^{\circ}C$), 0.0231($350^{\circ}C$), 2.42E-11($400^{\circ}C$), 7.07E-10($350^{\circ}C$), 1.59E-12($400^{\circ}C$), 1.77E-11($350^{\circ}C$), 5.4${\sim}$6.4($400^{\circ}C$), 5.3${\sim}$5.7($350^{\circ}C$)respectively. Gain elements(enrichment elements) during wallrock alteration are $TiO_2$, $Fe_2O_3(T)$,CaO, MnO, MgO, As, Ag, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, W, V, Br, Cs, Rb, Sc, Bi, Nb, Sb, Se, Sn and Lu. Elements(Ag, As, Zn, Sc, Sb, Rb, S, $CO_2$) represents a potential tools for exploration in mesothermal and epithermal gold-silver deposits.