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Optimization of Biotransformation Process for Sodium Gluconate Production by Aspergillus niger (Aspergillus niger를 이용한 글루콘산 나트륨 생산 생변환 공정의 최적화)

  • 박부수;조병관;이상윤;임승환;김동일;김병기
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.309-314
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    • 1999
  • In order to produce high concentration of sodium gluconate, optimization of the fermentation conditions, such as glucose concentration, inoculum size, dissolved oxygen concentration and glucose feeding method, was examined. When the glucose concentration was maintained in the range of 30∼50 g/L during the batch fermentation, glucose conversion yield and productivity were 92.2% and 6.0 g/L/hr, respectively. In the case of the low concentration below 30 g/L, the yield decreased by about 25%. As the inoculum size increased above 20%(w/v), lag phase was shortened but the productivity decreased. The dissolved oxygen level of 60∼70% was shown to be the threshold point for 75% of increase in the productivity of sodium gluconate. Finally, optimal glucose feeding rate was determined using various feeding methods such as exponential feeding, feeding based on the average glucose consumption rate and was determined using various feeding methods such as exponential feeding, feeding based on the average glucose consumption rate and on the oxygen uptake rate and etc. Our result shows that glucose feeding, based on the oxygen uptake rate is a very simple, efficient and robust method, especially when oxygen is consumed as a substrate for the bioconversion. Using the above glucose feeding strategy under the optimized condition, 255 g/L of sodium gluconate concentration, 12 g/L/hr of productivity and 95% of glucose conversion yield were achieved with A. niger ACM53.

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Analysis on elements of policy changes in character industry (캐릭터산업의 정책변인연구)

  • Han, Chang-Wan
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.597-616
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    • 2013
  • Character industry is not only knowledge-based industry chiefly with copyrights but also motive power for creative economy to take a role functionally over the fields of industries because it has industrial characteristic as complement product to promote sale value in manufacturing industry and service industry and increase profit on sales. Since 2003, the national policy related to character has aimed to maximize effect among connected industries, extend its business abroad, enforce copyrights through the improvement of marketing system, develop industrial infrastructure through raising quality of character products. With the result of this policy, the successful cases of connected contents have been crystallized and domestic character industry has stepped up methodically since 2007. It is needed to reset the scales of character industry and industrial stats because there are more know-how of self industry promotion and more related characters through strategy of market departmentalization starting with cartoon, animation, games, novels, movies and musicals. Especially, The Korea government set our target for 'Global Top Five Character Power' since 2009 and has started to carry out to find global star characters, support to establish network among connected industries, diversify promotion channels, and develop licensing business. Particularly, since 2013, There have been prospered the indoor character theme park with time management just like character experimental marketing or Kids cafes using characters, the demand market of digital character focusing on SNS emoticon, and the performance market for character musical consistently. Moreover, The domestic and foreign illegal black markets on off-line have been enlarged, so we need another policy alternative. To prepare for the era of exploding character demand market and diversifying platform, it is needed to set up a solid strategy that is required the elements of policy changes in character industry to vitalize character industry and support new character design and connected contents. the following shows that the elements of policy changes related to the existing policy, the current position of market. Nowadays, the elements of policy changes in domestic character industry are that variety of consumers in the digital character market according to platform diversification, Convergence contents of character goods for the Korean waves, legalization of the illegal black contents market, and controling the tendency of consumers in departmentalized market. This can help find the policy issue entirely deferent with the existing character powers like US, Japan or Europe. In its final analysis, the alternatives are the promotion of models with contract copyrights of domestic and foreign connected contents, the diversification of profit models of platform economy, the additive development of target market related to enlarging the Korean waves, and the strategy of character market for the age-specific tendency according to developing character demand market.

A Construction of the C_MDR(Component_MetaData Registry) for the Environment of Exchanging the Component (컴포넌트 유통환경을 위한 컴포넌트 메타데이타 레지스트리 구축 : C_MDR)

  • Song, Chee-Yang;Yim, Sung-Bin;Baik, Doo-Kwon;Kim, Chul-Hong
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.614-629
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    • 2001
  • As the information-intensive society in 21c based on the environment of global internet is promoted, the software is getting more large and complex, and the demand for the software is increasing briskly. So, it becomes an important issue in academic and industrial field to activate reuse by developing and exchanging the standardized component. Currently, the information services as a product type of each company are provided in foreign market place for reusing a commercial component, but the components which are serviced in each market place are different, insufficient and unstandardized. That is, construction for Component Data Registry based on ISO 11179, is not accomplished. Hence, the national government has stepped up the plan for sending out public component at 2001. Therefore, the systems as a tool for sharing and exchange of data, have to support the meta-information of standardized component. In this paper, we will propose the C_MDR system: a tool to register and manage the standardized meta-information, based upon ISO 11179, for the commercialized common component. The purpose of this system is to systemically share and exchange the data in chain of acceleration of reusing the component. So, we will show the platform of specification for the component meta-information, then define the meta-information according to this platform, also represent the meta-information using XML for enhancing the interoperability of information with other system. Moreover, we will show that three-layered expression make modeling to be simple and understandable. The implementation of this system is to construct a prototype system of the component meta-information through the internet on www, this system uses ASP as a development language and RDBMS Oracle for PC. Thus, we may expect the standardization of the exchanged component metadata, and be able to apply to the exchanged reuse tool.

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Characterizing Strategy of Emotional sympathetic Robots in Animation and Movie - Focused on Appearance and Behavior tendency Analysis - (애니메이션 및 영화에 등장하는 정서교감형 로봇의 캐릭터라이징 전략 - 외형과 행동 경향성 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Ryu, Beom-Yeol;Yang, Se-Hyeok
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.85-116
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze conditions that robots depicted in cinematographic works like animations or movies sympathize with and form an attachment with the nuclear person and organize characterizing strategies for emotional sympathetic robots. Along with the development of technology, the areas of artificial intelligence and robots are no longer considered to belong to science fiction but as realistic issues. Therefore, this author assumes that the expressive characteristics of emotional sympathetic robots created by cinematographic works should be used as meaningful factors in expressively embodying human-friendly service robots to be distributed widely afterwards, that is, in establishing the features of characters. To lay the grounds for it, this research has begun. As the subjects of analysis, this researcher has chosen robot characters whose emotional intimacy with the main person is clearly observed among those found in movies and animations produced after the 1920 when robot's contemporary concept was declared. Also, to understand robots' appearance and behavioral tendency, this study (1) has classified robots' external impressions into five types (human-like, cartoon, tool-like, artificial bring, pet or creature) and (2) has classified behavioral tendencies considered to be the outer embodiment of personality by using DiSC, the tool to diagnose behavioral patterns. Meanwhile, it has been observed that robots equipped with high emotional intimacy are all strongly independent about their duties and indicate great emotional acceptance. Therefore, 'influence' and 'Steadiness' types show great emotional acceptance, the influencing type tends to be highly independent, and the 'Conscientiousness' type tends to indicate less emotional acceptance and independency in general. Yet, according to the analysis on external impressions, appearance factors hardly have any significant relationship with emotional sympathy. It implies that regarding the conditions of robots equipped with great emotional sympathy, emotional sympathy grounded on communication exerts more crucial effects than first impression similarly to the process of forming interpersonal relationship in reality. Lastly, to study the characters of robots, it is absolutely needed to have consilient competence embracing different areas widely. This author also has felt that only with design factors or personality factors, it is hard to estimate robot characters and also analyze a vast amount of information demanded in sympathy with humans entirely. However, this researcher will end this thesis as the foundation for it expecting that the general artistic value of animations can be used preciously afterwards in developing robots that have to be studied interdisciplinarily.

A study on the narrative use of transitional object-characters in the family feature animation (가족용 장편애니메이션<인사이드 아웃>에 나타난 이행대상(transitional object) 캐릭터의 서사적 활용 연구)

  • Park, Hyoung-Dong
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.325-357
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    • 2017
  • It can be assumed that the reasons why the animation characters, 'Olaf (in Frozen Kingdom)' and 'Minions (in Super Bad)', etc., which were very successful in the merchandising market while having won the popularity better than the main characters are very popular even though such characters appeared only by playing a funny role while assisting the adventures of the main characters are not only because of their cute appearances but also because such characters have their own core features in their inner world as the transitional object-characters. Simply expressing, a 'Transitional Object' as a concept suggested by a child psychologist, 'Donald Winnicott', means a lovey doll or an imaginary friend which temporarily replaces an infant's mother during the procedure when the infant is mentally separated from its mother. However, in case that the theory of transitional objects was applied directly to many narrative content characters for doing a study, there must have been done some studies in advance for establishing some new criteria and indexes related to the transitional object-characters of such narrative contents. Accordingly, while thinking that the 'emotional relationship' between a growth-subject and a growth mediator must be dealt with as the most important content in order to define a transitional object-character in a narration clearly, this researcher established some emotional index for judging the propensities of a transitional object-character on the basis of such way of thinking. The index is composed of 4 kinds of emotional roles (quasi-family member, growth mediator, lovey doll, an imaginary friend), 6 kinds of emotional supports (hugging, protecting, accepting, giving the initiative, improving the relationship and mutual supervising) and 4 kinds of emotional impressions (impression by contacting, impression to protect and impression accepting an attack). In case that some main characters of a family feature animation, 'Inside Out', are analyzed while the index mentioned above is applied, it was found that 'Bing Bong' and 'Sadness' have a high propensity as a transitional object-character. Especially, it could be inversely inferred in which ways some good transitional object-characters can help the narrations on growth of a family feature animation by taking a look at the character, 'Sadness' that has the highest propensity as a transitional object-character. The transitional object-character, 'Sadness' assists the narration on growth internally and externally by helping the internal maturity of a growth-subject in a way of projecting the tasks for the internal maturity of a growth-subject while helping the growth-subject to be successfully externally in a way of providing the growth-subject with some kinds of facilitating emotion. As the results from this Study, since such kinds of emotional experiences provided by such transitional object-characters are displaced to not only the relevant growth-subjects but also the audience who are emphasized with such growth-subjects as they are, such transitional object-characters play a role of hidden benefactors who induce some immersion into the narrations and provide child and adult audience with various layers of emotional satisfaction.

A Study on Awareness of Job Characteristics and Job Satisfaction of Landscape Architect Public Officials in Korea (조경직 공무원의 직무특성 및 직무만족 인식에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Tae-Seok;Kim, Shin-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.148-161
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    • 2016
  • In the case of the government, which plays a pivotal role in the landscape architecture system, the management of positions in landscape architectural organizations is lacking. At the local government level, while public officials for managing landscape architecture are being hired, there are problems and vulnerabilities in both management and system operations as such public officials recruited for positions in landscape architectural services operate under the forestry service. Accordingly, this study analyzed the Korean administrative system of public officials in the landscape architectural service and their satisfaction with the organizational culture and behavior. The aim was to provide practical data for improving the job satisfaction of public officials in landscape architectural service and enhance the status of landscape architecture. First, a survey was conducted regarding current organizational culture/behavior and job adequacy, and differences when compared to different job series with regards to the public officials in the landscape architectural service. The results indicated that job satisfaction of those in landscape architectural service was generally high, but they showed strong centralization, i.e., orders from superiors and limitations on autonomy. Second, an analysis was conducted to improve the organizational culture/behavior and job satisfaction of public officials in the landscape architectural service, and a comparative analysis was conducted on the differences between the analysis result and preceding studies by the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs(2006). The results indicated that organizational commitment/satisfaction of public officials in the landscape architectural service was relatively low among those who had a great amount of work experience related to forestry. Therefore, it was shown that it is necessary to ensure expertise in landscape architecture. Third, a comprehensive analysis was conducted regarding the influences on "working environment", "legal system" and "job allocation" in regard to public officials in land architectural service. The results indicated that satisfaction in the value system was high when given significance to the job as public officials in land architectural. However, their satisfaction in the land architectural system was low due to the lack of independence in their positions, the vulnerable legal system of land architectural service and low employment rates. Fourth, current public officials in landscape architectural service process tasks such as forestry, architecture, city planning and administration that are not related to their area of expertise. Therefore, an analysis was conducted on whether there is a difference in the job satisfaction of public officials in landscape architectural service according to statistical variables. It was identified that "legal system", "job satisfaction" and "organizational commitment" with regard to public officials in landscape architectural service can be improved through ensuring their expertise. This study suggests the following tasks to further inquire into landscape architecture in general. First, establish an identity of work allocation for public officials in the landscape architectural service, and second, establish an organizational constitution according to the positions in landscape architectural service. Accordingly, it is necessary for interested parties of landscape architecture to devise practical strategies so that such tasks can be converged administratively and reflected in policies.

Population Size Estimation of the Kaloula borealis in the Daemyung Retarding Basin (대명유수지에 서식하는 맹꽁이 Kaloula borealis 개체군 크기 추정)

  • Choi, Seo-Young;Rho, Paikho
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.684-693
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    • 2016
  • Daemyung retarding basin located near the confluence floodplain of the Nakdong and Kumho River is a large spawning site for the endangered Kaloula borealis, and needs for protecting the habitat of the endangered species are increasing. However, scientific studies are rarely conducted on the population characteristics and ecological knowledge on the species in the basin. This paper aims to estimate the population size and spatial distribution of the species that inhabited at the Daemyung retarding basin, using the capture-recapture method. Also, pitfall traps were installed in each habitat types classified with micro-topographic features, slope aspects, and vegetation communities to identify the spatial distribution characteristics of the Kaloula borealis of each habitat in the retarding basin. Field survey on the species was conducted from May 2013 to October 2014, showing that the species emerged in May, became more active during July and August and started to hibernate at the end of October. Using capture-recapture method, the first survey was carried out from July to August, 2014. Ninety-eight toads were captured, marked, and released back into the site. In the second survey, 68 toads including 5 marked toads of the previous survey were captured. Based on these two-sample surveys, around 535-2,131 individual toads are estimated to inhabit the Daemyung retarding basin. Fifty-seven pitfall traps were installed in four habitat types: mounded and vegetated flatland, lowland swamps, and slope areas of both the southern and western parts of the basin in order to delineate spatial abundance of the endangered Kaloula borealis during the rainy season when the species is actively spawning. Pitfall traps at the spatially explicit array indicated that the species gradually move to the slope areas near the Daemyung stream, showing high occurrence density of the Kaloula borealis compared to the lowland swamps after the spawning season. The emergence of Kaloula borealis in the lowland swamps appeared to be comparatively higher during the spawning season. However, after the spawning season the toads species rapidly moved into the neighboring land of relatively high elevation such as the slope area towards the Dalsung protected wetlands and Daemyung River. These results are closely related to the migration patterns that toads tend to return to the sheltering sites and/or hibernating grounds after the spawning season. Also, the Kaloula borealis moved to the nearest high-level vegetated areas as the lowland swamps of their spawning grounds deteriorated with the expansion of permanent ponds due to the rise in the groundwater level.

Grotesque Aesthetics with a Focus on Animations of Lee, ae-rim Director (카니발 그로테스크 미학과 이애림 감독의 애니메이션)

  • Oh, Jin-hee
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.81-101
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    • 2017
  • The present study argues that film director Lee Ae-rim animation works depict the world of the grotesque and not only are important sociocultural phenomena but also hold the significance of humor and subversion. The grotesque exhibits the intriguing characteristics of expressing a perspective critical of the existing society through the sensibilities of minorities and is used broadly as a term not only in the aesthetic sense but also designating sociocultural phenomena. Although discussed separately in terms of Mikhail Bakhtin's carnival grotesque and Mary Russo's uncanny grotesque, the grotesque fundamentally rejects existing order and conventions and is externalized through unique expressions, thus opening up a rich possibility for rejection, humor, satire, transformation, and deconstruction of and regarding the authority of the mainstream. Although they constitute a fictional medium, animation films are social products as well so that they are affected by society, culture, and history and stand as important texts that must be interpreted in terms of the relationships between humans' instinctive desires and society and between the overall culture and artistic media. However, the rarity of grotesque portrayals in South Korean animation films also proves that it is a society where even problems that are in themselves sensitive must be manifested ingeniously on a conventional level. South Korean society has a unique history of colonialism and national division and is simultaneously in the unique situation of a society that has undergone growth at a nearly unprecedented rate. Consequently, the society exhibits closed yet dynamic particularity where everyday tension and rigidity, wariness of others and extreme competition are intertwined in a complex manner. Intensively analyzed in the present discussions, director Lee's animation films and are characterized mainly by grotesque images, nonlinear narratives, and vivid depictions. In such a context, these works not only are artistic products of South Korean society but also rejections of a rigid society and share the significance of the aesthetics of the carnival grotesque, which consists of subversive expressions directed at a new world.

A Numerical Study on the Performance Analysis of a Solar Air Heating System with Forced Circulation Method (강제순환 방식의 공기가열식 태양열 집열기의 성능분석에 관한 수치해석 연구)

  • Park, Hyeong-Su;Kim, Chul-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.122-126
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study was to develop a device for solving the heating problem of living space using heated air, utilizing a simple air heater type collector for solar energy. At the present time, this study assessed the possibility of a development system through theoretical calculations for the amount of available energy according to the size change of the air-heated solar energy collector. To produce and supply hot water using the heat energy of the sun, hot water at $100^{\circ}C$ or less was produced using a flat or vacuum tube type collector. The purpose of this study was to research the air heating type solar collector that utilizes heating energy with heating air above $75^{\circ}C$, by designing and manufacturing an air piping type solar collector that is a simpler type than a conventional solar collector system. The analysis results were obtained for the generated air temperature ($^{\circ}C$) and the production of air (kg/h) to determine the performance of air heating by an air-heated solar collector according to the heat transfer characteristics in the collector of the model when a specified amount of heat flux was dropped into a solar collector of a certain size using PHOENICS, which is a heat flow analysis program applying the Finite Volume Method. From the analysis result, the temperature of the air obtained was approximately $40.5^{\circ}C$, which could be heated using an air heating tube with an inner diameter of 0.1m made of aluminum in a collector with a size of $1.2m{\times}1.1m{\times}0.19m$. The production of air was approximately 161 m3/h. This device can be applied to maintain a suitable environment for human activity using the heat energy of the sun.

Development of a marker system to discern the flowering type in Brassica rapa crops (배추 속 작물의 개화형 판별 마커 시스템 개발)

  • Kim, Jin A;Kim, Jung Sun;Hong, Joon Ki;Lee, Yeon-Hee;Lee, Soo In;Jeong, Mi-Jeong
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.438-447
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    • 2017
  • Flowering is one of the most important development traits related to the production of Brassica rapa crops. After planting, a sudden low temperature triggers premature flowering, which leads to a reduction in the yield and quality of harvested production. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of flowering control is important in the agricultural productivity for preventing Brassica rapa crops. Vernalization is generally known as the main factor of flowering in the Brassica plant. However, in the subspecies of Brassica rapa, some accession such as Yellow sarson and Komatsuna display the flowering phenotype without vernalization. Circadian genes, which diurnally regulate plant physiology, have a role for photoperiodic flowering but are related to the regulation of the vernalizarion mechanism. In this report, the 22 B. rapa accession were divided into two groups, vernalization and non-vernalization, and the sequenced circadian gene, BrPRR1s. Among them, the BrPRR1b gene was found to have deletion regions, which could classify the two groups. The PCR primer was designed to amplify a short band of 422bp in the vernalization type and a long band of 451bp in the non-vernalization type. This primer set was applied to distinguish the flowering types in the 43 B. rapa accession and 4 Brassica genus crop, Broccoli, cabbage, mustard, and rape. The PCR analysis results and flowering time information of each crop demonstrated that the primer set can be used as marker to discern the flowering type in Brassica crops. This marker system can be applied to the B. rapa breeding when selecting the flowering character of new progenies or introducing varieties at an early stage. In addition, these results displayed that the circadian clock genes can be a good strategy for the flowering control of B. rapa crops.