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Aspects and Significance of Musa basjoo, a Landscaping Plant - Focused on Analysis of Old Paintings of Chosun Dynasty - (조경식물 파초(Musa basjoo) 식재 양상과 그 의미 - 조선시대 옛 그림 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Young-Suk;Goh, Yeo-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.23-36
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to infer the aspects and significance of Musa basjoo of latter part of Chosun Dynasty by analyzing the planting tendency and planting location of Musa basjoos drawn in total 77 old paintings and the characteristics of the paintings where Musa basjoos appeared, while trying to understand symbolic meanings of floral languages as well as the images and significance of Musa basjoos which appeared in the prose and poetry of Chosun Dynasty, and the results are as follows; With its floral languages of 'waiting', 'parting' and 'beauty', Musa basjoo represented the wealth and resuscitation and it aroused the elegance of hermits in its Taoistic sense. And it also represented 'the unworldliness to get out of transient human affairs' in its Buddhistic sense. Musa basjoos which appeared in 'Garden Custom Painting(庭園雅集圖)', 'Gosa Figure Painting(故事人物圖)' and 'Gyehoe Painting(契會圖)' is considered a device to increase the unworldly atmosphere of gardens and to dignify the elegant meetings of scholars, reflected by the high appearance frequencies of cranes and deer. And it seems that the meaning of Musa basjoo in certain paintings like 'Life-time Paintings(平生圖)', 'Castle City Painting(盛市圖), and 'Cultivating and Weaving Painting(耕織圖)' is an aspiration for wealth and prosperity, and the Musa basjoos planted in temples are considered to have symbolic meanings of aspiration for 'Salvation through Belief' as well as a unworldly meaning which reminds the transiency of human affairs. In addition, the expected effect of experiencing 'the sound of rain falling on the leaves of Musa basjoo' has been pursued, which can be confirmed by the fact that Firmiana simlex with wide leaves similar to Musa basjoo can be frequently spotted near the houses. Meanwhile, Musa basjoos seem to have been planted mainly in front garden or side garden around detached house and Musa basjoos inside the houses seem to have been planted mainly in right side when viewed from the entrance, in relation with the location of bedrooms where it is easier to hear the sounds from the right side of the environment. And the paintings where Musa basjoos appear with strange rocks and bizarre stones among other things have greater part of all the paintings, which is considered a kind of intentional landscaping and a product of mixed materials for elegant appreciation. And the major characters of the painting were involved in the activities of scholars such as arts, and the activities of minor characters were greatly related to their everyday lives. Musa basjoo of Chosun Dynasty in $17^{th}$ and $18^{th}$ century was one of the symbols necessary for description of gardens. And it provided the images of rainy scenes together with scholar culture which had a meaning of self-discipline, and it is assumed that the planting of Musa basjoo with the spirit of cease lessen deavor of a new leaf pushing up the tree and the spirit of resuscitation had the same trace of wheels in the city space of our country as the decline of scholar culture of Chosun Dynasty.

A Study on the Persons Enjoying the Landscape of Daegodea in Hamyang and Space Hegemony through Analysis of Poetry and Letters Carved on the Rocks (시문과 바위글씨로 본 함양 대고대(大孤臺)의 경관 향유자와 장소패권(場所覇權))

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Jung-Han
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.10-21
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    • 2014
  • This study focuses on the landscape of Daegodae(大孤臺), a prominent rock placed at the side of Namgae Stream in Hamyang, and the person who enjoy the landscape. Through the analysis of the letters such as names carved on the rocks based on ancient poetry and stone walls, the study examines the characteristics of the landscape and the space of Daegodae and the phase of hegemony to enjoy the landscape and space. The result of this study is as follow.2) There are 5 Seowon(書院: lecture halls) nearby Daegodae identified in the ancient map has 5 auditoriums nearby, and three-dimensional volume and eccentricity of the Daegodae is impressive. Daegodae, named by Noh Jin(1518~1578) in 16th century, was used in a variety of ways, including viewing, game, recreation, and meeting, by the staff of the lecture halls including Namgae Seowon(南溪書院), as a result of analyzing the ancient document Go-dae-il-Loc(孤臺日錄) written by Jung Kyung-Woon(鄭慶雲: 1556~?). The structure of Daegodae is that there is Chunggeunchung(淸近亭) on the rock face of the top and Sanangjae(山仰齋) to the west around the memorial stone for Yang Hee(梁喜: 1515~1581). The upper part of the foundation of Daegodae with 11m high and $10m^2$ wide to the east and west was widely used for lecturing and poetry reading. To the north and west of the foundation were the writing of Kim Jeong-Hee(金正喜: 1786~1856) with the words 'Seoksong Chusa(石松 秋史)' carved on the rock and the remains of a dead tree that is presumed to have been called as 'Seoksong'. They are the landscapes that further enhance the history and authenticity of this place. The two kinds of letters carved on the rock 'Daegodae Gaeeunseo(大高臺 介隱書)' and 'Mukheon JungGeunSang(鄭近相: 1893~1934)' were recorded each by Jung Jae-Gi(1811~1879) and his grandson Jung Geun-Sang, which are, as the outcome of exclusive space possession and space hegemony, the signatures indicating that they were the persons who enjoyed this place during the late Joseon and Japanese colonial era. In other words, Daegodae had some implied meaning of preoccupancy of the place as Gujolyangseonsengjangguso since the middle of Joseon, and the place was passed down as a buddhism lecturing and memorial venue called "Dungbukganghoiso Cheonryungjaeseonhyunjangguso" after going through the space hegemony of Jung Jae-Gi and Jung Geun-Sang during the late Joseon and Japanese colonial era each, Nevertheless, a number of letters carved on the rock identified also imply that 'Hadong Jung(河東鄭氏)' and 'Pungcheon Noh(豊川盧氏)' were those who enjoyed the landscape of Daegodae and the center of the space hegemony. The "letters carved on the rock of Daegudae" is another case of cultural landscape and traditional gardening space that serves as the representation of the will of enjoying the landscape in this place and the history of space hegemony.

A Study on Developing Sensibility Model for Visual Display (시각 디스플레이에서의 감성 모형 개발 -움직임과 색을 중심으로-)

  • 임은영;조경자;한광희
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2004
  • The structure of sensibility from motion was developed for the purpose of understanding relationship between sensibilities and physical factors to apply it to dynamic visual display. Seventy adjectives were collected by assessing adequacy to express sensibilities from motion and reporting sensibilities recalled from dynamic displays with achromatic color. Various motion displays with a moving single dot were rated according to the degree of sensibility corresponding to each adjective, on the basis of the Semantic Differential (SD) method. The results of assessment were analyzed by means of the factor analysis to reduce 70 words into 19 fundamental sensibilities from motion. The Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) technique constructed the sensibility space in motion, in which 19 sensibilities were scattered with two dimensions, active-passive and bright-dark Motion types systemically varied in kinematic factors were placed on the two-dimensional space of motion sensibility, in order to analyze important variables affecting sensibility from motion. Patterns of placement indicate that speed and both of cycle and amplitude in trajectories tend to partially determine sensibility. Although color and motion affected sensibility according to the in dimensions, it seemed that combination of motion and color made each have dominant effect individually in a certain sensibility dimension, motion to active-passive and color to bright-dark.

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Fluid Inclusions in Amethyst from the Korea Amethyst Deposit, Uljin, Gyeongbuk (경북 울진 코리아 광상의 자수정에 대한 유체포유물 연구)

  • Lee, Mi-Lyoung;Yang, Kyoung-Hee;Lee, Ju-Youn;Kim, Gyo-Tea
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.207-216
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    • 2009
  • Three distinct types of fluid inclusions in amethyst and quartz crystals are associated with metamorphic events in the Korea Amethyst deposit from Uljin-Gun, Gyeongbuk Province. The amethyst displays bimodal grain size distribution in fine-grained, strain-free equigranular quartz with coarse-grained quartz grains with kink bands and undulose extinction. Type I inclusions are liquid-rich and salinity is 0~7 wt% NaCl and the homogenization temperatures ($T_h$) $91{\sim}231^{\circ}C$ with eutectic temperatures ($T_e$) $-52{\sim}-20^{\circ}C$. Type II inclusions are vapor-rich (80~90 vol%). The salinity and $T_h$ ranges 3~6 wt% NaCl and $230{\sim}278^{\circ}C$, respectively with $T_e$ $-56{\sim}-23^{\circ}C$. Type III inclusions contain a daughter mineral other than NaCl. The salinity ranges 32~36 wt% NaCl and $T_h$ $210{\sim}271^{\circ}C$. The textural and fluid inclusion evidences suggest that the host Buncheon granite gneiss and Amethyst pegmatite experienced dynamic recrystallization and the studied fluid inclusions are metamorphic in origin. The metamorphic event possibly occurred at higher temperature than $271{\sim}278^{\circ}C$. The amethysts from Uljin Korea Amethyst can be distinguished from the synthetic amethyst on basis of the distinctive two and three-phases fluid inclusions. Furthermore, it is noticeable that Korea amethyst do not contain NaCl-bearing and $CO_2$-rich fluid inclusions unlike those compared to those from Eonyang and Samcheonpo deposits related to unmetamorphosed granitic rocks.

A Study of Improvement Plans for Urban Parks through the Application of Barrier-free Living Environment Certification Standards - A Focus on Boramae Park- (장애물 없는 생활환경 인증기준을 적용한 도시공원 개선계획 - 보라매공원을 대상으로 -)

  • Seo, Eun-Sil;Koo, Bon-Hak
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.100-110
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    • 2015
  • With the trend for the construction of barrier-free living environments in accordance with the ever-increasing external activity of the aging population, multi-culture families and socially disadvantaged, there is also a demand for the facilities improvement at parks for their convenience of use. This study analyzed the possibility of Barrier-Free Certification of an existing open space and defined its prototype renovation plan. This study is intended to help develop Borame Park into a barrier-free park by securing a barrier-free line of movement linking the major facilities sites within the park, improving park facilities lest there should be inconvenience in the use of the major facilities, and a guidance system convenient for use by physically and mentally impaired people. The significance of this study lies in the fact that it diagnosed the possibility of the BF Certification of existing urban parks and established a barrier-free park, which is easy for anyone to use. In the course of doing research on this, this study was able to discover the limitations of the BF Certification system, and its related tasks to be solved in the future as follows: The first thing this study shows is that there is a lack of understanding and awareness of the BF Certification system. Basically, there is a need for giving consideration to the development of a barrier-free living environment from the planning and design phase of a park, but in actuality, an examination of the certification is undertaken at the time of the completion of design and construction, which causes a large loss both time-wise and economically. Second, as evaluative items for the BF Certification of a park, applied are detailed evaluation items that fail to reflect the characteristics of an outdoor space whose natural constraints are large, such as geographical highs and lows and existing trees, plants, etc. Third, guidelines for establishment of a barrier-free park must be created in the light of the locational conditions of the park, followed by improvements of its BF Certification evaluation items.

Evaluation of Alternative Habitat Patches for the Endangered Parnassius bremer (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in Korea - Evaluation of Ansa-myeon, Uiseong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea - (멸종위기종 붉은점모시나비의 대체서식지 위치 선정 - 경북 의성군 안사면 일원에서 -)

  • Kim, Do-Sung;Kwon, Yong-Jung;Kim, Dong-Hyuk;Kim, Chang-Hwan;Suh, Min-Hwan;Park, Seong-Joon;Yeon, Myung-Hun;Lee, Doo-Beom
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.98-106
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    • 2011
  • Establishing conservation programs to protect and maintain populations of endangered species are not only a global trend, but also a pursuit endorsed by the Korean Environmental Conservation Act. This study evaluates the feasibility of alternative habitat patches for the endangered butterfly Parnassius bremeri. A portion of habitat of P. bremeri is expected to be fragmented and damaged due to the scheduled construction of the Sangju-Yongduk Highway. A trans fer of the habitat patches of P. bremeri is also scheduled. In order to select an alternative habitat patch, the Mark-Release-Recapture (MRR) method was used to simulate a patch transfer model. The connectedness between habitat are as and the survival of local populations were evaluated for each candidate habitat. It was found that metapopulations with patch distances of <250m showed a 50% connectedness and survival rate in local populations. P. bremeri were expected to migrate at an average distance of 300m. In addition, P. bremeri formed a metapopulation that exhibited intimate patch dynamics that promoted persistence among these patches. Possible candidate habitats including those recommended by local governing bodies were evaluated along with habitats that may counter problems arising from the damage done to the original habitat and habitats that may have a compensatory value equal to that of the original habitat. Based on these criteria, Ansa-myeon township office was selected due to its high scores. This scoring was based on a consideration of a wide range of variables that mark a successful transfer of habitat. These include the amount of funding available, the governing bodies of the possible alternative habitat, and the Expected collaborative effort of local citizens. This decision was collaborated on by incorporating the expertise of various fields of study including biology, ecology, biogeography, ecological engineering, landscape architecture, and social sciences. Therefore, it is suggested that in order to evaluate an alternative habitat for organisms, many social issues as well as ecological issues must be considered.

A Study on Comparison and Analysis of Civic Education in Place for Children -A Case Study on the United States, Britain, Finland, Japan, and South Korea- (어린이 공간교육의 국내외 사례 비교연구 -미국, 영국, 핀란드, 일본, 한국의 사례를 중심으로-)

  • Hue, Youn-Sun;Im, Seung-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.40-51
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    • 2011
  • Recently, the public's interest in quality of life and good design has increased, and the opportunities for their participation in space planning and the design process are expanding. However, the public still lacks understanding of the role(and importance) of space and environment and is not experienced in expressing their opinion on improving the urban environment. At this point, 'Built Environment Education for Kids' will be the key to understanding space and environment as future citizens and to developing the ability of problem-solving and expressing their opinions. This study aims to change the awareness of the public as well as experts, and to make a better urban space through comparison and analysis of domestic and foreign 'Built Environment Education.' In 27 countries around the world(more than 110 institutions), 'Built Environment Education' from childhood is being implemented. Such movements aim to make people participate in the space design and decision-making process by understanding a fundamental element of the built environment and space perception. In this study, the United States, Britain, Finland, Japan and South Korea's 'Built Environment Education' are discussed Above all, the definition, range and target of 'Built Environment Education' are discussed For each case, the purpose and effect, laws and educational processes, systems and roles, and examples of programs are analyzed. Through reviewing each attribute and their implications, a conclusion is drawn on the aspects we have to consider in laying the foundation for implementing the 'Built Environment Education' in Korea, such as consideration of the locality, organizing systematic networks and composing a pool of experts, building proper institutions, and establishing the role of the government. This case study of 'Built Environment Education' can help increase the awareness of the public and build their strength in establishing a better future space. Through the analysis of the purpose, laws, systems, and contents, this case study is expected to provide and build the foundation for an educational system and develop an appropriate program that best suits our society.

A Study on the Textuality of China's Wuyi-Gugok, the Origin of Gugok-Wonlim -Focus on the Tradition Process to Korea - (구곡원림의 원류, 중국 무이구곡(武夷九曲)의 텍스트성 -국내 전승(傳承) 과정을 중심으로 -)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.66-80
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    • 2009
  • This paper attempts to investigate how the cultural phenomena associated with 'Wuyi-Doga(武夷棹歌)' and 'Wuyi-Gugok (武夷九曲)' was introduced to Joseon. The icon and code of 'Gugok' cultural text which was observed in the process of transmitting the culture through repetition and imitation were examined. With regard to research methodology, an 'analysis and discussion framework' was designed based on the literature review, field survey and the seven textuality criteria proposed by Dressier. Then the textuality of 'Wuyi-Gugok' was analyzed in terms of the dependent relation of text, the relationship between the creator and user, repetition, imitation and the spread process. Since ZhouHee(朱熙)'s 'Wuyi-Doga' and 'Wuyi-Gugok' were introduced to Joseon through literature and paintings, they became a part of the cultural Phenomena with unprecedented popularity. As a result, a great number of imitations can be found. In addition, governors would even take care of political affairs in a scenic mountain valley as described in this literature. Regardless of the writer's intentiot 'Gugok' settled in Joseon as new culture in harmony with Taoism and Sung COnfucianism. In other words, Joseon's Gugok-Wonlim(九曲園林) accepted the nature-appreciation aesthetic consciousness in 'Wuyi-Doga' and 'Wuyi-Gugok' on the basis of Taoism and Sung Confucianism. In terms of the text-based dependent relation only, however, the geographical coherence was somewhat loosened while the Gugok Culture that was dependent on Taoism or elegance in life dominated the internal structure of the textuality. Meantime, the internal factors that dominated the textuality of 'Wdyi-Gugok' were interpreted as 1) 'Aesthetics of Bending, Water Whirls', 2) 'Territoriality Expression Carve letters,' 3) 'Cultural Landscape seeing through the Speculation of Meaning,' 4) 'The Pursuit of Oddness and Presentationism' and 5) 'Transcendental Landscape of Taoism and Topos.'

A Study on the Landscape-Oriented Persuasive Language from Naming the Apartment Brand in Korea - Focus on the Analysis of Category and Lexeme - (국내 아파트브랜드 명명(命名)에 담긴 조경지향적 설득언어 - 유형 및 어휘소 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.49-63
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    • 2010
  • This study was intended to analyze and interpret the pattern of naming the domestic apartment brand from a semiologic viewpoint in a bid to review the meaning and value of apartment brand, while on the other hand, evaluating the characteristics of persuasive message pursued by current apartment brand in 2010, and consequently, the conclusion of the study is outlined as follows. 1. As a result of analyzing the coinage of branding naming, the words such as combination, joint and blending pattern tended to dominate, which seemed to attempt to represent the variety of values of the housing culture. Brand ideation tends to stress the character symbolism and polysemic message using syllepsis, and the experimental attempt to revive the traditional dwelling concept in a modern sense in a way of combining the archaic word with the Chinese character was found as well. 2. As a result of analyzing the frequency of verbal identity and lexeme of domestic apartments, those frequently used are in order of ville, nature, beauty(美), park, hi, green, palace(宮), nobility and center(tra), which are the lexemes representing the landscape, view, nature and dignity. 3. As a result of identifying the pattern of lexeme using analysis frame based on existing researches such as apartment brand positioning, the most important external core concepts controlling the direction and value of apartment brand are 'environment-orientated' and 'emotion-orientated', and internally, 'function-oriented'. Given the persuasive language expressing the 'environment-oriented' feature and the priority of brand lexeme are garden, park, view and the nature, a landscape-oriented persuasive message is seen to be surging in brand naming. 4. An emotion-oriented persuasive language such as dignity axis having major lexeme represented by palace, nobility, class and a pride axis having major semantic elements represented by human, I and you are used as major value concepts and persuasive language that lead domestic apartment brands to differentiation and upgradation. 5. Among the lexemes focusing on view from environment-oriented standpoint, hi, hill, tower, view, mark, heights are the trend pursued by high-rise apartment aiming at the view such as residential-commercial apartment, and thus the persuasive language focusing on high-rise concept is expected to become the element dominating the trend of apartment brand for the time being.

A Basic Study on the Selection of Plants for the Walls of Fortresses in the Case of the Jeongyi Town Wall in Jeju (제주 정의읍성 벽면식생에 근거한 벽면식재용 식물 선정에 관한 기초연구)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Oh, Hyun-Kyung;Choi, Yung-Hyun;Kim, Yung-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to examine vegetation of the outer walls of the Jeongyi Town Wall in Jeju and analyze the characteristics and problems identified, for suggesting preliminary data for selecting species of plants appropriate for the greening of the walls in the southern temperate climate region, including Jeju. The result of this study is as follows. The number of plants growing naturally around the walls of the town was identified to be 52 taxa. Based on the list of naturalized plants, there are 5 taxa; Sonchus oleraceus, Houttuynia cordata, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Erigeron annuus and Lamium purpureum. The number of species by district was from 3 to 14 taxa with 7.1 taxa on average. Analyzing by the constancy class, plants in class III included Sedum bulbiferum, Trichosanthes kirilowii, Hedera rhombea and Boehmeria nivea. Manipulation of the species composition table shows that the number of plant species growing naturally around the walls of Jeongyi Town Wall is a total of 52 taxa, including 11 taxa by differential species of community and 41 taxa by companion species. The types of plants very useful for the covering of the walls are evergreen climbing vine, such as Hedera rhombea, Ficus thunbergii and Euonymus fortunei and deciduous climbing vine, such as Parthenocissus tricuspidata, Trichosanthes kirilowii and Paederia scandens. In addition, Ficus stipulata is identified as a vegetation more appropriate for the southern-ward lattice-blocked walls. Woody plants, such as Akebia quinata, Celastrus flagellaris, Ampelopsis brevipedunculata for. citrulloides, Rubus hirsutus, Clematis apiifolia and herbaceous plants, such as Dioscorea tenuipes, D. quinqueloba, D. nipponica, Cayatia japonica and Paederia scandens var. angustifolia are highly useful materials for climbing plants for covering the walls of the southern province. Pteridophyte, such as Lemmaphyllum microphyllum, Pteris multifida, Cyrtomium falcatum and Lygodium japonicumare suggested as very useful for increasing unique regional characteristics of the southern province, including Jeju.