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Electrochemical Hydrogenation Behavior of Surface-Treated Mg-based Alloys for Hydrogen Storage of Fuel Cell (연료전지의 수소저장용 마그네슘계 합금의 표면제어에 의한 전기화학적 수소화 거동 연구)

  • Kim, Ho-Sung;Lee, Jong-Ho;Boo, Seong-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2006
  • The effects of surface treatment on the hydrogen storage properties of a $Mg_2Ni$ alloy particle were investigated by the microvoltammetric technique, in which a carbon-filament microelectrode was manipulated to make electrical contact with the particle in a KOH aqueous solution. It was found that the hydrogen storage properties of $Mg_2Ni$ at room temperature were improved by the surface treatment with a nickel plating solution. The sodium salts(sodium phosphate and sodium dihydrogen citrate) contained in the nickel plating solution made the alloy form an amorphous-like state, resulting in an improved hydrogen charge/discharge capacity at room temperature as high as about 150[mAh/g] from the original value of 17[mAh/g]. Potential-step experiment was carried out to determine the apparent chemical diffusion coefficient of hydrogen atom($D_{app}$) in the alloy. Since the alloy particle we used here was a dense, conductive sphere, the spherical diffusion model was employed for data analysis. $D_{app}$ was found to vary the order between $10^{-8}{\sim}10^{-9}[cm^2/s]$ over the course of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation process.

(U-Th)/He Dating on Martian Meteorites: Reviews and Perspectives (화성운석에 대한(U-Th)/He 연령 측정: 기존 연구 및 전망)

  • Min, Kyoung-Won;Lee, Seung-Ryeol
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.255-267
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    • 2010
  • The primary utilization of recently improved (U-Th)/He thermochronometry is to reveal the low-T thermal histories of shallow crustal sections or transient episodes (such as wildfires or meteorite impacts) because of the high sensitivity of He diffusion to temperature in host minerals. In this contribution, we present reviews and perspectives regarding how this method can be used to characterize the ejection-related shock metamorphism of Martian meteorites. The temperature conditions of shock metamorphism can be constrained through shock recovery experiments, paleomagnetism, and $^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar$ and (U-Th)/He dating. The most reliable constraints can be deduced when these independent approaches are combined. However, the thermal history of the ALH84001 Martian meteorite has been under serious debate because the different methods have yielded contrasting results. Recent work has shown how single-grain (U-Th)/He and $^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar$ dating, two noble-gas based thermochronometries with different T sensitivities, can be used to resolve this issue, providing a good example for future research on other meteorites.

The Characteristics of Black Carbon of Seoul (서울의 블랙카본 특성 연구)

  • Park, Jongsung;Song, Inho;Kim, Hyunwoong;Lim, Hyungbae;Park, Seungmyung;Shin, Suna;Shin, Hyejoung;Lee, Sangbo;Kim, Jeongho
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.113-128
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    • 2019
  • The concentration and coating thickness of black carbon (BC) were measured along with fine dust in the fall of 2018, at the Seoul Metropolitan Area Intensive Monitoring Station (SIMS). In fall, the concentration of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ was $23{\pm}12.6{\mu}g/m^3$ and $12{\pm}5.8{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively, lower than that in other seasons. The BC level, measured using an Aethalometer, was $0.73{\pm}0.43{\mu}g/m^3$, while the levels of elemental carbon (EC) and refractory-BC (rBC), measured by semi-continuous carbon analyzer (SOCEC) and single particle soot photometer (SP2), were $0.34{\pm}0.18{\mu}g/m^3$ and $0.32{\pm}0.18{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. As such, the concentration level differed according to the measurement method, but its time-series distribution and diurnal variation showed the same trends. The BC concentration at SIMS was primarily affected by automobiles with higher levels of BC during morning and evening commuting times due to increased traffic congestion. rBC, measured by SP2, had a peak concentration and coating thickness of 84 nm and 43 nm, respectively. Notably, the coating thickness had an inverse relationship with particle size.

Study on the Behavior of Colloidal Hematite: Effects of Ionic Composition and Strength and Natural Organic Matter in Aqueous Environments (교질상 적철석의 거동 특성: 수환경 내 이온 조성 및 세기, 자연 유기물이 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Woo-Chun;Lee, Sang-Woo;Kim, Soon-Oh
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.347-362
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    • 2020
  • Iron (hydro)oxides in aqueous environments are primarily formed due to mining activities, and they are known to be typical colloidal particles disturbing surrounding environments. Among them, hematites are widespread in surface environments, and their behavior is controlled by diverse factors in aqueous environments. This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of environmental factors, such as ionic composition and strength, pH, and natural organic matter (NOM) on the behavior of colloidal hematite particles. In particular, two analytical methods, such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and single-particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS), were compared to quantify and characterize the behavior of colloidal hematites. According to the variation of ionic composition and strength, the aggregation/dispersion characteristics of the hematite particles were affected as a result of the change in the thickness of the diffuse double layer as well as the total force of electrostatic repulsion and van der Walls attraction. Besides, the more dispersed the particles were, the farther away the aqueous pH was from their point of zero charge (PZC). The results indicate that the electrostatic and steric (structural) stabilization of the particles was enhanced by the functional groups of the natural organic matter, such as carboxyl and phenolic, as the NOM coated the surface of colloidal hematite particles in aqueous environments. Furthermore, such coating effects seemed to increase with decreasing molar mass of NOM. On the contrary, these stabilization (dispersion) effects of NOM were much more diminished by divalent cations such as Ca2+ than monovalent ones (Na+), and it could be attributed to the fact that the former acted as bridges much more strongly between the NOM-coated hematite particles than the latter because of the relatively larger ionic potential of the former. Consequently, it was quantitatively confirmed that the behavior of colloidal hematites in aqueous environments was significantly affected by diverse factors, such as ionic composition and strength, pH, and NOM. Among them, the NOM seemed to be the primary and dominant one controlling the behavior of hematite colloids. Meanwhile, the results of the comparative study on DLS and spICPMS suggest that the analyses combining both methods are likely to improve the effectiveness on the quantitative characterization of colloidal behavior in aqueous environments because they showed different strengths: the main advantage of the DLS method is the speed and ease of the operation, while the outstanding merit of the spICP-MS are to consider the shape of particles and the type of aggregation.