• Title, Summary, Keyword: 노인

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Effects of Barley Straw Management Practices on Greenhouse Gases(GHGs) Emission During Rice Cultivation in Rice-barley Double Cropping System (벼보리 이모작 재배에서 보리짚 처리 방법이 벼재배시 온실가스 배출에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Jee-Yeon;Lee, Jae-Saeng;Jung, Ki-yul;Choi, Young-Dae;Ramos, Edwin P;Yun, Eul-Soo;Kang, Hwang-Won;Park, Seong-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2008
  • Because main barley straw management is changing these days from off-fields to burning that may relate to air quality concerning the global warming, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley-straw management practices on greenhouse gas emissions during rice cultivation in rice-barley double cropping system. The treatments were barley straw burning, off-field usage of barley straw and incorporation of barley straw in paddy fields. Laboratory experiment showed that burning of barley straw at the rate of $4.5Mg\;ha^{-1}$ emitted GHGs in the amounts of 4,607, 19.5, and $0.9kg\;ha^{-1}$ of $CO_2$, $CH_4$, and $N_2O$, respectively. During the rice cultivation of the rice-barley double cropping system, the highest GHG emission by evaluated close-static chamber method was observed from the soil incorporation of barley straw with 387 and $1.0kg\;ha^{-1}$ of $CH_4$ and $N_2O$, respectively. The GHGs emissions from the barley straw burning and off-field usage treatments were 233 and $160kg\;ha^{-1}$ for $CH_4$ and 0.80 and $0.79kg\;ha^{-1}$ for $N_2O$, respectively. The barley straw burning treatment showed the greatest GHGs emission among barley straw management practices in rice-barley double cropping system when considering GHGs emissions both during burning and from paddy fields during the cropping seasons. As a result, the GHGs emissions recorded in the barley straw incorporation to soil and off-field usage treatments were 22.4 and 66.8%, respectively, less than sum of GHGs emissions from the burning of barley straw and from paddy fields during rice cultivation.

Effect of Calcium and Boron Intakes on Calcium Balance Status in Ovariectomized Rats (난소절제 흰쥐에 있어 칼슘과 보론 섭취수준이 칼슘 평형상태에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Mi-Kyeong;Kim, Mi-Hyun;Kang, Myung-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.48-54
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of calcium and boron intakes on calcium utilization in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Rats were divided into 9 groups and fed diets containing various levels of calcium $(0.1\%,\;0.5\%,\;1.5\%)$ and boron (0.5 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm) for 4 weeks. The half of rats in each group were ovariectomized and the others were sham-operated. Rats were fed same diets for 8 weeks after operation. Feed intake and weight gain were significantly increased as the dietary calcium was increased and those of OVX group were higher than in sham-operated group. Feed efficiency ratio was significantly higher in OVX group than that in sham-operated one. With boron supplementation, serum calcium level was significantly increased in low-calcium group, but decreased in adequate/high-calcium group. In calcium balance, calcium intake was significantly increased with increasing levels of calcium and boron and higher in OVX group than that in sham-operated one. With increasing calcium intake, fecal and urinary calcium excretions were significantly increased. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly decreased with increment of boron intake. Apparent calcium absorption of adequate-calcium OVX group was the highest among the groups. Daily calcium retention was significantly increased as the dietary calcium was increased and that of high-calcium OVX group was higher than high-calcium sham-operated group. According to these results, the boron supplementation increased the calcium intake and decreased the urinary calcium excretion. Therefore, it could be suggested that the boron supplementation may be complementary to calcium nutrition and useful for bone health.

Seasonal Variation of Nutritional Intake and Quality in Adults in Longevity Areas (고령인구 비율이 높은 지역 성인 및 노인의 계절별 영양소 섭취실태)

  • 최정숙;백희영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.668-678
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate seasonal variation of nutritional intake and quality in adults in longevity areas. Dietary survey was given to 469 subjects over age 20 living Bukjeju-gun, Yecheon-gun, and Sunchang-gun of Korea, using 24-hour recall method every 4 seasons over one-year period. The mean daily intakes (%RDA) of 4 seasons were 1313.3 ㎉ (72.0%) for energy, 47.3 g (82.2%) for protein, 20.2 g for fat, 228.0 g for carbohydrate, 12.8 g for dietary fiber. The differences were hardly significant among the seasons. Mean daily intakes of most of the vitamins and minerals were lower than RDA except vitamin C and folate, especially %RDAs of Ca, vitamin D, vitamin B$_2$, vitamin E were less than 60% of RDA. In general, nutrient intake were high in spring compared to other seasons except vitamin C which was high in fall and winter. Mean daily intakes of cholesterol were 151.7 mg and 124.3 mg in males and females, respectively. The differences was significant between the two sexes but not among the seasons. PUFA : MUFA : SFA ratio of the subject was 1.0 : 1.3 : 1.2. Average CPF ratio of energy intake was 72.7 : 14.4 : 12.9, and energy intake ratio from carbohydrate was low in spring, in contrast energy intake ratios from protein was significantly high in spring. Mean adequacy ratio (MAR), an index of overall nutritional quality was 0.64 for female and 0.71 for male. The indices of nutritional quality (INQ) were over 1 for most of nutrients except 0.73 of Ca, 0.87 of vitamin A, 0.69 of vitamin B$_2$, and 0.65 of vitamin E. Both MAR and INQ were significantly different among sex and seasons, values were higher in males than in females and were higher in spring with the exception of vitamin C. In conclusion, subjects in longevity areas did not consume enough nutrients quantitatively as well as qualitatively, especially Ca, vitamin A, vitamin B$_2$, and vitamin E. Also mean daily intakes of most of vitamins and minerals were insufficient in females, and were significantly different among season. Therefore we must consider a counterplan to augment nutrition intake for them. In addition, it seems to be essential to micro nutrients to the food composition database to estimate dietary intakes more accurately.

Responses of Tree Growth and Fruit Production of Persimmon after Lowering Height by Heavy Pruning to Fertilization Rates (강전정에 의한 저수고 감나무의 시비량 조절에 따른 수체 생장 및 과실 생장 반응)

  • Choi, Seong-Tae;Park, Doo-Sang;An, Gwang-Hwan;Kim, Sung-Chul;Choi, Tae-Min;Rho, Chi-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.136-141
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    • 2013
  • Lowering tree height has been a key practice for efficient management of persimmon orchards. This experiment was conducted to assess whether fertilization rates could be reduced after lowering the tree height by heavy pruning. Twelve-year-old 'Uenishiwase' persimmon trees were lowered to 2 m from over 3 m by severe dormant pruning, and then conventional fertilization rate was applied to some trees in April (N 224 g, $P_2O_5$ 172 g, and $K_2O$ 172 g per tree), June (N 112 g and $K_2O$ 99 g per tree), and October (N 112 g and $K_2O$ 99 g per tree). At the same time, 1/3 or 2/3 of the conventional rate and none were applied to other trees, respectively. Non-application decreased shoot length and reduced number of unnecessary secondary shoots by 39% compared with the conventional rate, not affecting yield and weight, color, firmness, and soluble solids of fruits. No significant difference was also found in the yield and the fruit characteristics among the trees fertilized with different rates. Concentrations of soluble sugars, starch, N, and K of dormant shoots in March of the following year were not significantly changed by the different treatments of the previous year. There was no significant difference of shoot growth and yield among the treatments the following year when the same fertilization rate was supplied to all the trees. Results indicated that fertilization rate could be reduced to less than 1/3 of conventional rate to save the cost and stabilize shoot vigor when tree height is lowered by severe pruning.

Optimization of Ingredients for the Preparation of Chinese Quince (Chaenomelis sinensis) Jam by Mixture Design (모과잼 제조시 혼합물 실험계획법에 의한 재료 혼합비율의 최적화)

  • Lee, Eun-Young;Jang, Myung-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.7
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    • pp.935-945
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to find the optimum ratio of ingredients in the Chinese quince jam. The experiment was designed according to the D-optimal design of mixture design, which included 14 experimental points with 4 replicates for three independent variables (Chinese quince paste $45{\sim}60%$, pectin $1.5{\sim}4.5%$, sugar $45.5{\sim}63.5%$). A mathematical analytical tool was employed for the optimization of typical ingredients. The canonical form and trace plot showed the influence of each ingredient in the mixture against final product. By use of F-test, sweetness, pH, L, b, ${\Delta}E$, and firmness were expressed by a linear model, while the spreadmeter value, a, and sensory characteristics (appearance, color, smell, taste, and overall acceptability) were by a quadratic model. The optimum formulations by numerical and graphical method were similar: Chinese quince paste 54.48%, pectin 2.45%, and sugar 53.07%. Optimum ingredient formulation is expected to improve use of Chinese quince and contribute to commercialization of high quality Chinese quince jam.

Cooking Quality of Fresh Pasta with Concentrated Korean Wheat Semolina (우리밀 Semolina 부분 대체에 의한 생면 파스타의 조리특성)

  • Kim, Yeon-Ju;Ju, Jong-Chan;Kim, Rae-Young;Kim, Won-Tae;Park, Jae-Hee;Chun, Soon-Sil
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.1017-1024
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    • 2011
  • Korean wheat semolina (FS: fine semolina) with similar characteristics to durum wheat semolina was substituted at rates of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% in pasta dough and the physical and cooking characteristics were investigated for making optimal pasta. Water absorption of the dough increased with the 10, 20, and 30% substitution ratio of FS. Development times were high with >30% substituted FS. This result positively influenced an increase in production and the preparation of the fresh noodle pasta. Furthermore, soft textured fresh noodles could be made due to the decrease in stability and increased weakness of the >30% substituted FS. The amylograph gelatinization characteristics of Korean wheat semolina exhibited an increase of gelatinization temperature and decrease of maximum viscosity when compared with durum wheat. The handling property of the dough showed more than 4 points in all sample groups. Weight and volume decreased and turbidity and cooking loss increased according to the increasing amount of substituted FS. However, samples with ${\leq}$ 30% FS substitution ratio had similar volumes and cooking losses when compared to the control. The L- and a-values increased and the b-value of color decreased as more FS was added. In a texture analysis, the hardness of the cooking noodles showed a low value with the >30% substituted FS. Springiness, gumminess, and chewiness exhibited a high value. In the results of a sensory evaluation, overall acceptability was high score with more than 7 points for the 30% added FS. The preferences for pasta colors were divided into white, which is similar to the Korean traditional noodle, and yellow, which is similar to durum wheat. Flavor and taste were not affected by substituting with FS. Low hardness and high chewiness was the most preferred noodle. These results suggest that >30% substituted FS was suitable for increasing quality and organoleptic qualities of Korean wheat pasta.

Rubus coreanus Miquel Improves on Impairment of Memory in Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM) (노화촉진마우스를 이용한 복분자의 기억력 감퇴 개선 효과)

  • Choi, Mi-Ran;Lee, Min-Young;Kim, Jeong-Eun;Hong, Ji-Eun;Jang, Kuen-Hye;Lee, Jae-Yong;Chun, Jang-Woo;Kim, Tae-Hwan;Shin, Hyun-Kyung;Kim, Eun-Ji
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.1253-1258
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    • 2012
  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) on memory ability of senescence-accelerated mice (SAM). Prone 8 strains of SAM mice (SAMP8), which is a useful animal for investigating the mechanism of brain aging and senile dementia, were fed a diet containing 100 mg/kg body weight/day of RCM for 8 weeks. Memory ability of mice was examined by using passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. SAMP8 mice showed remarkable memory impairment compared with senescence-resistant 1 strains of SAM (SAMR1). RCM significantly improved memory ability of SAMP8 mice. In addition, acetylcholineasterase activities decreased in the brain of SAMP8 mice treated with RCM. Taken together, these results suggest that RCM may act as an acetylcholineasterase inhibitor, thereby improving senescence-related memory impairment.

School Dietitians' Perception and Performance on a School Foodservice Menu Evaluation (학교급식 영양(교)사의 메뉴평가에 대한 인식과 시행 현황)

  • Choi, Mi-Kyung;Ahn, Sun-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.1172-1178
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of a school foodservice menu evaluation and the perception of the school's dietitian on menu evaluation. Questionnaires were distributed to 448 school dietitians with an official letter, and a total of 292 responses were used for analysis. More than 90% of the respondents stated that a menu evaluation for the school foodservice was necessary. The major barriers to menu evaluation were "excessive workload" and a "lack of know-how", and the expected benefits were "increased satisfaction of customers" and "increased foodservice efficiency". The menu evaluation for "student preferences", "health improvement", and "ease of quality management" categories were performed in more than 45% of schools. The proportion of subjects who answered that "customer satisfaction" and "increased efficiency of foodservice" were expected benefits of menu evaluation were significantly higher in the menu evaluation group (p<0.05).

Florida, USA Food-Related Lifestyle Segments of Older Consumers in Seoul and Its Characteristics (서울지역 고령소비자의 식생활 라이프스타일에 근거한 시장세분화 및 특성 규명)

  • Jang, Yoon-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.146-153
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this study were to explore food-related lifestyle segments of the older consumers, to identify its socio-demographic characteristics, and to investigate the differences in variables regarding health beliefs. A survey was conducted of adults 55 years of age and older living in Seoul, South Korea from March 28 to April 10, 2007. Out of the 500 distributed questionnaires, 361 were retained for final analysis: a response rate of 72.2%. As a result of cluster analysis, five consumer segments were identified; health-managing group, diet-unconcerned group, convenience-oriented group, taste-oriented group, unpracticed group. Significant differences were found among the five segments in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and variables regarding health beliefs (i.e., perceived self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived benefits). In the health-managing group and taste-oriented group, mean scores of perceived self-efficacy (p<0.001) and perceived benefits (p<0.001) were significantly higher than other groups. However, in the diet-unconcerned group and convenience-oriented group, the mean scores of perceived barriers (p<0.01) were significantly high. This study shows that foodservice operators targeting the older consumers should consider characteristics of each segment to develop a customized program.

Comparative Study on the Estimation of CO2 absorption Equilibrium in Methanol using PC-SAFT equation of state and Two-model approach. (메탄올의 이산화탄소 흡수평형 추산에 대한 PC-SAFT모델식과 Two-model approach 모델식의 비교연구)

  • Noh, Jaehyun;Park, Hoey Kyung;Kim, Dongsun;Cho, Jungho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.136-152
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    • 2017
  • The thermodynamic models, PC-SAFT (Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associated Fluid Theory) state equation and the Two-model approach liquid activity coefficient model NRTL (Non Random Two Liquid) + Henry + Peng-Robinson, for modeling the Rectisol process using methanol aqueous solution as the $CO_2$ removal solvent were compared. In addition, to determine the new binary interaction parameters of the PC-SAFT state equations and the Henry's constant of the two-model approach, absorption equilibrium experiments between carbon dioxide and methanol at 273.25K and 262.35K were carried out and regression analysis was performed. The accuracy of the newly determined parameters was verified through the regression results of the experimental data. These model equations and validated parameters were used to model the carbon dioxide removal process. In the case of using the two-model approach, the methanol solvent flow rate required to remove 99.00% of $CO_2$ was estimated to be approximately 43.72% higher, the cooling water consumption in the distillation tower was 39.22% higher, and the steam consumption was 43.09% higher than that using PC-SAFT EOS. In conclusion, the Rectisol process operating under high pressure was designed to be larger than that using the PC-SAFT state equation when modeled using the liquid activity coefficient model equation with Henry's relation. For this reason, if the quantity of low-solubility gas components dissolved in a liquid at a constant temperature is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas phase, the carbon dioxide with high solubility in methanol does not predict the absorption characteristics between methanol and carbon dioxide.