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The Analysis of Cost Structure and Productivity in the Korea and Japan Railroad Industry (한국과 일본 철도산업의 비용구조와 생산성 분석)

  • Park, Jin-Gyeong;Kim, Seong-Su
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.65-78
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    • 2006
  • This paper investigates the cost structure ot the Korea and Japan railroad industry with respect to density, scale and scope economies as well as productivity growth rate using a generalized trans)og multiproduct cost function model. The paper then assumes that the Korea and Japan railway companies pi·educe three outputs (incumbent railway passenger-kilometers. Shinkansen passenger-kilometers, ton-kilometers of freight) using four input factors (labor, fuel, maintenance, rolling stock and capital). The specified cost function includes foul other independent variables: track lengths to reflect network effects, two dummies to reflect nation and ownership effects, and time trend as a proxy for technical change. The simultaneous equation system consisting of a cost function and three input share equations is estimated with the Zellner's iterative seemingly unrelated regression. The unbalanced panel data used in the paper, a total of 154 observations. are collected from the annual records of the Korea National Railroad (KNR) for the yews $1977{\sim}2003$, Japan National Railways (JNR) for the years $1977{\sim}1984$. seven Japan Railways (JR's) for the years $1987{\sim}2003$. The findings show that the Korean and Japanese railways exhibit product-specific and overall economies of density but product-specific diseconomies of scale with respect to incumbent railway passenger-kilometers, Shinkansen-kilometers and ton-kilometers. However, the railways experience mild overall economies of scale which result from economies of scope associated with the joint production of incumbent railway/Shinkansen and feight, freight/incumbent railway and Shinkansen except Shinkansen/incumbent railway and freight. In addition, the economies of density and scale in the KNR, JR east, JR central, and JR west companies at the point of the years $1990{\sim}2003$ average is generally analogous to the above results at the point of sample average. There also appear to be economies of ssope associated with the joint Production of the incumbent railway and Shinkansen in JR central but diseconomies of scope in JR East and JR West. The findings also indicate that the productivity growth rate of the privately-owned JR's is larger than that of the government-owned KNR.

Analysis on Efficiency of Hierarchical Structure for a Grid Transit Network (격자형 대중교통 노선망의 위계구조 효율성 분석)

  • Park, Jun-Sik;Go, Seung-Yeong;Jeon, Gyeong-Su
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.123-133
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    • 2007
  • This study analyzed whether a transit network with hierarchy is efficient or not, and if transit network hierarchy has cost efficiency, then which condition guarantees the efficiency of the transit network hierarchy. The authors modeled the total cost of the transit network and suggested the conditions in which the transit network hierarchy has cost efficiency through comparing the cost of the transit network with and without hierarchy. The efficiency of transit network hierarchy is guaranteed when the travel cost savings induced by using a higher hierarchy transit network is larger than the increasing non-travel cost, which is the sum of access cost, waiting cost, and operating cost, induced by the introduction of a higher hierarchy transit network. This result is consistent with common sense and with the concept of cost and benefit analysis. If a passenger traveling within the area divided by a higher hierarchy transit network uses only a lower hierarchy transit network and the passenger traveling out of the area divided by the higher hierarchy transit network uses both lower and higher hierarchy transit networks, the travel demand using the higher hierarchy transit network is inversely proportional to the square of the line spacing. This means that the transit network becomes more efficient and small increases of travel demand guarantee the efficiency of the transit network hierarchy as the connectivity of the network becomes higher. This result shows that transit networks have economies of aggregation. This study is the first analytical research on transit network hierarchy and is expected to be a basis for numerical research. However, numerical research should complement this study, since analytical research has some limitations for considering a real network.

Exploring the Temporal Relationship Between Traffic Information Web/Mobile Application Access and Actual Traffic Volume on Expressways (웹/모바일-어플리케이션 접속 지표와 TCS 교통량의 상관관계 연구)

  • RYU, Ingon;LEE, Jaeyoung;CHOI, Keechoo;KIM, Junghwa;AHN, Soonwook
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2016
  • In the recent years, the internet has become accessible without limitation of time and location to anyone with smartphones. It resulted in more convenient travel information access both on the pre-trip and en-route phase. The main objective of this study is to conduct a stationary test for traffic information web/mobile application access indexes from TCS (Toll Collection System); and analyzing the relationship between the web/mobile application access indexes and actual traffic volume on expressways, in order to analyze searching behavior of expressway related travel information. The key findings of this study are as follows: first, the results of ADF-test and PP-test confirm that the web/mobile application access indexes by time periods satisfy stationary conditions even without log or differential transformation. Second, the Pearson correlation test showed that there is a strong and positive correlation between the web/mobile application access indexes and expressway entry and exit traffic volume. In contrast, truck entry traffic volume from TCS has no significant correlation with the web/mobile application access indexes. Third, the time gap relationship between time-series variables (i.e., concurrent, leading and lagging) was analyzed by cross-correlation tests. The results indicated that the mobile application access leads web access, and the number of mobile application execution is concurrent with all web access indexes. Lastly, there was no web/mobile application access indexes leading expressway entry traffic volumes on expressways, and the highest correlation was observed between webpage view/visitor/new visitor/repeat visitor/application execution counts and expressway entry volume with a lag of one hour. It is expected that specific individual travel behavior can be predicted such as route conversion time and ratio if the data are subdivided by time periods and areas and utilizing traffic information users' location.

Development of Industrial Embedded System Platform (산업용 임베디드 시스템 플랫폼 개발)

  • Kim, Dae-Nam;Kim, Kyo-Sun
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea CI
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.50-60
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    • 2010
  • For the last half a century, the personal computer and software industries have been prosperous due to the incessant evolution of computer systems. In the 21st century, the embedded system market has greatly increased as the market shifted to the mobile gadget field. While a lot of multimedia gadgets such as mobile phone, navigation system, PMP, etc. are pouring into the market, most industrial control systems still rely on 8-bit micro-controllers and simple application software techniques. Unfortunately, the technological barrier which requires additional investment and higher quality manpower to overcome, and the business risks which come from the uncertainty of the market growth and the competitiveness of the resulting products have prevented the companies in the industry from taking advantage of such fancy technologies. However, high performance, low-power and low-cost hardware and software platforms will enable their high-technology products to be developed and recognized by potential clients in the future. This paper presents such a platform for industrial embedded systems. The platform was designed based on Telechips TCC8300 multimedia processor which embedded a variety of parallel hardware for the implementation of multimedia functions. And open-source Embedded Linux, TinyX and GTK+ are used for implementation of GUI to minimize technology costs. In order to estimate the expected performance and power consumption, the performance improvement and the power consumption due to each of enabled hardware sub-systems including YUV2RGB frame converter are measured. An analytic model was devised to check the feasibility of a new application and trade off its performance and power consumption. The validity of the model has been confirmed by implementing a real target system. The cost can be further mitigated by using the hardware parts which are being used for mass production products mostly in the cell-phone market.

Design of CMOS Multifunction ICs for X-band Phased Array Systems (CMOS 공정 기반의 X-대역 위상 배열 시스템용 다기능 집적 회로 설계)

  • Ku, Bon-Hyun;Hong, Song-Cheol
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.46 no.12
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    • pp.6-13
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    • 2009
  • For X-band phased array systems, a power amplifier, a 6-bit phase shifter, a 6-bit digital attenuator, and a SPDT transmit/receive (T/R) switch are fabricated and measured. All circuits are demonstrated by using CMOS 0.18 um technology. The power amplifier has 2-stage differential and cascade structures. It provides 1-dB gain-compressed output power ($P_{1dB}$) of 20 dBm and power-added-efficiency (PAE) of 19 % at 8-11 GHz frequencies. The 6-bit phase shifter utilizes embedded switched filter structure which consists of nMOS transistors as a switch and meandered microstrip lines for desired inductances. It has $360^{\circ}$ phase-control range and $5.6^{\circ}$ phase resolution. At 8-11 GHz frequencies, it has RMS phase and amplitude errors are below $5^{\circ}$ and 0.8 dB, and insertion loss of $-15.7\;{\pm}\;1,1\;dB$. The 6-bit digital attenuator is comprised of embedded switched Pi-and T-type attenuators resistive networks and nMOS switches and employes compensation circuits for low insertion phase variation. It has max. attenuation of 31.5 dB and 0.5 dB amplitude resolution. Its RMS amplitude and phase errors are below 0.4 dB and $2^{\circ}$ at 8-11 GHz frequencies, and insertion loss is $-10.5\;{\pm}\;0.8\;dB$. The SPDT T/R switch has series and shunt transistor pairs on transmit and receive path, and only one inductance to reduce chip area. It shows insertion loss of -1.5 dB, return loss below -15 dB, and isolation about -30 dB. The fabricated chip areas are $1.28\;mm^2$, $1.9mm^2$, $0.34\;mm^2$, $0.02mm^2$, respectively.

Performance of Uncompressed Audio Distribution System over Ethernet with a L1/L2 Hybrid Switching Scheme (L1/L2 혼합형 중계 방법을 적용한 이더넷 기반 비압축 오디오 분배 시스템의 성능 분석)

  • Nam, Wie-Jung;Yoon, Chong-Ho;Park, Pu-Sik;Jo, Nam-Hong
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.46 no.12
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    • pp.108-116
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, we propose a Ethernet based audio distribution system with a new L1/L2 hybrid switching scheme, and evaluate its performance. The proposed scheme not only offers guaranteed low latency and jitter characteristics that are essentially required for the distribution of high-quality uncompressed audio traffic, and but also provide an efficient transmission of data traffic on the Ethernet environment. The audio distribution system with a proposed scheme consists of a master node and a number of relay nodes, and all nodes are mutually connected as a daisy-chain topology through up and downlinks. The master node generates an audio frame for each cycle of 125us, and the audio frame has 24 time slotted audio channels for carrying stereo 24 channels of 16-bit PCM sampled audio. On receiving the audio frame from its upstream node via the downlink, each intermediate node inserts its audio traffic to the reserved time slot for itself, then relays again to next node through its physical layer(L1) transmission - repeating. After reaching the end node, the audio frame is loopbacked through the uplink. On repeating through the uplink, each node makes a copy of audio slot that node has to receive, then play the audio. When the audio transmission is completed, each node works as a normal L2 switch, thus data frames are switched during the remaining period. For supporting this L1/L2 hybrid switching capability, we insert a glue logic for parsing and multiplexing audio and data frames at MII(Media Independent Interlace) between the physical and data link layers. The proposed scheme can provide a good delay performance and transmission efficiency than legacy Ethernet based audio distribution systems. For verifying the feasibility of the proposed L1/L2 hybrid switching scheme, we use OMNeT++ as a simulation tool with various parameters. From the simulation results, one can find that the proposed scheme can provides outstanding characteristics in terms of both jitter characteristic for audio traffic and transmission efficiency of data traffics.

A Study on Documentation Strategy for Archiving Locality (지역 아카이빙을 위한 기록화방안 연구)

  • Kwon, Soon-Myung;Lee, Seung-Hwi
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.21
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    • pp.41-84
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    • 2009
  • Lots of cultures, memories, histories of the local life have disappeared. Some sectors of universities and religion have keep their records in manuscript archive only. On the other hand records of public sectors were at least able to be managed by the records management law. Citizen's groups and academic bounds were also roles to get public records strong. However can we just describe whole body with only public records? As records management law a record of private sector which has value of preserving can be managed under national protection. Yet establishment of local archive is not obligate. Only stressing on public records is like what dictatorial government acted in past years. It is what we ignore diversity and request of community. We need to move our view that we have focused on public and central sectors to private and local sectors. Local records management based on locality could help to complete the entire puzzle. The way complete the puzzle is various and wide spheres including from cultural space to being extinct village. Locality is defined as the property in certain area or distinctiveness of locals. Establishing production strategies is as important as collecting records produced over the past years for local archiving. Local archiving has to be regionally conducted in phase. Moreover common wealth and recognition of communities are reflected in the acquisition process. In next to archiving local organizations and private records according to collection policy, methodology on local archiving needs for archive management and use in various public and private fields. This methodology could be possible by building a local archive networking tool. It is true that Local archiving is not familiar and clear yet. If we can turn the effort for public records we have made to endeavor for private sectors, we might expect big fruits in private sectors. We easily emphasis on globalization or internationalization, our daily lives start on our villages. Setting aside our small communities, such a puzzle of the whole would never be completed. This is good time to begin finding lost puzzle for future. The key that can find lost puzzles be held in archiving localities.

A Plan to Activate the Archive of Maeul Communities (마을공동체 아카이브 활성화 방안)

  • Sohn, Dong-you;Lee, Kyoung-juhn
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.35
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    • pp.161-206
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    • 2013
  • 'Maeul' is a concept connoting a community. As a place where ordinary people's lives are planned and realized, Maeul is the foundation of their daily lives as well as a place where they work, rest and enjoy pastime activities. In Korea, however, most Maeul communities are dismantled while going though the modern period representing colonization and developmental dictatorship. Growth-oriented industrialization and urbanization turned into such adverse effects as individualization, a sense of loss and a sense of alienation. Recently, through innovations from below, Maeuls are restored, and through Maeul communities restored this way, every Maeul and many researchers carry out activities to build a healthy civil society. This study was conducted on such a background. For a healthy restoration of Maeul communities and a sustainable operation of those communities, it is necessary to establish archives where record the trace of Maeul members' daily lives and relations between those members. The archive of Maeul communities is a place that contains each Maeul's local characteristics as well as human relations as well. It is because this place can be space where Maeul members can record their history, communicate with each other and make a better future. The archive of Maeul communities can be made into various different models, which can be operated by reflecting the identity of a community such as main agents and characteristics, objectives and orientation of objects recorded. Rather than when Maeul communities exist as individuals, they can display more important functions and better effect when they form a network. Therefore, it is needed to provide various and creative methodologies different from the existing government-led record management. Not only on the form of archives, but also all over their functions, such as collection, arrangement, classification, evaluation, management and utilization, Maeul and Maeul residents' norms, orientation and realistic conditions should be thoroughly reflected. Starting from a chance to look back at individuals' lives, the archive of Maeul communities will be a new chapter to restore and build a healthy community in our society and overcome social contradictions from below. Moreover, the archive of Maeul communities has a great significance that it will broaden its prospect creatively with a new paradigm, not only mechanically turning the existing public sector-centered record management into a non-governmental sector.

Building Participatory Digital Archives for Documenting Localities (로컬리티 기록화를 위한 참여형 아카이브 구축에 관한 연구)

  • Seol, Moon-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.32
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    • pp.3-44
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of the study is to explore the strategies to build participatory digital archives for documenting localities. Following the introduction of the chapter one, the chapter two deals with categorizing participation types of persons and organizations for documenting localities, analysing characteristics and benefits of each type, and listing up the requirements of participatory archives based on literature reviews. The chapter three focuses on the analyses of digital archives especially based on the participation of organizations such as collecting institutions and community archives in USA, Canada and UK. The cases of participatory archives are divided into two types; i) digital archives based on archival collections of institutions such as libraries, archives, and museums, ii) digital archives mainly based on various community archives. Online Archives California(OAC) and Calisphere of University of California, MemoryBC of British Columbia of Canada, and People's Collection Wales of UK as the first type cases, and Connecting Histories of Birmingham, 'Community Archives Wales(CAW), Cambridgeshire Community Archive Network(CCAN), Norfolk Community Archives Network(NORCAN) as the second type cases are selected for comparative analyses. All these cases can be considered as archival portals since they cover collections from various organizations. This study then evaluates how these digital archives fulfill the requirements of participatory archives such as : i) integrated search of archives that are to be distributed, ii) participation of individuals and organizations, and iii) providing broader contextual information and representation of context as well as contents of archives. Lastly the final chapter suggests the implications for building participatory archives in Korean local areas based on following aspects : host organizations and implementation strategy, networks of collection institutions and community archives, preserving and reorganizing contextual information, selection and appraisal, and participation of records users and creators.

A Knowledge Management System for Supporting Development of the Next Generation Information Appliances (차세대 정보가전 신제품 개발 지원을 위한 지식관리시스템 개발)

  • Park, Ji-Soo;Baek, Dong-Hyun
    • Information Systems Review
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.137-159
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    • 2004
  • The next generation information appliances are those that can be connected with other appliances through a wired or wireless network in order to make it possible for them to transmit and receive data between them and to be remotely controlled from inside or outside of the home. Many electronic companies have aggressively invested in developing new information appliances to take the initiative in upcoming home networking era. They require systematic methods for developing new information appliances and sharing the knowledge acquired from the methods. This paper stored the knowledge acquired from developing the information appliances and developed a knowledge management system that supports the companies to use the knowledge and develop their own information appliances. In order to acquire the knowledge, this paper applied two methods for User-Centered Design in stead of using the general ones for knowledge acquisition. This paper suggested new product ideas by analyzing and observing user actions and stored the knowledge in knowledge bases, which included Knowledge from Analyzing User Actions and Knowledge from Observing User Actions. Seven new product ideas, suggested from the User-Centered Design, were made into design mockups and their videos were produced to show the real situations where they would be used in home of the future, which were stored in the knowledge base of Knowledge from Producing New Emotive Life Videos. Finally, data on present development states of future homes in Europe and Japan and newspapers articles from domestic newspapers were collected and stored in the knowledge base of Knowledge from Surveying Technology Developments. This paper developed a web-based knowledge management system that supports the companies to use the acquired knowledge. Knowledge users can get the knowledge required for developing new information appliances and suggest their own product ideas by using the knowledge management system. This will make the results from this research not confined to a case study of product development but extended to playing a role of facilitating the development of the next generation information appliances.