• Title, Summary, Keyword: 그라우팅

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Investigation of the Lining Load Induced by Backfill and Consolidation Grouting (배면 및 압밀그라우팅에 의한 터널 라이닝 하중 연구)

  • 박동순;김학준;김완영
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.445-456
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    • 2003
  • Backfill grouting and consolidation grouting are major reinforcing methods that enhance the stability of tunnel by filling the gap between the tunnel lining and the ground and increasing the stiffness of the ground. However, the effect of the grouting on the tunnel lining is not well established. Field measurements such as pressuremeter test, Lugeon test, and lining instruments were peformed to analyze the grouting effect on the tunnel lining for a waterway tunnel. The elastic modulus was increased up to 5 times than that of original rock mass due to consolidation grouting. This study shows that only 10% of grout pressure was acting on the back face of the tunnel lining. The final results are expected to be used for the design of the concrete lining.

Numerical study for the optimum grouting design of subsea tunnels (해저터널의 그라우팅 최적 설계를 위한 수치해석적 연구)

  • Joo, Eun-Jung;Kim, Yong-Kye;Shin, Jong-Ho;Kwon, Oh-Yeob
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.349-358
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    • 2010
  • In the long-term, most tunnels suffer from the increase in ground water inflow and in pore water pressure on the lining. To reduce such hydraulic effect, generally grouting methods are adopted. In this paper effective grouting design is proposed based on numerical simulation. To investigate the optimal grouting layout, factors such as relative permeability, grouting thickness, and distance from the lining are considered. The results are analysed in terms of pore water pressure, inflow rate, and earth pressure. It is revealed that the pore water pressure has increased with a decrease in grout permeability, an increase in grouting thickness and an increase in grouting distance. Meanwhile the inflow rate has decreased with a decrease in grout permeability and is inversely proportional to grouting thickness. Effective grouting design guideline are proposed based on this study.

Pullout Characteristics of Reinforcing Body Using Pressure Re-injection Grouting Method (압력재주입 그라우팅 방식을 이용한 보강재의 인발특성)

  • Lee, Bongjik;Kim, Sangsu;Youn, Junsik;Lee, Jongkyu
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.11 no.10
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2010
  • Anchor, soil nail, micropile have been widely used for slope reinforcement and foundation. These all methods need grouting work after placing reinforcing member. In domestic case, gravity fill techniques and pressure grouting techniques are mainly used. In contrast the pressure re-injection grouting method is not commonly used because grouting equipment and lack of practical application example is short and the verification of reinforcing effect is difficult. Pressure re-injection grouting is a kind of post grouting which technique increases the radial stresses acting on the grout body and causes irregular surface to be developed around bond length that tends to interlock the grout and the ground. In this study, the field test was performed to evaluate the reinforcing effect with the variation of grouting methods and pullout characteristics of reinforcing member placed by pressure re-injection grouting method. The test results showed that the post-grouting methods were useful to increase the pullout capacity.

Evaluation of Applicability of HWAW (Harmonic Wavelet Analysis of Waves) Method in Determining Grouting Effect in Dam and Embankment (제체 그라우팅 효과 평가를 위한 HWAW방법의 적용성 평가)

  • Noh, Hee-Kwan;Park, Hyung-Choon
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.15-26
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    • 2016
  • Dam and embankment are very important civil structures. Grouting is widely used to repair and maintain dam and embankment, and it is important to evaluate the effect of grouting for dam safety. The non-destructive method based on determination of wave velocity in the dam or embankment is effectively used to evaluate grouting effect because wave velocity is identical with stiffness and grouting increases local stiffness in a dam. In this paper, HWAW (Harmonic wavelet analysis of waves) method was applied to evaluate the grouting effect. HWAW method can determine two-dimensional shear wave velocity map with good spatial resolution and the shear velocity profile by the proposed method is sensitive to a variation of stiffness of target system. Through numerical simulation and field tests, the applicability of HWAW method in determining grouting effect is shown.

Application of Grouting for Liquefaction Resistance Using Automatic Grouting System (그라우팅자동관리시스템을 이용한 액상화 방지 그라우팅의 적용)

  • Kong, Jinyoung;Kang, JunO;Cho, Hyunsoo;Kim, Jinchun;Chun, Byungsik
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.12 no.9
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 2011
  • This study conducted the research on the method of grouting quality management and the improvement effect by applying grouting construction's quality management technology to automatic injection management equipment through measure of liquefaction based on the case of reinforcement applying grouting at the region where liquefaction happened at section 12 site of highway construction. The pressure(p), speed(q), grouting penetration radius(R) value from injection pressure, injection speed, characteristics of grain size, and characteristics of viscosity through p-q-t chart analysis was applied to the automatic grouting system which could improve the quality management of grouting. Standard penetration test results after injection showed that N values represented 5-20 and the prevention of liquefaction became possible.

Evaluation of the Groutability through Microcrack and Viscosity Measurement Methods for Grouting Materials (미세균열 그라우팅 주입성능 및 재료의 점도 측정방법 평가)

  • Jin, Hyun-Woo;Ryu, Byung-Hyun;Lee, Jang-Guen
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.23-34
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    • 2017
  • In order to develop urban underground spaces, even microcracks should be reinforced. In this paper, the grouting injection performance for microcracks was investigated considering the viscosity and particle size of the grouting materials, injection pressure, and crack width. There are two types of typical grouting materials used for filling micro-cracks. One is a chemical liquid grouting material which is a solution type and the other is a cementitious grouting material which is a suspension type. The injection performance of the grouting materials for microcracks is generally influenced by the viscosity, and the injection performance of the cementitious grouting material is additionally affected by the particle size. From laboratory tests, the viscosity was calculated inversely to provide a suitable viscosity measurement method for each grouting material. The groutability ratio based on the relationship between the crack width and the particle size was evaluated to estimate the grouting feasibility of the cementitous grouting material through microcracks.

A Study on the Grouting Characteristics of Top-down Multi-step Pressure Grouting Method (하향식 다단 압력 그라우팅 방법의 주입특성에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Hongsung;Lee, Seungho
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.201-209
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    • 2019
  • Bottom-up multi-stage pressure grouting is widely applied to domestic slopes and tunnels. It involves injecting earth from the ground to the surface after drilling. Various reports of construction performance have demonstrated its wide applicability. However, little research has studied top-down multi-step pressure grouting in Korea, which involves injection from the surface. This paper compares the grouting effect of both the established bottom-up method and the top-down method in soil box and field tests. The soil box test showed that the bulb volume of the top-down method is ~24% less than that of the bottom-up method. The field test confirmed that the top-down method has a wider grouting range and a higher injection density per area than the bottom-up method.

Evaluation of Grouting Effect by Injection Materials Using Geophysical Logging (물리검층을 이용한 주입재에 따른 그라우팅 효과 판정)

  • Choe, Jeong-Yeol;Park, Sang-Gyu;Im, Guk-Muk;Song, Mu-Yeong
    • 한국지구과학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.98-98
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    • 2010
  • 그라우팅은 지반의 공학적인 강도증가를 통한 지지력 향상 및 암반의 투수성 저감을 통해 지하수 유동을 억제하기 위하여 대규모 토목공사 현장의 균열암반 및 댐 또는 제방 등의 지역에서 많이 시행되고 있다. 본 연구는 균열암반지역에서 그라우팅 효과 확인을 위하여 보통 포틀랜드 시멘트(OPC)와 마이크로 시멘트(MC)를 사용하여 그라우팅을 수행하였으며, 그라우팅 전후에 물리검층(시추공영상촬영, 초음파 텔레뷰어검층)을 이용하여 그라우팅 효과 정도를 파악하였다. 연구지역은 경상북도 영주시 평은면 지역으로, 지질은 선캠브리아기 안구상편마암에 시대미상의 흑운모 화강암이 관입을 하였고, 이를 제4기의 충적층이 부정합으로 피복되어 있다. 그라우팅은 일반구간과 단층대구간으로 구분하여 실시하였으며, 두 구간의 이격거리는 서로의 간섭을 피하기 위해 약 40m 간격으로 선정하였다. 주입재(OPC, MC)는 5개의 주입공에서 triangle 방향으로 주입하였으며, 주입정도를 확인하기 위하여 각 구간에 2공씩 확인시추를 하였다. 두 개의 site중 일반구간의 보통 포틀랜드시멘트 주입결과 평균주입량은 48.2kg/공이며 주입 1m당으로 환산하면 Lugeon값 10미만의 지층에서는 1.62kg/m이며, 마이크로시멘트의 평균주입량은 49.6kg/공이며 주입 1m당으로 환산하면 Lugeon값 10미만의 지층에서는 3.86kg/m로 나타났다. 단층대 구간에서는 보통 포틀랜드시멘트의 평균주입량이 40.0kg/공이며, 1m당으로 환산하면 Lugeon값 10미만의 지층에서는 2.75kg/m이며, 마이크로 시멘트는 평균주입량이 56.5kg/공, 주입 1m당으로 환산하면 Lugeon값 10미만의 지층에서는 3.15kg/m로 나타났다. 마이크로시멘트의 주입압은 보통 포틀랜드시멘트에 비해 상대적으로 낮았으며, 그라우팅 개선효과 역시 상대적으로 양호한 것으로 나타났다. 그라우팅 효과확인을 위한 물리검층의 초음파텔레뷰어 해석결과 상대암반강도는 주입전 $250{\sim}750\;kgf/cm^2$, 주입후는 $400{\sim}800\;kgf/cm^2$으로 그라우팅에 의한 암반강도의 상승을 확인할 수 있었고, 시추공영상촬영 분석에서는 시추코어만으로 얻기 힘든 시멘트 충진구간을 직접 확인할 수 있었다. 초음파텔레뷰어의 경우 파쇄대의 분포 및 암반강도 측정을 통한 그라우팅 파악은 가능하였으나 파쇄대 충진물을 확인할 수가 없는 단점이 있었고 이를 시추공영상촬영을 통해 보완할 수 있었다. 다만 물리검층의 경우 그라우팅에 의한 공의 손실로 동일공에 의한 반복 조사가 아닌 경우가 대부분이어서 그라우팅 효과에 대한 정확한 비교가 어려웠으며 추후 이를 보완하기 위한 계속적인 연구가 필요할 것으로 사료된다.

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도수로터널 굴착에 따른 지하수 유출

  • 이병대;함세영;조병욱;이인호;이춘오;성익환
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.67-70
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    • 2001
  • 터널 굴착에 따른 연구지역내 지하수체의 거동 특성을 파악하기 위하여 터널 굴착시 그라우팅 이전의 초기 유출량과 초기 그라우팅 이후의 구간별 유출량을 측정하였고 단열구조와 비교, 분석하였다. 초기 유출량은 120,990 m$^3$/day이며, 초기 유출이 심했던 구간은 크게 6개 구간으로 세분할 수 있다. 초기 그라우팅 후 지하수 유출이 심했던 구간 역시, 그라우팅 이전과 마찬가지로 6개 구간으로 세분할 수 있다. 그라우팅 전, 후의 유출량을 비교해 보면 그라우팅후의 유출량은 42,844m$^3$/day으로, 그라우팅 전에 비해 많이 감소되었다. 터널 굴착시 터널내로 유출되는 지하수의 대부분은 터널과 직교 혹은 사교하여 관통하고 있는 단층 및 단층 파쇄대와 연장성이 양호한 절리면들을 따라서 유동되고 있다. 터널내의 지하수 유출에 영향을 미치는 단열들은 대체로 4조의 불연속면군으로 분류 할 수 있는데, 주 분포방향은 크게 TSet 1 : N60-85$^{\circ}$W, TSet 3 : N40-50$^{\circ}$E, TSet 3 : N10-20$^{\circ}$E, TSet 4 : N70-80$^{\circ}$E이다.

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The Effect of Remedial Works to Control the Leakage Problem in Earth Fill Dam by Compaction Grouting (콤팩션 그라우팅에 의한 흙댐의 누수복원 공사효과 분석)

  • Chun, Byung-Sik;Lee, Yong-Jae;Chung, Ha-Ik
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.22 no.11
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    • pp.13-23
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    • 2006
  • The sinkhole and leakage in dam core were detected at one of earth fill dams in Korea. The damage areas in the core of the dam were repaired by compaction grouting method. This study is to evaluate compaction grouting activity by in-situ and laboratory experiments before, during and after the remedial work. The intensive site investigation and geophysical survey were conducted during and after the compaction grouting work. The compaction grouting work was carried out for the damaged dam core between June 16 and August 24, 2000. The leakage reduction generally occurred in the core of the dam after the remedial work. The use of compaction grouting was considered the proper countermeasures for repairing the damaged dam. It shows that the loose or voided zones have been properly filled and the leakage has been reduced by about 96% of that before the treatment of the remedial work performed at dam core by compaction grouting.