• Title, Summary, Keyword: 균열조사

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Influence of Curing Conditions on Volumetric Changes in Concrete (양생 조건이 콘크리트의 체적 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kwang-Myong;SunWoo, Joo-Yeun;Lee, Hoi-Keun;Khayat, Kamal H.
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.331-338
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    • 2006
  • This paper presents the experimental results on volumetric changes in ordinary portland cement concrete made with various water-to-cement ratios(W/C's) ranging from 0.32 to 0.50 and cured in low different conditions. Curing regimes employed in this work were designed to exhibit autogenous and drying shrinkage as well as swelling of concrete. The concrete avoided any moist evaporation(Regime f showed only autogenous shrinkage and the lower the W/C, the feater the autogenous shrinkage. The concrete exposed to air drying conditions at $20{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ and $60{\pm}3%$ RH after 6-day water curing at $20{\pm}1^{\circ}C$(Regime II) swelled and then started to shrink. The maximum swelling value of concrete developed in water curing was between 15 and $40{\pm}10^{-6}$, and the greatest total shrinkage(autogenous+drying shrinkage) was obtained for the mixture made with W/C of 0.32. The concrete let to air drying conditions(Regime III) showed greater total shrinkage compared to the concrete cured in Regime II. The concrete exposed to air drying condition after 6-day sealed curing(Regime IV) exhibited slightly smaller total shrinkage than that of the concrete cured in Regime III. Net drying shrinkage that can be derived from the results of Regime I, III, and IV increased as the W/C increased despite of similar total shrinkage. This result indicated that drying shrinkage governs total shrinkage of high-W/C concretes. In other words, a portion of autogenous shrinkage in total shrinkage increased in low-W/C concretes. Therefore, it should be controlled in terms of cracking potential. Finally, total shrinkage of high-strength and high-performance concrete made with low W/C can be effectively reduced by appropriate early moisture curing.

Bioactivity of precalcified nanotubular $TiO_2$ layer on Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy (나노튜브 $TiO_2$ 층 생성 후 전석회화 처리한 Ti-6Al-7Nb 합금의 생체활성도)

  • Seo, Jae-Min
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.16-21
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of precalcified nanotubular $TiO_2$ layer on Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy. Materials and methods: Anodic oxidation was carried out at a potential of 20 V and current density of 20 mA/$cm^2$ for 1 hour. The glycerol solution containing 1 wt% $NH_4F$ and 20 wt% deionized water was used as an electrolyte. Precalcification treatment was obtained by soaking in $Na_2HPO_4$ solution at $80^{\circ}C$ for 30 minutes followed by soaking in saturated $Ca(OH)_2$ solution at $100^{\circ}C$ for 30 minutes, followed by heat treatment at $500^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours. To evaluate the activity of precalcified nanotubular $TiO_2$ layer, specimens were immersed in a simulated body fluid with pH 7.4 at $36.5^{\circ}C$ for 10 days. Results: 1. Nanotubular $TiO_2$ layer showed the highly ordered dense structure by interposing small diameter nanotubes between large ones, the shape of nanotubes was enlarged as going down. 2. The mean length of nanotubes was $517.0{\pm}23.2\;nm$ innm glycerol solution containing 1 wt% $NH_4F$ and 20 wt% $H_2O$ at 20 V for 1 hour. 3. The bioactivity of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy was improved with formation of nanotubular $TiO_2$ layer and precalcification treatment in $80^{\circ}C$ 0.5 M $Na_2HPO_4$ and saturated $100^{\circ}C$ $Ca(OH)_2$ solution. Conclusion: Bioactivity of precalcified nanotubular $TiO_2$ layer on Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy was improved.

U-Pb(SHRIMP) and K-Ar Age Dating of Intrusive Rocks and Skarn Minerals at the W-Skarn in Weondong Deposit (원동 중석 스카른대에서의 관입암류와 스카른광물에 대한 U-Pb(SHRIMP) 및 K-Ar 연대)

  • Park, Changyun;Song, Yungoo;Chi, Se Jung;Kang, Il-Mo;Yi, Keewook;Chung, Donghoon
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.161-174
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    • 2013
  • The geology of the weondong deposit area consists mainly of Cambro-Ordovician and Carboniferous-Triassic formations, and intruded quartz porphyry and dyke. The skarn mineralized zone in the weondong deposit is the most prospective region for the useful W-mineral deposits. To determine the skarn-mineralization age, U-Pb SHRIMP and K-Ar age dating methods were employed. The U-Pb zircon ages of quartz porphyry intrusion (WD-A) and feldspar porphyry dyke (WD-B) are 79.37 Ma and 50.64 Ma. The K-Ar ages of coarse-grained crystalline phlogopite (WD-1), massive phlogopite (WDR-1), phlogopite coexisted with skarn minerals (WD-M), and vein type illite (WD-2) were determined as $49.1{\pm}1.1$ Ma, $49.2{\pm}1.2$ Ma, $49.9{\pm}3.6$ Ma, and $48.3{\pm}1.1$ Ma, respectively. And the ages of the high uranium zircon of hydrothermally altered quartz porphyry (WD-C) range from 59.7 to 38.7 Ma, which dependson zircon's textures affected by hydrothermal fluids. It is regarded as the effect of some hydrothermal events, which may precipitate and overgrow the high-U zircons, and happen the zircon's metamictization and dissolution-reprecipitation reactions. Based on the K-Ar age datings for the skarn minerals and field evidences, we suggest that the timing of W-skarn mineralization in weondong deposit may be about 50 Ma. However, for the accurate timing of skarn mineralization in this area, the additional researches about the sequence of superposition at the skarn minerals and geological relationship between skarn deposits and dyke should be needed in the future.

Differences in Rice Quality and Physiochemical Component between Protox Inhibitor-Herbicide Resistant Transgenic Rice and Its Non-transgenic Counterpart (Protox 저해형 제초제 저항성 형질환벼와 비형질전환벼의 미질 및 이화학적 성분 차이)

  • Jung, Ha-Il;Yun, Young-Beom;Kwon, Oh-Do;Lee, Do-Jin;Back, Kyoung-Whan;Kuk, Yong-In
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2012
  • Characteristics related to grain quality and physiochemical components such as mineral, total amino acid, free amino acid, and free sugar composition were investigated in Protox inhibitor resistanttransgenic rice (MX, PX, and AP37) and its nontransgenic counterpart (WT). Head rice, palatability, protein, and whiteness (except for MX and AP37) of milled transgenic rice were high or similar to those of the non-transgenic counterpart. Immature rice, unfilled grain, and cracked kernels (PX and AP37) of milled transgenic rice were lower than those of its non-transgenic counterpart. However, there were no significant differences in damaged grain between the transgenic rice lines and its counterpart. Potassium content in PX and copper contents in PX and AP37 were only low compared with their non-transgenic counterparts, but other mineral contents in transgenic rice lines were high or showed no significant differences compared with non-transgenic counterparts. Contents of most total amino acid composition in transgenic rice lines were high or similar to those in non-transgenic counterparts, but the content of isoleucine in AP37 was only low compared with its non-transgenic counterpart. On the other hand, free amino acid, leucine and tyrosine in PX and AP37, and total free amino acid in PX were low compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. However, the content of free amino acid in other kinds in transgenic rice lines were similar to those in their non-transgenic counterparts. Contents of sucrose in MX and PX were low compared with non-transgenic counterpars, but contents of fructose, glucose, and maltose in transgenic rice lines were high or similar compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. This results indicated that Protox genes had no negative affect on the nutritional composition of rice.

Electrochemical Characteristics of Cu3Si as Negative Electrode for Lithium Secondary Batteries at Elevated Temperatures (리튬 이차전지 음극용 Cu3Si의 고온에서의 전기화학적 특성)

  • Kwon, Ji-Y.;Ryu, Ji-Heon;Kim, Jun-Ho;Chae, Oh-B.;Oh, Seung-M.
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.116-122
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    • 2010
  • A $Cu_3Si$ film electrode is obtained by Si deposition on a Cu foil using DC magnetron sputtering, which is followed by annealing at $800^{\circ}C$ for 10 h. The Si component in $Cu_3Si$ is inactive for lithiation at ambient temperature. The linear sweep thermammetry (LSTA) and galvano-static charge/discharge cycling, however, consistently illustrate that $Cu_3Si$ becomes active for the conversion-type lithiation reaction at elevated temperatures (> $85^{\circ}C$). The $Cu_3Si$ electrode that is short-circuited with Li metal for one week is converted to a mixture of $Li_{21}Si_5$ and metallic Cu, implying that the Li-Si alloy phase generated at 0.0 V (vs. Li/$Li^+$) at the quasi-equilibrium condition is the most Li-rich $Li_{21}Si_5$. However, the lithiation is not extended to this phase in the constant-current charging (transient or dynamic condition). Upon de-lithiation, the metallic Cu and Si react to be restored back to $Cu_3Si$. The $Cu_3Si$ electrode shows a better cycle performance than an amorphous Si electrode at $120^{\circ}C$, which can be ascribed to the favorable roles provided by the Cu component in $Cu_3Si$. The inactive element (Cu) plays as a buffer against the volume change of Si component, which can minimize the electrode failure by suppressing the detachment of Si from the Cu substrate.

Effect of Rice Flour Prepared with Enzyme Treatment on Quality Characteristics of Rice Cookies (효소처리 쌀가루를 이용한 쌀 쿠키의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Mi-Seon;Park, Jong Dae;Lee, Hyun Yu;Kum, Jun Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.9
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    • pp.1439-1445
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of rice cookies specifically prepared with rice flour following enzyme treatment. In this study, three types of specific enzyme treatments, that is, ${\alpha}$-amylase, ${\beta}$-amylase, and cellulose+${\beta}$-glucanase were applied on the effect of rice flour with respect to desired quality characteristics of the rice cookies. Based on our study results, we have found that the density of dough in the rice cookies was not significantly different between that of the non-enzyme treated (control) and the enzyme treated group. However, we found that the spread factor of rice cookies, prepared with rice flour treated with ${\beta}$-amylase, was higher than that of the control. It was also found that the moisture content of rice cookies (with added enzyme-treated rice flour) was 3.20 to 3.90%; however, this range is much lower than that observed in the control. Further, we observed that Hunter color's L-values were significantly higher for the control than those of the enzyme-treated cookies. We also found that hardness of enzyme-treated cookies was comparatively better than that of the control. In addition, the sensory acceptability scores of the enzyme-treated cookies were found to be significantly higher than the control in decisive parameters such as aroma, appearance, flavor, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. Based on our findings, we suggest that ${\alpha}$-amylase treated rice flour is an effective ingredient for improving the overall quality of rice cookies.

Cooking and textural properties of specialty germinated brown rices (기능성 쌀 품종 발아현미의 취반 및 식감특성)

  • Cho, Dong-Hwa;Park, Hye-Young;Lee, Seuk-Ki;Park, Jiyoung;Choi, Hye-Sun;Woo, Koan-Sik;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Sim, Eun-Yeong;Ahn, Eok-Keun;Oh, Sea-Kwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.575-583
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    • 2017
  • Germination is a well-known economical technique that has been utilized to enhance the nutritional value of brown rice. Owing to its higher nutritive quality, germinated brown rice has received significant attention in the past decade. In this study, the physicochemical and cooking properties of specialty brown rice (SBR) were analyzed before and after germination. Germination enhanced cooking properties such as water absorption, expanded volume, and increased solid solubility of cooked SBR. The SBR texture measured using tensipresser, was significantly improved by germination. The hardness of cooked SBR was decreased by germination, but stickiness was increased. Pasting analysis of the SBR flours revealed a decrease in all viscosity values (peak viscosity, breakdown, setback, and final viscosity) after germination. However, the gelatinization temperature remains unchanged upon germination. Additionally, amylose content and amylopectin chain length distribution of SBR starch were slightly changed by germination. These results indicate that germination leads to a substantial improvement in the cooking properties and texture of SBR.

Impact Resistance Testing of NK55 Ophthalmic Lenses in Domestic Market (국내 유통 NK55 재질 안경렌즈의 내충격 시험 평가)

  • Park, Mijung;Jeon, Inchul;Hwang, Kwang Hoon;Byun, Woongjin;Kim, So Ra
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.229-235
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The present study was performed to evaluate the safety of ophthalmic lenses in domestic market since eyeglasses wearers could be exposed to the negligent accident by damaged ophthalmic lenses. Method: Totally, 160 ophthalmic lenses (NK55, ${n_{d}}$ = 1.56) with the refractive powers of -3D, -6D, +3D, +6D manufactured by 4 companies in domestic market were evaluated using drop ball test. In accordance with FDA standard, steel ball (~16 g) was freely dropped on these ophthalmic lenses from 127 cm high and the surfaces of lenses were observed. Results: From the study, center thicknesses of NK55 ophthalmic lenses manufactured by 4 different companies showed somewhat different numbers even though the lenses had the same refractive index and powers. All convex lenses of +3D, +6D were evaluated as the safe lenses since there was no damage such as crack and broken found on the lens surfaces after drop ball testing. However, some noticeable broken was shown on the surfaces of concave lenses with relatively thinner center thickness. Especially, 59(73.8%) of total 80 concave lenses with the refractive power of -3D and -6D classified as unacceptable lenses to FDA standard. Conclusions: From the results, the negligent accident by damaged ophthalmic lenses should be considered as well as the correction of visual acuity, design and price when customers purchase eyeglasses. Thus, the enforcement regulation like drop ball testing of uncut ophthalmic lens could be suggested to guarantee the safety of ophthalmic lenses in domestic market.

Properties of Nonwaxy Rice Flours with Different Soaking Time and Particle Sizes (수침시간과 입자크기가 다른 멥쌀가루의 특성)

  • Lee, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Jeong-Ok;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.268-275
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    • 2004
  • Effects of soaking time and particle size on physicochemical properties of nonwaxy rice flour were investigated. Nonwaxy rice grains were soaked at $4^{\circ}C$ for 0, 1, 12, and 24 hr, dried at room temperature, and milled, Resulting flours were passed through 45-mesh ($<355{\mu}m,\;IL45$) and 100-mesh ($<150{\mu}m\;IL100$) sieves and separated into $<40{\mu}m\;and\;40-100{\mu}m$ series. IL45 series showed higher amount of large particles ($40-100{\mu}m$) than IL100 series. As the soaking time increased, protein and ash contents decreased, and amylose content, water-binding capacity, swelling power, and solubity of nonwaxy rice flours increased. Swelling power and solibility of nonwaxy rice flours also increased between $65-85^{\circ}C$. Water-binding capacity, swelling power, and solubility of IL100 series were higher than those of IL45 series. 12 hr-soaked nonwaxy rice flour pastes showed higher peak viscosity and breakdown but lower setback and visicosity at $95\;and\;50^{\circ}C$ than 1 hr-soaked ones. X-Ray diffractograms of nonwaxy rice flours were not affected, whereas surface appearance was affected, by soaking time and particle size.

Interpretation of the Manufacturing Characteristics and the Mineral and Chemical Composition of Neolithic Pottery Excavated from the Jungsandong Site, Yeongjong Island, South Korea (영종도 중산동 신석기시대 토기의 광물 및 화학조성과 제작특성 해석)

  • Lee, Chan Hee;Kim, Ran Hee;Shin, Sook Chung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.4-31
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    • 2018
  • The Neolithic pottery excavated from the Jungsandong site has been classified into four types of pottery (I: feldspar type, II: mica type, III: talc type and IV: asbestos type) according to their mineral composition. These four types of potteries generally appear to have undergone incomplete firing, while the level of oxidation in the type I pottery objects, which have a relatively higher clay content, was found to be particularly low. The type III objects, which have a high talc content, are judged to have been somewhat slow in removing carbon because they contain saponite belonging to the smectite group. Of the four types of pottery, type IV showed the highest redness and the most uniform characteristics, thus indicating a good level of oxidation. In particular, fixed carbide (C; 33.7 wt.%) with a thickness of about 1mm, and originating from organic substances, was detected inside the walls of the type I pottery, while the deep radial cracks in the outer surfaces of the pottery are thought to have been caused by repeated thermal shocks. Given that all of the pottery except for the type I artifacts are considered to be have been made for storage purposes, those containing talc and tremolite are easy to done liquid storing vessels based on an analysis of their material characteristics. As for the type II relics, which are composed of various minerals and exhibit poor physical properties, they seem to have been used for simple storage purposes. As domestic talc and asbestos mines were concentrated in the areas of Gyeonggi, Gangwon, Chungbuk, and Chungnam, it seems likely that talc and tremolite were produced as contiguous minerals. Considering the distance between the remains in Jungsandong and these mines and their geographical distribution, there is a possibility - albeit somewhat slight - that these mines were developed for the mining of various minerals. Although ultramafic rock masses - such as serpentine capable of generating talc and tremolite - have not been found in the Jungsandong area, limestone and biotite granite containing mica schist have been identified in the northwestern part of Yeongjong Island, indicating that small rock masses might have formed there in the past. Therefore, it is judged necessary to accumulate data on pottery containing talc and tremolite, other than the remains in Jungsandong, and to investigate the rocks and soils in the surrounding area with greater precision. The firing temperatures of the pottery found at the Jungsandong site were interpreted by analyzing the stability ranges of the mineral composition of each type. As a result, they have been estimated to range from 550 to $800^{\circ}C$ for the type I artifacts, and from 550 to $700^{\circ}C$ for the type I, II and IV artifacts. However, these temperatures are not the only factors to have affected their physical properties and firing temperature, and the types, particle sizes, and firing time of the clay should all be taken into consideration.