• Title, Summary, Keyword: 균열조사

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Boundary Element Analysis for Edge Cracks at the Bonding Interface of Semiconductor Chip (반도체 칩 접착계면의 모서리 균열에 대한 경계요소 해석)

  • 이상순
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2001
  • The stress intensity factors for edge cracks located at the bonding interface between the semiconductor chip and the adhesive layer subjected to a uniform transverse tensile strain are investigated. Such cracks might be generated due to a stress singularity in the vicinity of the free surface. The boundary element method (BEM) is employed to investigate the behavior of interface stresses. The amplitude of complex stress intensity factor depends on the crack length, but it has a constant value at large crack lengths. The rapid propagation of interface crack is expected if the transverse tensile strain reaches a critical value.

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鐵鋼 溶接部의 균열發生과 그 試驗方法

  • 김영식
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.13-25
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    • 1986
  • 철강 구조물의 용접기술에 있어 용접부의 신속성을 좌우하는 가장 중요한 요소는 용접균열에 관한 문제와 용접본드부의 취화에 관한 문제로 요약될 수 있다. 일반적으로 용접부 및 그 근방의 금속은 국부적으로 매우 높은 온도까지 급열된 후 급냉되므로, 용접부에서 각종균열의 발성 위험성이 높아지고 용접본드부를 취화하여 파양인성의 저하를 초래하게 된다. 따라서 이러한 문 제점을 극복하기 위해서는 재료의 선택이나 설계, 시공, 검사의 각 단계에서 충분한 검토가 필 요하다. 특히 최근 들어 이전보다 높은 강도의 고장력강재가 널리 사용되고 구조물의 대형화에 따라 구속조건이 증대되며 구조물의 사용 조건은 더욱 가혹 화함에 따라 상술한 문제점은 더욱 중요시되고 있다. 철강 용접부에 발생하는 균열은 용접시공시 발생되는 균열과 용접완료후 구 조물 사용중에 발생되는 균열로 대별될 수 있다. 용접시공중 발생되는 균열은 용접열싸이클로 인해 생성되는 조직, 석출물등의 치금학적 요인과 잔유응력 또는 구속응력등의 역학적 요인이 중첩됨으로서 발생된다. 또한 사용중 발생되는 균열은 상기의 두 가지 요인이외에 환경적 요인이 첨가되어 발생된다고 볼 수 있다. 이상과 같은 용접균열을 방지하기 위해서는 실 구조물 용접 조립시의 각종 조건을 재현한 시험법을 통해 용접균열 발생의 한계조건을 정량적으로 분석할 필요가 있다. 이러한 균열 시험의 결과, 적정한 용접 시공 조건이 도출될 수 있기 때문이다. 이와 같은 필요성에 의해 지금까지 다수의 용접균열 시험법에 관한 연구가 행하여져 왔고 그 중에는 각 국가의 협회나 학회의 규격으로 확립된 것도 많으며 국제규격으로 되어 있는 것도 있다. 본 고에서는 각종균열들에 대한 지금까지 밝혀진 기구들에 대해 해설하고, 그 각각에 적용되고 있는 시험법들에 대해 소개하고저 한다.C1지구의 공업.생활용수는 103units, 33units로 배분되고, 하류지구에 304units로 배분되었다. 따라서 용도별로 물배분하므로서 금호강 하루지역에 더욱 많은 물을 배분할 수 있음을 알았다.통해서 수위-유량관계(rating curve)를 규명하였다. 시험지구의 관개효율 및 용수손실 규명 등에 관한 기본자료를 수집하기 위해서는 계측시스템의 운영은 장기간으로 지속 되어야 한다며, 전기전도도와 토양수 농도, 전기전도도와 함수량의 관계를 이용한 천이상태의 오염원 농도 측정방법을 개발하였다. 특히 제안식에서는 한계함수량의 개념을 도입하여 전기전도도와 함수량관계를 추정하므로 추정식의 실험값 반영 정도를 증가시켰다. 본 연구에서 제안된 식을 이용하여 추정된 전기전도도와 함수량관계는 다른 제안식에 비하여 개선된 결과를 보여 주었고, 본 연구에서 개발한 오염원 농도 측정법을 이용하여 측정한 결과 함수량이 0.15이하에서는 측정오차가 크지만 함수량이 0.15이상일 경우 매우 좋은 결과를 보였는데 질량평형을 검토한 결과 약 5-10%의 오차율을 보였다. 따라서 본 논문에서 개발된 천이상태의 오염원 농도측정법은 용존 오염물질의 이송에 관한 정확한 실험을 제공할 것으로 판단된다.며, 수질 보전적-환경 보전 차원에서 저수관리 체계를 확고히 할 수 있는 방안을 강구하여야 할 것이다.펄스주입법에 의해 증착된 박박은 강유전성 이력을 나타내었다.지역과 비도시지역을 비교하는 조사 연구가 필요하며, 이러한 조사결과를 바탕으로 자녀의 식습관에 대한 교육을 위한 교재, 교구의 개발과 영양, 식습관 교육프로그램의 개발을 통해 가정과 학교에서 부모와 교사가 자녀의 식생활 지도 관리를 돕고 가정과 교육기관이 연계한 교육 프로그램이 활성화 될 수 있도록 지속적인 관심을 기울여 나가야 할 것이며, 이에 따른

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A Simple Model of Shrinkage Cracking Development for Kaolinite (수축 균열 발달 과정을 위한 단순 모델)

  • Min, Tuk-Ki;Nhat, Vo Dai
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.29-37
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    • 2007
  • The experiments have been conducted on Kaolinite in laboratory to investigate the development of shrinkage cracking and propose a simple model. Image analysis method consisting of control point selection(CPS) technique is used to process and analyze images of soil cracking captured by a digital camera. The distributions of crack length increment and crack area increment vary as a three-step process. These steps are regarded as stages of soil cracking. They are in turn primary crack, secondary crack and shrinkage crack stages. In case of crack area, the primary and secondary stages end at normalized gravimetric water content(NGWC) of 0.92 and 0.70 for different specimen thicknesses respectively. In addition, the primary stage in case of crack length also ends at NGWC of 0.92 while the secondary stage stops at NGWC of 0.79, 0.82, and 0.85 for the sample thicknesses of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cm respectively Based on the experimental results, the distributions of crack length increment and crack area increment appear to be linear with a decrease of NGWC. Therefore, the development of shrinkage cracking is proposed typically by a simple model functioned by a combination of three linear expressions.

A Technique for Image Processing of Concrete Surface Cracks (콘크리트 표면 균열의 영상 처리 기법)

  • Kim Kwang-Baek;Cho Jae-Hyun;Ahn Sang-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.9 no.7
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    • pp.1575-1581
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    • 2005
  • Recently, further study is being done on the affect of crack on concrete structure and many people have made every endeavor not to leave it unsettled but to minimize it by repair works. In this paper we propose the image processing method that do not remain manual but automatically process the length, the direction and e width of cracks on concrete surface. First, we calibrate light's affect from image by using closing operation, one of morphology methods that can extract the feature of oracle and we extract the edge of crack image by sobel mask. After it, crack image is binarized by iteration binarization. And we extract the edge of cracks using noise elimination method that use an average of adjacent pixels by 3${\times}$3 mask and Glassfire Labeling algorithm. on, in this paper we propose an image processing method which can automatically measure the length, the direction and the width of cracks using the extracted edges of cracks. The results of experiment showed that the proposed method works better on the extraction of concrete cracks. Also our method showed the possibility that inspector's decision is unnecessary.

Thermal Damage Characterization of Silicon Wafer Subjected to CW Laser Beam (CW 레이저 조사에 의한 실리콘 웨이퍼의 손상 평가)

  • Choi, Sung-Ho;Kim, Chung-Seok;Jhang, Kyung-Young;Shin, Wan-Soon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.36 no.10
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    • pp.1241-1248
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the thermal damage characterization of a silicon wafer subjected to a CW laser beam. The variation in temperature and stress during laser beam irradiation has been predicted using a three-dimensional numerical model. The simulation results indicate that the specimen might crack when a 93-$W/cm^2$ laser beam is irradiated on the silicon wafer, and surface melting can occur when a 186-$W/cm^2$ laser beam is irradiated on the silicon wafer. In experiments, straight cracks in the [110] direction were observed for a laser irradiance exceeding 102 $W/cm^2$. Furthermore, surface melting was observed for a laser irradiance exceeding 140 $W/cm^2$. The irradiance for surface melting is less than that in the simulation results because multiple reflections and absorption of the laser beam might occur on the surface cracks, increasing the absorbance of the laser beam.

Influence of Cracks in Precast Concrete Deck on the Flexural Strength of Composite Half PC Slab (하프PC 슬래브에 발생한 균열이 합성 슬래브의 휨 내력에 미치는 영향에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Seo, Tae-Seok;Lee, Moon-Sung;Choi, Chang-Sik
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.199-205
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    • 2009
  • Recently, as the concern for the development of a construction method for an environmental protection and for tall building is increasing, the use of the half precast concrete(PC) slab that has the solution of environmental problems and the advantage such as reduction of construction period is being demanded. However, there is shortcoming that the crack can occur easily while constructing, and these cracks can have a bad influence upon the structural performance of PC composite slab. However, there is little studies on the influence of these cracks on the structural performance of composite PC slab. In this study, the specimen caused the crack before pouring topping concrete in the half PC slab and the PC composite slab without the cracks were produced to investigate the structural performance of PC composite slab with crack.

Application of p-Version Crack Model Based on J-integral Method in LEFM Analysis (선형탄성 파괴역학해석에서 J-적분법에 의한 p-Version 균열모델의 적용)

  • 이채규;우광성;김영인
    • Computational Structural Engineering
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.137-148
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    • 1995
  • A new path independent contour integral formulus for the distinct calculation of mode I stress intensity factors in two dimensional linear elastic fracture mechanics problems is presented. This method is based on p-convergence concepts and can be easily appended to existing finite element computer codes. In this study, the stress state at crack tip has been investigated and the path independence of J-integral values has been tested with respect to different contours expressed by normalized distance apart from the crack tip. Numerical results by p-convergence for the problems such as centrally cracked panels, single and double edged cracks in rectangular panels have been compared with those by the conventional h-convergence. The comparison demonstrates the accuracy and stability of the proposed method.

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Effects of the Thermal Cracking on the Deformation Behaviour of Granites (열균열이 화강암의 변형거동에 미치는 영향)

    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 1998
  • Pocheon, Keochang and Sangju granite samples of different granularity and mineralogical composition were thermally treated at pre-determined temperature of $600^{\circ}C$. Thermally-induced microcracks were characterized using an optical microscopy and their effects on the deformation behavior of thermally cycled samples were studied performing compressive mechanical tests. Optical observations shows that by $600^{\circ}C$ nearlly all crystal boundaries open and the new intracrystalline cracks form in the more grains. The intracrystalline cracks are most pronounced at thermally treated Pocheon and Keochang granite samples. Results from mechanical tests represents negative lateral strains, which give negative Poisson's ratios. It is the most probable that negative lateral strains are produced by residual stresses induced during cooling.

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A Study of Stone Cultural Heritage on Filler Status and Clinical Trials of Conservation Treatment in Cracks - Focusing on the Change in Surface of the Filler by Mixing the Talc - (석조문화재 균열부 보존처리 충전제의 현황과 임상실험 고찰 - 활석을 혼합 한 충전제의 표면변화를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Tae Jong;Oh, Hyeon Jung;Kim, Sa Dug;Lee, Jang Jon
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.383-393
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    • 2014
  • It is used for the epoxy resin, a mixture of various fillers conservation of cracks of the stone cultural heritage. Such as conservation treatment is need to for long-term conservation. However, field research and experiments on the conservation treatment results when included 54 cases of talc filler was confirmed that the damage, such as discoloration and cracks. The field research is talc was used to determine whether the reports and conservator interviews conducted, microscopy, ICP analysis of the samples collected from the field site. Experiments is color difference measurement and Ultrasonic measurement were arried out, and artificial weathering tests to investigate the effect of talc. As a result, lower the property of matter of the samples containing the talc. Therefore, we propose that the selection process is not allowed to use talc as the filler of stone powder filler cracks is conservation treatment.