• Title, Summary, Keyword: 공적이전

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Postmodernism and Korean National Archives System since 1999 (기록의 역운 <포스트1999>를 전망하며)

  • Lee, Young-Nam
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.39
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    • pp.229-280
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    • 2014
  • This essay focused on the critical review of Korean National Archives System(KNAS) since 1999. We think that KNAS could establish the backbone with basic records law on 1999. It's right. But it is not enough for explaining the full historical growth. there are some factors below the growth. This essay tried to the basic three factors below. That means the the demonstration discourse, archival system practices, and archiving technologies in the contexts of the unique standard by the basic records law. These three factors have been the powerful engine for the take-off of KNAS since 1999. However, the powerful history has shadows of growth. This essay narrated the shadows by the frame of 'counter-destiny'. The most dangerous shadow is the loss of archival cultures because the KNAS has been composed of efficiency mentality. That means that KNAS has no unique archival culture for citizenship. So, this essay tried to talk about 'Post1999' to Archives Community.

A Study on the Size, Composition, and Characteristics of Poor Elders Excluded from the Public Assistance (공공부조 수급에서 제외된 빈곤노인의 현황과 특성)

  • Choi, Hee-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.237-259
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    • 2004
  • The public assistance scheme plays more important role in income maintenance for poor elders than the public pension does due to insufficient coverage of the public pension resulted from late introduction of it in Korea. However, only limited numbers of poor elders are financially protected by the public assistance contrary to the general perception that the elderly population most benefits from public aids. Based on data set of 2000 from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study, this study analysed the size, composition and characteristics of poor elders excluded from the public assistance, and determinants of the elderly's participation in it. Findings of the study can be summarized as follows: (1) More than half of poor elders are excluded from the public assistance although their economic status is similar with that of recipients, which may cause income reversal between recipients and non-recipients. (2) It was identified that non-recipient poor elders especially those with same income level of recipients of the National Livelihood Guarantees(NLG) are actually in desperate need of public aids considering their serious financial conditions. (3) Participation in public assistance among the elderly is more affected by socio-demographic factors that reflect family conditions than by economic factors, which is mostly caused by the strict eligibility criteria of the public assistance that reinforces family duty of financial support for elderly relatives in Korea. Policy implications for more effective income security for poor elders include revising inappropriate eligibility criteria of the NLG concerning family obligations, expanding the coverage of the old age allowance for poor elders to near-poor elders, and providing work opportunities to non-recipient poor elders to supplement their income deficit.

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A Study on the Relation Exchange Rate Volatility to Trading Volume of Container in Korea (환율변동성과 컨테이너물동량과의 관계)

  • Choi, Bong-Ho
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of exchange rate volatility on Trading Volume of Container of Korea, and to induce policy implication in the contex of GARCH and regression model. In order to test whether time series data is stationary and the model is fitness or not, we put in operation unit root test, cointegration test. And we apply impulse response functions and variance decomposition to the structural model to estimate dynamic short run behavior of variables. The major empirical results of the study show that the increase in exchange rate volatility exerts a significant negative effect on Trading Volume of Container in long run. The results Granger causality based on an error correction model indicate that uni-directional causality between trading volume of container and exchange rate volatility is detected. This study applies impulse response function and variance decompositions to get additional information regarding the Trading Volume of Container to shocks in exchange rate volatility. The results indicate that the impact of exchange rate volatility on Trading Volume of Container is negative and converges on a stable negative equilibrium in short-run. Th exchange rate volatility have a large impact on variance of Trading Volume of Container, the effect of exchange rate volatility is small in very short run but become larger with time. We can infer policy suggestion as follows; we must make a stable policy of exchange rate to get more Trading Volume of Container

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Government 3.0 Era, Issues on Freedom of Information System (정부3.0 시대, 정보공개시스템의 개선 과제)

  • Jung, Zin-Im;Kim, You-Seung
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.39
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    • pp.45-72
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    • 2014
  • In the recent years, Gov.2.0, which strengthens not only a claim for freedom of information but also sharing public information, became a new paradigm of government operations. In line with the paradigm the Korean government promotes the Gov.3.0 policy. This study exams the freedom of information system, which expends its roles and responsibilities for enhancing the usage of public information in the Gov.3.0 era. Furthermore, it analyzes the system's usability from the perspective of users. The freedom of information system is the fundamental portal for all the public information's disclosure and usage. Without providing the solution for problems of the system, the Korean government's Gov3.0 policy cannot succeed. Also, Park Geun-hye Government's Gov.3.0 initiatives which consists of tasks, such as reinforcing freedom of information, immediate releasing original documents, and expending public access to information, should be done through the freedom of information system. The importance of the system is increasingly heavy. It is not only the simple online contact point for public information, but also a public sphere for sharing public raw data and for implementing the Gov.3.0 vision. However, the current system still does not slove it problems. This study analyzes the system's problems in terms of usability and sustainability. As a result, it provides three alternative strategies for the freedom of information system, including 'personnel and financial support expansion', 'strengthening user-friendly operating' and 'establishing long-term strategies for system improvement.

Institutional Dynamics of In-Work Poverty Determination: Distributive Process of Labor Markets, Households, and the Welfare State Using Korean Welfare Panel Study, 2008-15 (근로빈곤 결정의 제도 동학: 노동시장과 가구, 복지국가 분배 과정 분석)

  • Ryu, Kirak
    • 한국사회정책
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.71-104
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    • 2018
  • This paper adopts a distributive performance process model of in-work poverty based on labor markets, households, and welfare states and analyzes the 4-11 waves of the Korean Welfare Panel Study during 2008-15. Previous studies on in-work poverty have focused on the definitions and concepts of in-work poverty by analyzing employment and unemployment persistence and repetition dynamics, but rarely paid attention to institutional distributive performance. In this regard, this study preforms a stepwise analysis of labor markets, households, and welfare states as a process of income generation in labor markets, satisfaction of welfare needs and income pooling at households, and deduction of social security contribution and income tax as well as receipt of public transfer income at welfare states. Results of empirical analysis show that in-work poverty had been on increase during 2008-11, followed by a decrease between 2012-15. At labor market stages, full time status had the most prominent impact on in-work poverty process, while status by employment and contract type have generated a huge variation as well. At household stages, household work intensity and number of earners contributed to reduction of in-work poverty, but the relations did not seen to be straightforward. However, welfare state played little role in lifting employees out of in-work poverty. In terms of institutional distributive process, in-work poverty was prevalent in either household-welfare state stage or labor market-household-welfare stage. Non-vulnerable group in terms of in-risk poverty was around 80% of the sample during the period of analysis, the size of which has remained constant.

Why are Cleaning Workers Precarious? - Subcontracted Female Cleaning Labour and Fictional Korean Social Protection (청소노동자는 왜 불안정(precarious)한가? -하청 여성 청소노동과 한국 사회안전망의 허구성)

  • Lee, Sophia Seung-yoon;Seo, Hyojin;Park, Koeun
    • Korean Journal of Labor Studies
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.247-291
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    • 2018
  • This study investigates the employment structure and the social safety net experience of the subcontracting cleaning workers in Korea, who have been main targets of the labor outsourcing despite the necessity and permanence of their labour. This study specifically focuses on the fact that these subcontracting cleaning workers are mostly female and in their old age, and analyzes how the combination of their age, gender, and employment structure leads to the (mis)match with the Korean social security system. Case study with in-dept interview method has been conducted to the old-aged female subcontracting cleaning workers in Korea. The result of this study is as follows. It was the income insecurity that led them to (re)enter the labour market, and the cleaning work was the almost the only wage work they could do considering their age and gender. Cleaning workers are mostly employed in the subcontracting company, and thus their labour contracts depend on the business contract period between the original and subcontracting company. Consequently, their employment relationship is mostly insecure unless they are guaranteed employment succession through the collective agreement of trade union. Moreover, it has been discovered that the employment insecurity due to the indirect employment relationship led to the poor labour conditions, low wage, and the exclusion from the social safety net.

Myanmar in 2016: Starting of New Era, But Uncertain Future (미얀마 2016: 새로운 시대의 시작, 불안한 미래)

  • JANG, Jun Young
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.185-212
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    • 2017
  • The National League for Democracy (NLD) has restored a civilian government since the military had taken political power in 1962 as a result of general elections on 7, November 2015. But Daw Aung San Suu Kyi could not take part in the presidential election due to some restraints in constitution, so new government created the state counsellor position and the ministry of sate counsellor's office against military's resistance. It never publicized whether the military has to back to barracks including abolish of military's occupying the parliament seats. The ruling party is still taking laissez-faire to the military's political and economic role. The National level Ceasefire Agreement called the 21st Panglong conference launched in the end of August for a week, but stakeholders only insisted their demands. Rohingya issue is not involved in the 21st Panglong conference which aims to achieve national unity. The U.S. fully lifted a comprehensive sanction toward Myanmar since 1993, Japan promised huge grant assistance succeeding the former quasi civilian government. China strived to restore alienated relations of two countries. Although Korea kept Official Development Assistance, the summit which was planed two times in 2016 did not hold. The civilian government announced twelve points of developmental agenda in July 2016, instead of destroying the national development policy of the Thein Sein government. This agenda only showed the direction of policy not road map which was the same trend of the former government. The main direction of economic development stressed agriculture but manufacture like light industry was ignored.

Estimating the Elasticity of Crude Oil Demand in Korea (한국 원유수요의 탄력성 추정)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Kyung-Soo
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.65-81
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    • 2018
  • This study estimated the long-run and the short-run price and income elasticity of crude oil demand by using the ARDL model in Korea. First, the long-run cointegration relationship existed between crude oil demand and price or income in the ARDL-bounds tests. Second, the long-run own price, the cross price elasticity and the income elasticity were both statistically significant elastic and sensitive in the ARDL. Third, there was autocorrelation of the residuals, but no misspecification errors and heteroscedasticity, and then the residuals showed a normal distribution. And the CUSUM & CUSUMSQ tests showed that the coefficients were stable. Fourth, the short-run own price, the cross price elasticity and the income elasticity were both statistically significant elastic and sensitive in the ARDL-RECM. The ECM with the short-run dynamics showed rapid adjustments in the long-run equilibrium of oil demand after the economic crisis. In the short-run, the sensitivity of crude oil demand to price and income changes has moved in the same direction as the long-run case. Korea, depending too much on foreign crude oil, is vulnerable to the shocks of oil prices, so rising oil prices can certainly have a negative impact on Korea's trade balance. And the elasticity of long-run oil prices may help to control and manage Korea's oil demand. The government needs to strengthen monitoring of the country's policies and market trends related to crude oil, establish strategies to customize national policies and market conditions, and strengthen active market dominance efforts through pioneering new market and diversification.

The Development of Gangnam and the Formation of Gangnam-style Urbanism : On the Spatial Selectivity of the Anti-Communist Authoritarian Developmental State (강남 개발과 강남적 도시성의 형성 - 반공 권위주의 발전국가의 공간선택성을 중심으로 -)

  • Ji, Joo-Hyoung
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.307-330
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    • 2016
  • This article aims to explain how Gangnam, as a model and standard of compressed urbanization in South Korea, was created. Gangnam and Gangnam-style urbanization need attention not only because they contrast with Korea's urbanization in the past as well as urbanization in the West but also they provide an important model in contemporary Korea's politics, economy and culture. However, there are little studies of how Gangnam's peculiar urbanism was created. To fill this gap, this article will first capture Gangnam's peculiar urbanism as a material landscape and sociocultural lifestyle. Gangnam-style urbanism is (a) materially characterized by high-rise apartment complexes owned by the middle and upper class for dwelling and asset growth and (b) socio-culturally characterized by political conservatism, public indifference, competition over academic performance, appearance, and fashion, and nightlife. Then it will show Gangnam's archetype was created in a spatially and temporally compressed way in and through the spatial selectivity of Korean anti-communist authoritarian developmental state strategies: (1) anti-communism led to the diffusion and accommodation of the population through apartments in Gangnam in the context of its confrontation with North Korea and the fast-growing population of Seoul; (2) military authoritarianism excluded the low-income class and the urban poor from urban development; and (3) the developmental state adopted selective housing policy which treated construction companies and the middle class preferentially through exceptional zoning and price distortions, promoting the construction of apartment in Gangnam and its resultant uneven development.

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The Implementation and limits of Involuntary Detention of the Tuberculosis Prevention Act (결핵예방법의 격리명령의 실행과 한계에 관하여)

  • Kim, Jang Han
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.55-84
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    • 2015
  • The tuberculosis is the infectious disease. Generally, the active tuberculosis patient can infect the 10 persons for one year within the daily activities like casual conversation and singing together. The infectivity of tuberculosis can continue for a life time, and infected persons can remain at risk for developing active tuberculosis. To control this contagious disease, along with the active tuberculosis patients, non-infectious but non-compliant patients who can be infectious if their immune systems become impaired have to be managed. To control the non-complaint patients, medical treatment order should be combined with the public order. Because tuberculosis is the risk of community health, the human rights like liberty and freedom of movement can be restricted for public welfare under the article 37(2) of constitution. Even when such restriction is imposed, no essential aspect of the freedom or right shall be violated. The degree of restriction on the rights of citizens is different what methods are chosen to non-complaint patients. For example, under the directly observed therapy program, the patients and medical staffs make an appointment and meet to confirm the drug intakes according to the schedule, which is the medical treatment combined with the mildest public order. If the patients break the appointments or have the history of disobedient, the involuntary detention can obtain the legitimate cause. The Tuberculosis Prevention Act has the two step programs on this involuntary detention, The admission order (Article 15) is issued when the patients are infectious. The quarantine order (Artle 15-2) is issued when the patients are infectious and non-complaint. The legal criteria for involuntary detention are discussed and published through the international conventions and covenants. For example, World Health Organization had made guidance on human rights and involuntary detention for tuberculosis control. The restrictions should be carried out in accordance with the our law and in the legitimate objective of public interest. And the restriction should be based on scientific evidence and not imposed in an unreasonable or discriminatory manner. We define and adopt these international criteria under our constitution and legal system. Least restrictive alternative principle, proportionality principle and the individual evaluation methods are explained through the reviews of United States court decisions. Habeas Corpus Act is reviewed and adopted as the procedural due process to protect the patient rights as a citizen. Along with that, what conditions and facilities which are needed to performed quarantine order are discussed.

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