• Title, Summary, Keyword: 공적이전

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Time-Varying Income Elasticity of CO2 emission Using Non-Linear Cointegration (비선형 공적분모형을 이용한 이산화탄소 배출량의 소득탄력성 추정)

  • Lee, Sungro;Kim, Hyo-Sun
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.473-496
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    • 2014
  • This paper intends to test the non-linear relationship between $CO_2$ emissions and income by employing cointegration model of the time-varying income elasticity. We select France, UK, Italy, Japan, US, China, India, Mexico and Korea and use non-parametric time series analysis on each country in order to estimate its own effect of income on $CO_2$ emission. The main results indicate that the $CO_2$ emission-income elasticities vary over time and the income elasticities of the Annex I countries tend to be higher in absolute terms than those of developing countries. In addition, we find that emission-income elasticities decrease for Annex I countries over time, whereas those for developing countries increase.

The Financial Stability of Before-and-after Retirement -Expectation and Support for the Quality of the Elderly Life- (은퇴 전후 세대 재정안정성 -노년기 삶의 수준에 대한 기대와 지원-)

  • Kim, Eunyoung
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.66 no.1
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    • pp.61-85
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    • 2014
  • Lately, as the problem of the aged poverty becomes a big social issue, this paper studies the problem of financial stability with respect to the income and consumption of before-and-after retirement generations. After dividing the data in Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing(KLoSA) into retired and non-retired groups, this study compares the difference among ageing groups by cross analysis and t-test. First, the result tells that the total personal income of retired group is lower than the one of non-retired group. Second, the public pension income benefit ratio of retired group is only 30% of it's total income, and the amount of public pension appears to be 40% of the total pension income. The benefit ratio of the personal pension income is low as about 1% in both groups, The private transfer income of the retired group takes relatively large portion in its total personal income. Third, as people gets older, financial stability gets worse because consumption does not decrease as much as the income decreases. Fourth, it is turned out that the expectation of old life supporting from nation is low in both groups. Fifth, the factors that affects the income of the public pension in the retired group are gender, age, education, and health status, when compared with the factors to the personal total income of the non-retired group. In terms of policy, this paper emphasizes the needs of the intensification of the public pension and the support for the revitalization of the personal pension.

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A Study on the Frame Model of Christian Citizenship Competency Education for Improving Communication Competency (소통역량 함양을 위한 기독시민역량교육 프레임 모형 연구)

  • Lee, Jin Won
    • Journal of Christian Education in Korea
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    • v.64
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    • pp.289-321
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    • 2020
  • Without overcoming the fragmented characteristics of the postmodern era and solving many difficulties as it is, our society is passing through a time of crisis more than ever because of Corona 19, a more rapid social disaster. As the crisis caused by the pandemic is prolonged, our society is becoming more diverse than before the coronavirus, and efforts in various fields of society are required to cultivate new capabilities to overcome social conflicts. This study started with an awareness of the necessity of reinforcing Christian civic education to fulfill the public responsibilities of Christians by recognizing the social and situational problems of this era as a public task amid in the crisis and change of the pendemic. Therefore, a meaningful work was undertaken to find an educational ministry practice frame for essential core competencies and transformative transformation competencies responding to changes in the times as education to cultivate and reinforce competencies as Christian citizens. First, the theoretical basis for competency education for Christian citizens was reviewed through the theological and Christian education theories that were studied in the situation of public theology about the public perception and social responsibility of Christians on the issues of the times. Furthermore, through this study, education to establish and cultivate the public identity of disciples-citizens as a Introductory education is explored in a multifaceted method of educational ministry, and educational methods were searched for cultivating communication competencies of Christian citizens with practical capacity of public faith. In conclusion, through this study, an educational ministry frame of identity cultivation, the core competency of recognizing the position of the public mission as a Christian citizen while living as a disciple of God's kingdom in the world and an educational frame to cultivate the ability to communicate as a transformative Christian citizen's transformative competency to carry out public tasks was systematically established, and an educational ministry convergence frame was proposed for cultivating core competencies and transformation competencies for Christian citizenship education.

Trends and Causes of Poverty among Urban Wage Earners' Households (도시 근로자 가구의 빈곤 추이(推移)와 원인에 관한 연구: 조세와 이전소득의 빈곤완화효과를 포함하여)

  • Kim, Kyo-Seong
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.59 no.2
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    • pp.143-169
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    • 2007
  • The major purpose of this study was to offer a comprehensive analysis of the changing trends and causes of poverty among urban wage earners' households from 1995 to 2005. In order to do that, this study used the micro data of "Income and Expenditure Survey of Urban Households" by the National Statistical Office(NSO) and GEE(Generalized estimating equation) regression model which is know as an appropriate method for the longitudinal and clustering data. The results show that (1) the numbers of poverty rate and poverty gap in recent years are even getting seriously worse than those in the IMF crisis. (2) Main characteristics of poor are female headed, old aged, low educated households, and having atypical working position. (3) Major determinants of poverty are also related to the variables as mentioned the above. (4) However, poverty reduction effect of public transfer increased preferably in recent years.

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A Study on the Influence of Elderly Household Characteristics on Housing Consumption according to Public Pension Receipt (중·고령자 가구의 소득의 특성이 주택소비규모에 미치는 영향: 공적연금수령유무를 중심으로)

  • Jung, Sang Joon;Lee, Chang Moo;Shin, Hye Young
    • Korea Real Estate Review
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.105-114
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    • 2018
  • According to Statistics Korea, South Korea has entered the realm of the "aging society" with the rapid development of the country's population. Researchers anticipate that the extremely high (73%) ratio of real estate property to total assets for mid-age to aged households in South Korea that do not have a fixed income may cause serious problems in the future. For example, the real estate market in South Korea may be bombarded with properties listed for sale, causing the average property price to drop due to the abundant supply. Although this prediction may be reasonable, this concept has excluded the idea of pension (which is crucial as it can be considered a consistent and fixed income) due to the limited amount of available data thereon; as such, it is important to include this factor to improve the pertinent research. Thus, this research was conducted using the data from the $3^{rd}$ and $5^{th}$ Korea Retirement and Income Study. For the study results, it was found that variables such as net asset, gender, education, and number of family members have the same impact as that found in the previous studies. To extend from here, two new factors were introduced: the existence of pensions and the amount of pension received by a household. From there, it was found that the existence of a consistent and fixed income such as a pension has led to an increase in housing consumption, the area of interest of the authors.

A Study on the Relocation of the National Registered Cultural Heritage in Redevelopment Project (재개발사업 부지 내 등록문화재 이전복원을 위한 개선방안 고찰 - 대전 대흥동 일·양 절충식 가옥 이전사례를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Young-Ju
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.9
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    • pp.480-486
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    • 2020
  • The National Registered Cultural Heritage no. 377, 'The Eclectic-style House in Daeheung-dong, Daejeon', was relocated in 2013, even though it was privately owned. The relocation of National Registered Cultural Heritage through an urban redevelopment project is rare because the restriction of the preservation of a cultural asset is relatively tolerated. For the sake of profit in a redevelopment project, a privately owned Registered Cultural Heritage is likely to be demolished with no laws to prevent it. This study researched the history of the heritage and the procedure of the relocation process. Based on the research, the study intends to clarify the relationship between the economic and legislative conditions with the result of the National Registered Cultural Heritage relocation in general. The failure of the successful relocation of the National Registered Cultural Heritage in redevelopment projects is caused mainly by a change of ownership, which is generally from personal to anonymous associations. Based on the condition, this study maintained the Cultural Heritage's redefinition as a public asset and proposed phased amendments in each major procedure of a redevelopment project for the successful preservation and reuse of National Registered Cultural Heritage.

국가 정밀기술진흥대회 3회연속 금상 수상 결과보고 및 공적내용(3)

  • Choe, Ju-Ho;Hong, Seong-Su
    • Defense and Technology
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    • no.4
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    • pp.24-33
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    • 2001
  • 군 무기체계를 연구개발하는 국방과학연구소가 정밀기술진흥대회 참가를 통해 대.내외적으로 공인된 관련기술들을 산업체에 개방 및 기술이전함으로써 국가산업 경쟁력 제고에 기여하였다. 지금은 세계 속의 경쟁력있는 연구소를 목표로 하고 있기 때문에 세계 수준의 첨단기술 및 기술 경쟁력을 확보하기 위해서는 대외적인 각종 정밀기술대회에 능동적으로 참가해야 할 필요성이 증대되고 있다. 따라서 연구소의 주체인 연구원들이 대외의 각종 정밀기술진흥대회에 자발적인 참가를 통해 자체 보유기술에 대한 대.내외 검증과 이로 인한 창의적인 기술개발을 보다 활성화시킬 수 있도록 연구소 차원의 지원과 관련제도의 뒷받침이 절실히 요구된다.

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M2의 예측력(豫測力) 약화(弱化)와 정책목표(政策目標)의 불안정성(不安定性) -1980년 이후(以後) 우리나라 통화신용정책(通貨信用政策)에 관한 연구(硏究)-

  • Sin, In-Seok
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.139-194
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    • 1997
  • 80년 이후 최근까지의 우리나라 통화정책과 관련하여 세 가지 질문을 던지고 그에 대한 답을 찾고자 하는 것이 본 논문의 목적이다. 첫 번째 질문은, '중간표적으로 이용되어온 M2의 물가와 산출량에 대한 예측력은 어떻게 변하여왔는가' 하는 것이다. 본 논문에서는 Granger인과성 검정과 VAR을 이용한 예측오차분산분해를 통하여 시간의 흐름과 함께 M2의 예측력이 약화되어왔음을 보일 것이다. 두 번째 질문은, '그렇다면 그 원인은 무엇인가' 하는 것이다. 본 논문에서는 통화수요함수의 장기적 안정성에 대한 공적분 검정을 통하여 90년까지의 표본에서 발견되던 안정성에 대한 증거가 96년까지의 표본에서의 사라짐을 보이고, 이같은 통화수요함수의 안정성 상실을 M2의 예측력 약화의 원인인 것으로 해석할 것이다. 본 논문의 마지막 질문은, 'M2타깃팅의 실제 운영이 인플레이션 및 성장률 안정과 일관되게 추진되어 왔는가' 하는 것이다. 본 논문에서는 통화정책의 반응함수 추정을 통하여 80년 이후 우리나라의 통화정책이 기간에 따라 정책목표가 변화되어 왔음을 보일 것이다. 85년 이전에는 인플레이션의 안정이 추구되었으나 86년에서 92년까지의 기간에는 경기부양이 중점적으로 추구되었던 것으로 보이고, 최근에 이르러서는 인플레이션 안정과 성장률 안정이 비교적 균형되게 추구되고 있는 것으로 평가된다.

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한국과 미국의 집권정당 정책과 계층별 소득분포 연구 - 요한슨 공적분 검정 -

  • Kim, Jong-Gwon
    • Proceedings of the Safety Management and Science Conference
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    • pp.301-314
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    • 2008
  • 미국 센서스 뷰로 데이터에 의하여 2차대전 후 민주당정부와 공화당정부의 실질 세전 소득증가율의 차이를 살펴볼 때 민주당정부 기간동안에 계층간의 소득불균형이 시정되면서 저소득계층의 소득증가율이 상대적으로 더 높았음을 알 수 있다. 반면에 공화당정부 기간동안에는 소득불균형이 심화되면서 저소득계층보다 고소득계층의 소득증가율이 더 높았다. 소득계층에서 하위 20%의 계층은 공화당정부의 기간동안에 비하여 민주당정부의 기간에 4배의 높은 소득증가율을 가졌다. 이는 양 정부별 실업률 차이에서 비롯되는 데 민주당정부의 기간 동안에 평균 30% 낮았으며 GDP성장률은 평균 30% 높았음에도 영향을 받은 것으로 판단된다. 이러한 정부별 차이는 1980년대 이후 세후 소득증가율에서도 나타나고 있다. 한편, 실증분석 결과에 따르면 한국의 경우 미국에서와 같이 저소득계층이 고소득계층 보다 거시경제정책에 따른 영향을 더 많이 받고 있음을 알 수 있었으며, 특히 신정부에서는 이전보다 적극적인 통화정책을 적절한 타이밍(timing)으로 실시하여야 할 필요성이 나타났다.

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International Comparison of the Income Distribution (소득분배의 국제비교를 통한 복지정책의 방향)

  • Yoo, Gyeongjoon
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.55-88
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    • 2003
  • When the definition of income and the equivalence scale was applied just as it was in the LIS (Luxembourg Income Study), the adjusted disposable income inequality calculated by Gini coefficients in Korea was 0.358 for the year 2000. Compare to the 1996 figure of 0.298 the increase of income inequality has skyrocketed. In addition, the adjusted market income inequality increased from 0.302 in 1996 to 0.374 in 2000. The disposable income inequality ranked the third and the market income inequality ranked at the mid level in 2000 among OECD countries. One significant finding in this paper was that the difference between the disposable income inequality and market income inequality in Korea is very small compared to those of other OECD countries. The relative poverty ratio, which is calculated by using 40% of the medium income bracket of the disposable income was calculated at 7.6% in 1996 and 11.5% in 2000. The poverty ratio in 2000 for Korea ranked one of the highest in OECD countries, also.

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