• Title, Summary, Keyword: 경관지수

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The Analysis of Landscape Ecological Effect of Forest by Trail-Building (등산로 개설에 의한 산림의 경관생태학적 영향 분석)

  • Lee, Woo-Sung;Park, Kyung-Hun;Kim, Dong-Pil
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.128-137
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of hiking trails on forest landscape's fragmentation, based on which also to assess the landscape-ecology-based integrity by small drainage area by selecting Bukhansan National Park as a survey target. The results of effect analysis are as follow; size of forest patch decreased; the density of patch and edge increased; patch shape became complicated; the dimensions of core area noticeably decreased and proximity degree between patch increased after trail-building. In addotion, the assessment results of overall landscape ecology-based integrity by small drainage basin showed that the Bukhansan catchment area was highest making 3.7 point, while Gugi catchment area was rated the lowest making 1.6 point. Putting the above results together, it is necessary to prohibit the opening up of unnecessary trails and to make room for ecological restoration of damaged and disturbance area to their original state as nature goes for landscape-ecology-based conservation and management of forests.

Study on Fish Diversity by Impervious Cover of Gyeongan-Stream Watershed (경안천 유역의 불투수면에 따른 어류다양성 연구)

  • Choi, Sun Hee;Kwon, Sun Soon;Lee, Sang Don
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.561-569
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    • 2012
  • This study estimates landscape indices of the Gyeongan-stream watershed from 1975 to 2000 by classifying the land cover into impervious cover and pervious cover depending on its state using a landscape analysis program. For the indicator of biodiversity this study uses Total Core Area(TCA) among landscape indices. The estimated TCA is then used along with an Impervious Cover Model(ICM) to compare the number of fish species that appear in the Gyeongan-stream watershed. In the relations between TCA and the impervious cover ratio, it has been found that as the impervious cover ratio increases, TCA decreases accordingly. It shows that as the ratio of impervious cover in the landscape increases due to urbanization and development, the critical area that individual species need for isolation from outside has decreased. Also, the monitoring of the number of fish species that appear in the Gyeongan-stream watershed shows that in the areas with low impervious cover ratio there are more fish species appearing that inhabit in clean, uncontaminated water. It has been identified that the Gyeongan-stream watershed falls into the category of Impacted Stream and that its state is worsening, and since the watershed in this area responds to the impervious cover ratio very sensitively, its fish diversity it is required to improve the state of the basin through its proper and careful management.

Analysis of Landscape Structure Change for Riparian Buffer Zone KyangAn Watershed (경안천 유역 수변구역 경관구조 변화 분석)

  • Kim, Kyung-Tak;Kim, Joo-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.74-83
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    • 2005
  • The Riparian Buffer Zone has many potential values including the preservation of water quality as well as being ecologically friendly. This study aims to quantitatively analyze the landscape structure index of the Riparian Buffer Zone in the Kyoung-an stream and to produce base information necessary for proper management. The study used aerial images that were applied to geometric corrections for a time series from 1966 to 2000 for land data and also used FRAGSTATS, which is a type of ARCVIEW extension module, as an analysis tool. An analysis of land use change and the Landscape Index revealed that the area of farm land has decreased and that the area of residential property has increased. In addition, there was a slight change for land used for purposes other than farming or for residence. The results of analyzing the Landscape Structure Index, revealed that the NP has increased from 437 in 1966 to 695 in 2000. This data reveals that the change of land use is influenced by various artificial factors. The NPS, which represents the declining degree of patch, decreased from 9.441 to 5.934, revealing that the change of land use has been progressing considerably. In regard to forest areas, land use reduced somewhat but did not indicate a significant change. Therefore, an analysis of the total index reveals that the edge of patch has become more complicated and that the variation index of patch has increased significantly. However, this study reveals that barriers to block pollution have weakened as a result and that there is a need to concentrate on the implementation and the management of the Riparian Buffer Zone. Consequently, this study reveals that substantial research is necessary in order to carry out the proper management of the Riparian Buffer Zone, especially in light of the distribution type of each patch and the change in conditions regarding them.

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Recent Spatio-temporal Changes of Landscape Structure, Heterogeneity and Diversity of Rural Landscape: Implements for Landscape Conservation and Restoration (한국 농산촌 경관의 구조와 이질성 및 다양성의 최근 변화: 경관의 보전과 복원과의 관계)

  • Hong, Sun-Kee;Rim, Young-Deuk;Nakagoshi, Nobukazu;Chang, Nam-Kee
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.359-368
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    • 2000
  • Landscape change is the modification and replacement of landscape elements in accordance with human management and natural disturbance on land mosaics. During landscape change, changes in patterns such as heterogeneity, diversity and shape, and juxtaposition of spatial elements are also accompanied. For the sustainable landscape system, therefore, spatial characteristics of the landscape should be considered in implementation of landscape conservation and restoration planning. Short-term changes of land-use and landscape pattern during the 10 years of 1980s and 1990s were investigated in the agriculture-forestry dominated landscape system through the statistics and the analysis of landscape-vegetation map. Study area is Yangdong-myon, Yangpyung-gun (37°27′30"N, 127°46′50"E), Kyonggi-do, in central Korea. Landscape change of this region was significantly related to the recent industrialization according to socio-economic development. Analyses of landscape pattern show that the area of secondary forest sustained by human activity decreased and it was replaced with large exotic plantations during this period. Area of paddy field was also extended. Fractal dimension of the total landscape increased, but that of paddy field area decreased due to rearrangement for mechanized farming. Moreover, the area of landscape management regimes such as plantation and cultivation increased in land mosaics during this period.

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Analysis of Waterfront Utilization Index Using Multi Criteria Decision Making (다기준의사결정을 이용한 친수공간 이용지수 분석)

  • Kim, Byeong-Chan;Kim, Man-Sik;Maeng, Bong-Jae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.195-195
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    • 2011
  • 국가하천의 주변지역을 체계적이고 계획적으로 조성 이용하여 난개발을 방지하고 지속가능한 발전을 도모하며, 그에 따른 이익을 하천의 정비 및 관리 등에 활용함으로써 공공복리의 증진에 기여함을 목적으로 하는 친수구역활용에 관한 특별법이 곧 시행될 예정이다. 친수는 단순히 하천 보전과 상대되는 수변이용의 측면이 아니라 하천의 경관, 생태계, 물 등 전체적인 하천공간에서 이루어지는 인간의 활동과 심리적 만족감으로 해석할 수 있다. 이러한 친수활동 유형을 정립하기 위하여 전문가 및 실무자들의 도움으로 설문지를 작성하고, 조사하였다. 또한 평가 항목간의 중요도를 합리적으로 부여하고자 전문가 집단 활용을 통한 다기준의사결정 기법 중 계층분석과정 AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process)와 이의 일반적인 형태인 ANP(Analytic Network Process) 기법을 이용하여 비교 분석하여 보았다. AHP는 의사결정의 목표 또는 평가기준이 다수이며 복합적인 경우, 다수의 속성들을 계층적으로 분류하여 각 속성의 중요도를 파악함으로써 최적 대안을 선정하는 기법으로 다수의 목표, 다수의 평가기준, 다수의 의사결정주체가 포함되어 있는 의사결정 문제를 계층화하여 해결한다. 그러나 의사결정 문제는 대부분 요소들 간의 수평적 상호작용과 수직종속성이 존재하기 때문에 단순히 계층적 구조만으로는 설명할 수 없는 경우가 있다. ANP는 AHP 분석을 확장한 개념으로 평가 요소가 계층구조를 가지고 있으면서 각 평가 요소간 네트워크 구조를 가지는 경우에 해당한다. 즉, 시스템 분석, 통합 및 조정을 위한 방법으로 요소들 간의 비선형 관계를 모델화하는 복잡한 의사결정에 적용이 가능하다. ANP는 AHP의 기본 공리인 독립성이 유지되지 않을 때도 적용할 수 있는 의사결정 방법이기 때문이다. AHP와 ANP 분석을 위해 평가기준은 하천특성, 생태환경특성, 인문환경특성, 경관, 유지관리 등으로 분류하였으며, 세부평가항목은 하천의 물리 생태학적 특성, 개발여건과 관련된 특성, 경관의 이용가치, 유지관리 용이성 등 20여 개로 나누었다. AHP와 ANP를 이용하여 친수공간 이용지수 가중치를 산정한 결과, 두 기법은 큰 차이를 보이지 않았다. 그러나 ANP를 이용하여 가중치를 결정하는 방법은 최종 결정의 공정성이나 신뢰성을 확보하는데 기여를 하는 것으로 나타났다.

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Landscape Analysis of Habitat Fragmentation in the North and South Korean Border (남북한 접경지역 개발에 따른 서식지 파편화에 대한 경관생태학적 분석)

  • Sung, Chan-Yong;Cho, Woo
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.952-959
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    • 2012
  • This study examined habitat fragmentation that has occurred in Paju and Yeoncheon, the two border municipalities between North and South Korea in Gyeonggi-do (province) during the last 17 years using various landscape metrics. We 1) classified grass and agricultural habitats and forest habitats from two Landsat TM images collected in 1990 and 2007, and 2) compared the percentage of class area, patch density, mean patch area, and mean perimeter area ratio for the two habitat types between the two time points. Both types of habitats has been severely fragmented due to urban development in the last 17 years. The increased patch density and decreased mean habitat area are attributed to the construction of roads and railroads that separate a large habitat to many small pieces. The increased mean perimeter area ratio also indicates that the habitat fragmentation extended areas that are affected by the edge effect and so less suitable for interior species. A habitat conservation plan is urgently needed to minimize habitat fragmentation from developments that are expected to soon occur in the north and south Korean border.

Spatio-temporal Changes of Urban Sprawl Process in Seoul Metropolitan Area : Spatial Structure-based Approach (수도권 스프롤 양상의 시공간적 변화 : 공간구조 기반 접근)

  • Lim, Sujin;Kim, Kamyoung
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.628-642
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    • 2016
  • In small countries such as Korea, rapid expansion of cities has been pointed out as the main cause of urban and environmental issues. In order to understand the urban problems caused by urban sprawl and prepare countermeasures for it, urban sprawl must be accurately measured first of all. The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatio-temporal changes of urban sprawl process in Seoul Metropolitan Area using landscape indices which measure the degree of urban sprawl in terms of urban structure such as area, distribution, and shape of urbanized area. FRAGSTATS, which is a tool for landscape analysis, is utilized to calculate landscape indices. Major findings are as follows. First, the urban sprawl in Seoul Metropolitan Area has been continually intensified since the late 1980s and this tendency was more clearer in the 1990s than the 2000s. While leapfrog development is relatively prominent in the 1990s, infilling development is remarkable in the 2000s. Second, the progress and development types of sprawl progress were different according to the zones which are defined based on Seoul Metropolitan Area Readjustment Planning Act. Congestion Restrain Zone shows the highest level of urban sprawl in terms of the evaluated landscape indices, but infilling development was predominant. In Growth Management Zone1, leapfrog development was dominant in the 1990s and infilling development in the 2000s. In Growth Management Zone1, leapfrog development has been continually remarkable since the late 1980s. Nature Conservation Zone shows the lowest level of sprawl, but its sprawl tendency is gradually being intensified. Third, the sprawl tendency in Seoul Metropolitan Area was different according to the distance and direction from Seoul. Urban sprawl was remarkable at Si-Guns close to Seoul in the late 1980s, Si-Guns close to Seoul and the southern part of Seoul in the late 1990s, and the southern and northern parts of Seoul in the late 2000s.

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Land Use Changes and Climate Patterns in Southeast Korea (우리나라 동남부 지역의 토지 이용과 기후 패턴 변화 분석)

  • Park, Sun-Yurp;Tak, Han-Myeong
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.47-64
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    • 2013
  • Landscape structure changes over the past three decades were determined with land use and land cover(LULC) maps, and their relationships with mean air temperature time series were the analyzed for the Busan metropolitan area and South Kyeongsang Province, Korea. The geometric structures of the LULC data were quantitatively represented based on FRAGSTATS, a spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure. FRAGSTATS-derived landscape metrics confirmed that there were major changes in LULC and landscape fragmentation in the region. Meteorological observation records showed that mean air temperature had increased from $14.1^{\circ}C$ in the 1990's to $14.8^{\circ}C$ in the 2000's in Busan. For South Kyeongsang Province, they increased from $13.2^{\circ}C$ to $13.9^{\circ}C$ during the same time period. These long-term temperature changes are correlated with typical spatial pattern changes of LULC in the southeastern region of the country. Spatial metrics analysis showed that urban area expanded from 9.7% to 26.8% of Busan while forest and agricultural land decreased by 9.6% and 14.9%, respectively over the past thirty years. The significant urbanization are tightly associated with deforestation, removal of agricultural land, and fast temperature increases since the 1990's. The urban area of South Kyeongsang Province rapidly increased, and it became 12 times as large as it was. The degree of temperature increases differed among three different sub-regions. The temperature increasing rate was lowest in the coastal region while the colder mountainous region had the highest figure.

Development of an Approach for Analysing Vegetation Community Mosaic Using Landscape Metrics (경관지수를 활용한 식생군락 모자이크화 분석법)

  • Lee, Peter Sang-Hoon;Jeong, Jong-Chul
    • Journal of Cadastre & Land InformatiX
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.161-178
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    • 2017
  • Whereas the demand for development of forested areas covering more than 60% of Korean territory, permission on the forest development has been still given from the perspective of effective land utilization rather than conservation. As the assessment of large forested areas usually focuses more on forest structure, it has its limitation of observing and analyzing the interior change in forest in this way. This study was aimed at computing landscape metrics using a presence vegetation map and FRAGTSTATS 4.2 and analyzing vegetation mosaics. Colonies in native vegetation were classified into a series of major groups and sub-groups based on the native species within the colonies. The colonies were investigated by analyzing a suite of landscape metrics - Core Area, Percentage of Landscape, Number of Patches, Patch Density, Largest Patch Index, Total Edge, Edge Density, Landscape Shape Index, Mean Patch Area, Euclidean Nearest Neighbor. In the Chungnam province major groups and sub-groups of colonies classified based on the proportion of pine and oak species, and pine species was the principal one in terms of distribution area. As for the competition between pines and oaks, while the coverage of pine-centered colonies were three times larger than those of oak-centered ones, pine colonies showed the greater number of patches and therefore higher fragmentation than oaks at the major group level. For the sub-groups, the largest coverage colonies were not only indicated by Pinus densiflora-Quesrcus mongolica colonies among P. densiflora-centered colonies, Q. accutissima colonies among Q. accutissima-centered ones, Q. accutissima-P. densiflora colonies among Q. accutissima-centered ones, Q. mongolica colonies among Q. mongolica-centered ones, P. thumbergii colonies among P. thumbergii-centered ones, and Q. serrata-Q. acutissima colonies among Q. serrata-centered ones, but also revealed more severely mosaicked than other smaller colonies. The overall mosaicking degree estimated by landscape metrics was considered useful for monitoring and investigating vegetation. However, in order to develop management strategy based on analyzing the reason for the mosaicking process and anticipating a trend in vegetation succession, it is essential to further study about ecological characteristics of each colony in the vegetation.