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A 3-D Measuring System of Thermoluminescence Spectra and Thermoluminescence of CaSO4 : Dy, P (열자극발광 스펙트럼의 3차원 측정 장치와 CaSO4 : Dy, P의 열자극발광)

  • Lee, Jung-Il;Moon, Jung-Hak;Kim, Douk-Hoon
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.71-75
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    • 2001
  • In this paper, a three-dimensional measuring system of thermoluminescence(TL) spectra based on temperature, wavelength and luminescence intensity was introduced. The system was composed of a spectrometer, temperature control unit for thermal stimulation, photon detector and personal computer for control the entire system. Temperature control was achieved by using feedback to ensure a linear-rise in the sample temperature. Digital multimeter(KEITHLEY 195A) measures the electromotive force of Copper-Constantan thermocouple and then transmits the data to the computer through GPIB card. The computer converts this signal to temperature using electromotive force-temperature table in program, and then control the power supply through the D/A converter. The spectrometer(SPEX 1681) is controlled by CD-2A, which is controlled by the computer through RS-232 communication port. For measuring the luminescence intensity during the heating run, the electrometer(KEITHLEY 617) measures the anode current of photomultiplier tube(HAMAMATSU R928) and transmits the data to computer through the A/D converter. And, we measured and analyzed thermoluminescence of $CaSO_4$ : Dy, P using the system. The measuring range of thermoluminescence spectra was 300K-575K and 300~800 nm, $CaSO_4$ : Dy. P was fabricated by the Yamashita's method in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) for radiation dosimeter. Thermoluminesce spectra of the $CaSO_4$ : Dy, P consist of two main peak at temperature of $205^{\circ}C$, wavelength 476 nm and 572 nm and with minor ones at 658 nm and 749 nm.

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SI-traceable Calibration of a Transmissometer for Meteorological Optical Range (MOR) Observation (기상관측용 투과형 시정계의 국제단위계에 소급하는 교정)

  • Park, Seongchong;Lee, Dong-Hoon;Kim, Yong-Gyoo
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 2015
  • This work demonstrates the indoor SI-traceable calibration of a transmissometer with a 75-m baseline for the measurement of visibility in MOR (Meteorological Optical Range). The calibration is performed using a set of neutral density (ND) filters (OD 0.1-2.5) and a set of high-transmission quartz glass plates (a bare quartz glass plate and antireflective-coated quartz glass plates), the collection consisting of 20 artifacts in total. The luminous transmittance values of the reference artifacts had been calibrated traceable to the KRISS spectral transmittance scale, which ranges from 0.2 % to 99.5 %. The transmissometer to be calibrated typically consists of a loosely collimated light source based on a white LED (CCT ~5000 K) and a luminous intensity detector with a CIE 1924 V(${\lambda}$) spectral response. As a result of calibration, we obtained the MOR error and its uncertainty for the transmissometer in 20 m - 40 km of MOR. Based on the results, we investigated the applicability of the calibration method and the conformity of the transmissometer to the ICAO's (International Civil Aviation Organization) accuracy requirement for meteorological visibility measurement. We expect that this work will establish the standard procedure for the SI-traceable calibration of a transmissometer.

Comparison of sample storage containers for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) (휘발성유기물(VOC) 분석을 위한 시료보관 용기의 비교)

  • Kim, Seokyung;Kim, Dalho
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.116-123
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    • 2022
  • Polymer bags, metallic canisters, and glass bottles have been used as containers for analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. In this study, various sampling containers were compared to investigate the short-term stability of VOCs, that is, from the time they are sampled to the time they are analyzed. Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), polypropylene (PP), polyester aluminum (PE-Al) bags, canisters, and glass bottles were used as sample containers. A 100 nmol/mol standard gas mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, styrene, and o-xylene was used for the VOC comparison. Changes in the concentrations of samples stored for 10~20 day in each container were measured using a thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector (TD-GC-FID). As a result, VOCs stored in a canister and two kinds of amber glass bottles have shown immaterial decreases in concentration in one week, and more than 80 % of the initial concentration was maintained for two weeks. In the case of polymer bags, the concentration of all VOCs, except benzene and toluene, were remarkably decreased below 70% of the initial concentration in one day. Particularly, ethylbenzene, xylene, and styrene have shown dramatic decreases in concentration below 30 % of the initial concentration in all polymer bags in one day.

Effect of Red Ginseng Total Saponin on Sciatic Nerve Regeneration (홍삼사포닌이 좌골신경 재생에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Hye-Jeong;Lee, Hae-June;Kang, Seong-Soo;Lee, Soo-Han;Cho, Ick-Hyun;Lee, Jong-Hwan;Nah, Seung-Yeol;Park, Chang-Hyun;Uhm, Chang-Sub;Bae, Chun-Sik
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2003
  • We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on the regeneration process of experimentally crush injured rat sciatic nerves. The bilateral sciatic nerves of fifty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were compressed surgically with a straight hemostat for 30 seconds with 1 mm width. Twenty rats were divided into four groups to test the dose-dependent effect of GTS (0, 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg, i.p.). Saline for vehicle control group or GTS dissolved in saline was administerd for three weeks. After that period of time, the numbers of total myelinated axon and degenerated myelin in the sciatic nerves of bilateral legs were examined and analyzed using image analysis system to confirm a morphological effect of GTS. We found that the most effective concentration of GTS for the regeneration of damaged sciatic nerve was 150 mg/kg. In another set of experiment, thirty rats were divided into two groups as saline-treated vehicle group and GTS-treated group (150 mg/kg, i.p.) for three weeks. Every week we examined the numbers of total myelinated axon and degenerated myelin in the sciatic nerves of bilateral legs using image analysis system to evaluate the effect of GTS on injured nerves. We found that the regeneration of damaged sciatic nerves was facilitated in GTS-treated group compared to saline-treated group until two weeks. However, after that period of time we could not observe the significant difference between saline-treated group and GTS-treated group. These results suggest that GTS is a useful adjuvant therapy for the regeneration of the peripheral nerve injury in short period of treatment.

Simultaneous Determination and Mornitoring of Aflatoxin and Ochratoxin A in Food (식품 중 아플라톡신과 오크라톡신 A의 동시분석법 개발 및 모니터링)

  • Park, Ji-Won;Yoo, Myung-Sang;Kuk, Ju-Hee;Ji, Young-Ae;Lee, Jin-Ha
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 2013
  • The simultaneous analysis and monitoring of aflatoxin $B_1$, $G_1$, $B_2$, $G_2$ and ochratoxin A in foods were carried out by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The samples were extracted with methanol/water mixture. The extract was centrifuged, diluted with phosphate buffer saline (PBS), filtered, and applied to an immunoaffinity column containing antibodies specific to both aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. After washing the column with PBS and water, the toxins were eluted from the column with methanol, and quantified by HPLC, with a run time of approximately 30 min. The recoveries for aflatoxin $B_1$, $G_1$, $B_2$, $G_2$ and ochratoxin A in foods were 78.4~101.5%, 73.3~102.1%, 81.7~106.7%, 67.0~104.6% and 78.7~120.8%, respectively. The limits of detection of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A ranged from 0.05 to $0.18{\mu}g/kg$. According to monitoring result with the established method, aflatoxin $B_1$ and ochratoxin A were found in 13 of 151 domestic commercial foods. The contamination levels were $0.32{\sim}1.80{\mu}g/kg$ for aflatoxin $B_1$ and $0.97{\mu}g/kg$ for ochratoxin A. Therefore, this study showed all commercial foods monitored were safe under the Korean standards for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A.

Detection and Measurement of Nuclear Medicine Workers' Internal Radioactive Contamination (핵의학과 종사자의 방사성동위원소 체내오염 측정)

  • Jeong, Gyu-Hwan;Kim, Yong-Jae;Jang, Jeong-Chan;Lee, Jai-Ki
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.123-131
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: We tested a sample of nuclear medicine workers at Korean healthcare institutions for internal contamination with radioactive isotopes, measuring concentrations and evaluating doses of individual exposure. Materials and Methods: The detection and measurement was performed on urine samples collected from 25 nuclear medicine workers at three large hospitals located in Seoul. Urine samples were collected once a week, 100~200 mL samples were gathered up to 6~10 times weekly. A high-purity germanium detector was used to measure gamma radiations in urine samples for the presence of radioactive isotopes. Based on the detection results, we estimated the amounts of intake and committed effective doses using IMBA software. In cases where committed effective doses could not be adequately evaluated with IMBA software, we estimated individual committed effective doses for radionuclides with a very short half life such as $^{99m}Tc$ and $^{123}I$, using the methods recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency. Results: Radionuclides detected through the analysis of urine samples included $^{99m}Tc$, $^{123}I$, $^{131}I$ and $^{201}Tl$, as well as $^{18}F$, a nuclide used in Positron Emission Tomography examinations. The committed effective doses, calculated based on the radionuclide concentrations in urine samples, ranged from 0 to 5 mSv, but were, in the majority of cases, less than 1 mSv. The committed effective dose exceeded 1 mSv in three of the samples, and all three were workers directly handling radioactive sources. No nurses were found to have a committed effective dose in excess of 1 mSv. Conclusions: To improve the accuracy of results, it may be necessary to conduct a long-term study, performed over a time span wide enough to allow the clear determination of the influence of seasonal factors. A larger sample should also help increase the reliability of results. However, as most Korean nuclear medicine workers are currently not necessary to monitored routinely for internal contamination with radionuclides. Notwithstanding, a continuous effort is recommended to reduce any unnecessary exposure to radioactive substances, even if in inconsequential amounts, by regularly surveying workplace environments and frequently monitoring atmospheric concentrations of radionuclides.

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Measurement and Monte Carlo Simulation of 6 MV X-rays for Small Radiation Fields (선형가속기의 6 MV X-선에 대한 소형 조사면 측정과 몬테 카를로 시뮬레이션)

  • Jeong Dong Hyeok;Lee Jeong Ok;Kang Jeong Ku;Kim Soo Kon;Kim Seung Kon;Moon Sun Rock
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : In order to obtain basic data for treatment plan in radiosurgery, we measured small fields of 6 MV X-rays and compared the measured data with our Monte Carlo simulations for the small fields. Materials and Methods : The small fields of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 cm in diameter were used in this study. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and beam Profiles of those fields were measured and calculated. A small semiconductor detector, water phantoms, and a remote control system were used for the measurement Monte Carlo simulations were Performed using the EGS4 code with the input data prepared for the energy distribution of 6 MV X-rays, beam divergence, circular fields and the geometry of the water phantoms. Results : In the case of PDD values, the calculated values were lower than the measured values for all fields and depths, with the differences being 0.3 to 5.7% at the depths of 20 to 20.0 cm and 0.0 to 8.9% at the surface regions. As a result of the analysis of beam profiles for all field sizes at a depth of loom in water phantom, the measured 90% dose widths were in good agreement with the calculated values, however, the calculated Penumbra radii were 0.1 cm shorter than measured values. Conclusion : The measured PDDs and beam profiles agreement with the Monte Carlo calculations approximately. However, it is different when it comes to calculations in the area of phantom surface and penumbra because the Monte Carlo calculations were performed under the simplified geometries. Therefore, we have to study how to include the actual geometries and more precise data for the field area in Monte Carlo calculations. The Monte Carlo calculations will be used as a useful tool for the very complicated conditions in measurement and verification.

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Dosimetric Analysis of Respiratory-Gated RapidArc with Varying Gating Window Times (호흡연동 래피드아크 치료 시 빔 조사 구간 설정에 따른 선량 변화 분석)

  • Yoon, Mee Sun;Kim, Yong-Hyeob;Jeong, Jae-Uk;Nam, Taek-Keun;Ahn, Sung-Ja;Chung, Woong-Ki;Song, Ju-Young
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 2015
  • The gated RapidArc may produce a dosimetric error due to the stop-and-go motion of heavy gantry which can misalign the gantry restart position and reduce the accuracy of important factors in RapidArc delivery such as MLC movement and gantry speed. In this study, the effect of stop-and-go motion in gated RapidArc was analyzed with varying gating window time, which determines the total number of stop-and-go motions. Total 10 RapidArc plans for treatment of liver cancer were prepared. The RPM gating system and the moving phantom were used to set up the accurate gating window time. Two different delivery quality assurance (DQA) plans were created for each RapidArc plan. One is the portal dosimetry plan and the other is MapCHECK2 plan. The respiratory cycle was set to 4 sec and DQA plans were delivered with three different gating conditions: no gating, 1-sec gating window, and 2-sec gating window. The error between calculated dose and measured dose was evaluated based on the pass rate calculated using the gamma evaluation method with 3%/3 mm criteria. The average pass rates in the portal dosimetry plans were $98.72{\pm}0.82%$, $94.91{\pm}1.64%$, and $98.23{\pm}0.97%$ for no gating, 1-sec gating, and 2-sec gating, respectively. The average pass rates in MapCHECK2 plans were $97.80{\pm}0.91%$, $95.38{\pm}1.31%$, and $97.50{\pm}0.96%$ for no gating, 1-sec gating, and 2-sec gating, respectively. We verified that the dosimetric accuracy of gated RapidArc increases as gating window time increases and efforts should be made to increase gating window time during the RapidArc treatment process.

List-event Data Resampling for Quantitative Improvement of PET Image (PET 영상의 정량적 개선을 위한 리스트-이벤트 데이터 재추출)

  • Woo, Sang-Keun;Ju, Jung Woo;Kim, Ji Min;Kang, Joo Hyun;Lim, Sang Moo;Kim, Kyeong Min
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.309-316
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    • 2012
  • Multimodal-imaging technique has been rapidly developed for improvement of diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic effects. In despite of integrated hardware, registration accuracy was decreased due to a discrepancy between multimodal image and insufficiency of count in accordance with different acquisition method of each modality. The purpose of this study was to improve the PET image by event data resampling through analysis of data format, noise and statistical properties of small animal PET list data. Inveon PET listmode data was acquired as static data for 10 min after 60 min of 37 MBq/0.1 ml $^{18}F$-FDG injection via tail vein. Listmode data format was consist of packet containing 48 bit in which divided 8 bit header and 40 bit payload space. Realigned sinogram was generated from resampled event data of original listmode by using adjustment of LOR location, simple event magnification and nonparametric bootstrap. Sinogram was reconstructed for imaging using OSEM 2D algorithm with 16 subset and 4 iterations. Prompt coincidence was 13,940,707 count measured from PET data header and 13,936,687 count measured from analysis of list-event data. In simple event magnification of PET data, maximum was improved from 1.336 to 1.743, but noise was also increased. Resampling efficiency of PET data was assessed from de-noised and improved image by shift operation of payload value of sequential packet. Bootstrap resampling technique provides the PET image which noise and statistical properties was improved. List-event data resampling method would be aid to improve registration accuracy and early diagnosis efficiency.

[ 137Cs] and 40K Activities of Foodstuffs Consumed in Jeju (제주지역에서 소비되는 식품 중 137Cs과 40K 방사능 농도)

  • Kang, Tae-Woo;Hong, Kyung-Ae;Park, Won-Pyo;U., Zang-Kual
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.52-58
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    • 2004
  • This work was conducted to provide the reference data of radioactivity in the foodstuffs at a radiological emergency situation in Jeju Island The sampled foodstuffs were agricultural (31), livestock (6), marine (12) and forest products (4), and processed foods (3) consumed by Jeju Islanders. $^{137}Cs$ and $^{40}K$ activities were determined by HPGe r-ray spectromety. The activity ranges of $^{137}Cs$ was ${\sim}650\;mBq/kg$ fresh in the agricultural products, ${\sim}131\;mBq/kg$. fresh in the livestock, ${\sim}834\;mBq/kg$ fresh in the forest, ${\sim}253\;mBq/kg$ fresh in the marine and $32.0{\sim}483\;mBq/kg$. fresh in the processed foods (tea). In case of $^{40}K$ the activity was $16.6{\sim}542\;Bq/kg$. fresh in the agricultural products, $39.1{\sim}294\;Bq/kg$ fresh in the livestock, $85.5{\sim}116\;Bq/kg$ fresh in the forest, $50.1{\sim}657\;Bq/kg$ fresh in the marine, and $33.6{\sim}1,065\;Bq/kg$ fresh in the processed foods (tea). The highest activity of $^{137}Cs$, 834mBq/kg fresh was observed in oak mushroom and $^{40}K$ 1,065 Bq/kg fresh in coffee. Annual effective doses of $^{137}Cs$ and $^{40}K$ by intake of foodstuffs per capita were the following order; agricultural products (66,543 nSv) > livestock products (19,311 nSv) > processed foods (6,648 nSv) > marine products (6,579 nSv) > forest products (860 nSv). Therefore, total annual effective dose was summed 99,941 nSv which is quite low level comparing to the annual effective dose by external exposure, 2,400,000 nSv. The data obtained in this study can be useful for monitoring whether the foodstuffs are contaminated or not at an emergency radiation accident, and showed that the foodstuffs consumed in Jeju are safe in terms of annual effective dose of $^{137}Cs$ and $^{40}K$