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Quality Characteristics and Anti-Diabetic Effect of Yacon Vinegar (야콘 식초의 품질특성 및 항당뇨 효과)

  • Lee, Mi-Kyung;Choi, Sa-Ra;Lee, Jin;Choi, Yun-Hong;Lee, Ju-Hye;Park, Kyung-Uk;Kwon, Seung-Hyek;Seo, Kwon-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to investigate the physiochemical properties and anti-diabetic effect of yacon vinegar by two-step fermentation. Yacon was matured at room temperature for 20 days. The sugar content of yacon juice prepared from mature yacon was approximately $14^{\circ}Brix$. In the first stage, yacon wine was produced from the juice at $28^{\circ}C$ for 6 days. In the second stage, acetic acid fermentation was conducted at $30^{\circ}C$ and 200 rpm for 6 days to produce yacon vinegar with 4.75% acidity. The major free sugars of yacon vinegar were glucose and fructose at 2,072.12 mg% and 463.95 mg%, respectively. The acetic acid content was the highest of the major organic acids at 3,881.44 mg%. The total free amino acid content was 62.88 mg% with the main free amino acids being proline, ${\gamma}$-amino-n-butyric acid and ornithine. The major minerals of yacon vinegar were Ca, K and Mg. The in vivo anti-diabetic activity of yacon vinegar was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic mice were administered orally with 10% yacon juice and two yacon vinegars (5% and 10%) at a dose of 7 mL/kg body weight once per day for 4 weeks. Five% yacon vinegar improved the fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance test significantly compared to the diabetic control group (p<0.05). Yacon vinegar increased the pancreatic C-peptide concentration in a dose-dependent manner. These results show that 5% yacon vinegar has a more potent effect on ameliorating hyperglycemia than 10% yacon juice.

Effects of Sugars on the Retrogradation of Rice Flour Gels (당 첨가가 쌀가루겔의 노화에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Cha-Ran;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.904-909
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    • 1996
  • To investigate effects of sugars on the retrogradation of rice flour gels, sucrose and isomaltooligosaccharide (1, 2, and 5%, w/w on the flour basis were added to 50% Dongjinbyeo rice flour gels and stored at different temperature $(20^{\circ}C,\;4^{\circ}C)$ far 1, 3 and 6 days. Changes on the degree of retrogradation (DR) of these rice flour gels were measured by α-amylase-iodine method, DSC and X-ray diffractometry. DRs of rice flour gels increased over storage and showed a rapid increase up to 3 days and then decreased thereafter. DRs of rice flour gels with sucrose or oligosaccharide also increased rapidly until 3 day storage but these values were lower than those of rice flour gels without sugar. DRs of rice flour gels with oligosaccharide were lower than those of gels with sucrose. Changes in enthalpy of rice flour gels measured by DSC showed the same tendency with those in DRs of rice flour gels by ${\alpha}-amylase-iodine$ method, but varied with sugar levels.

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Electrochemical Characteristics of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Spinel as 5 V Class Cathode Material for Lithium Secondary Batteries (5V급 고전압 양극 LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Spinel의 제조와 전기화학적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Sang-Hoon;Oh, Si-Hyoung;Lee, Byung-Jo;Cho, Won-Il;Cho, Byung-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.172-176
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    • 2005
  • Recently, many researches on the high-voltage 5 V class cathode material have focused on $LiNi_{0.5}Mn_{1.5}O_4$, where $Mn^{3+}$ in the existing $LiMn_2O_4 (Li[Mn^{3+}][Mn^{4+}]O_4)$ is replaced by $Ni^{2+}(Li[Ni^{2+}]_{0.5}[Mn^{4+}]_{1.5}O_4)$ in order to utilize $Ni^{2+}/Ni^{4+}$ redox reaction in the 5V region. The partial substitution of Mn in $LiMn_2O_4$ for other transition metal element, $LiM_yMn_{1-y}O_4$(M=Cr, Al, Ni, Fe, Co, Cu, Ga etc) is known as a good solution to overcome the problems associated with $LiMn_2O_4$ like the gradual capacity fading. In this study, we synthesized $LiNi_{0.5}Mn_{1.5}O_4$ through a mechanochemical process and investigated its morphological, crystallographic and electrochemical characteristics. The results showed that 4 V peaks had been found in the cyclic volammograms of the synthesized powders due to the existence of $Mn^{3+}$ from the incomplete substitution of $Ni^{2+}$ for $Mn^{3+}$ implying that the mechanochemical activation alone was not good enough to synthesize an exact stoichiometric compound of $LiNi_{0.5}Mn_{1.5}O_4$. The synthetic condition of mechanochemical process, such as type of starting materials, ball-mill and calcination condition was optimized for the best electrochemical performance.

Isolation and Morphological Identification of Fresh Water Green Algae from Organic Farming Habitats in Korea (유기농업 생태계로부터 담수 녹조류 분리 및 형태적 동정)

  • Kim, Min-Jeong;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Yong-Ki;Hong, Sung-Jun;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;Jee, Hyeong-Jin;Yun, Jong-Chul;Kim, Suk-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.743-760
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    • 2014
  • This study aimed to isolate and identify freshwater algae from the organic agricultural ecosystems and investigate its biological characteristics to study the possibility of utilizing a biomass freshwater algae in organic farming. In the survey area, average water temperature was $12.4{\sim}28.2^{\circ}C$ and the pH ranges were from 6.1 to 8.5. The solid culture method is more suitable than liquid culture method for isolation of freshwater algae with lower contamination level and higher isolation frequency. A total of 115 strains were isolated from six freshwater algae habitats in nine regions in Korea. BGMM (BG11 Modified Medium) amended with NaNO3 and $KNO_3$ as a nitrogen, and $Na_2CO_3$ as carbon source was designed to isolate and culture freshwater algae. Absorbance of freshwater algae culture has increased dramatically to four days and decreased after eight days after inoculation. CHK008 of the seven isolates showed the highest absorbance in seven days after culturing in BGMM. The optimal pH of BGMM for culturing freshwater algae was pH 6-7. As light intensity increased, growth of freshwater algae increased. Among the five kinds of carbon sources, glucose and galactose promoted good growth of freshwater algae in BGMM. The colony color of purified 16 green algae isolates showed a separation of green, dark and light green, and of them, eleven algae strains showed a strong fluorescent light under fluorescence microscopy. Cell size of the green algae showed a wide range of variation depending on the species. General morphology of the green algae strains was spherical. Chlamydomonas sp. was elliptical, and Chlorella sorokiniana was ellipsoidal and cylindrical. All strains of the green algae except for Chlamydomonas sp. did not have flagella. One isolate of Chlamydomonas sp. and five isolates of C. sorokiniana secreted mucus. Sixteen isolates of 16 green algae were identified as two family and six species, Chlorella vulgalis, C. sorokiniana, C. pyrenoidosa, C. kessleri, C. emersonii, and Chlamydomonas sp. based on their morphological characteristics.

Characterization of Chitin Deacetylase Produced from Mucor rouxii (Mucor rouxii가 생산한 Chitin deacetylase의 특성)

  • SOHN Heung-Sik;PARK Seong-Min;SON Byung-Yil;CHOI Hyeon-Mee;LEE Keun-Tai
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 1999
  • In order to degrade chitin by enzymatic hydrolysis, it is required from screening highly active deacetylase. To this end, we examined three fungal strains and it turned out that Mucor rouxii produced highly active deacetylase, this enzyme exhibited the highest enzymatic activity against colloidal chitin. The conditions for growing Mucor rouxii are as follows; the effective carbon source, nitrogen source, adequate initial pH, temperature and incubation time were $2\%$ glucose, $1.33\%$ yeast extract, $0.66\%$ pepton, 4.5, $25{\pm}2^{\circ}C$ and 48hr, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for purified enzyme activity were 5.5 and $40^{\circ}C$, respectively. The purified enzyme was stable at pH ranging from 4.5 to 5.5. However, the enzyme activity was decreased to less than $50\%$ at pH blow 45 and above 7.5. At temperatures above $50^{\circ}C$, the enzyme activity was decreased remarkably. The enzyme was inhibited by LiC1, $HgCl_2$, and $BaCl_2$, but stimulated by $CaCl_2$ and $ZnC1_2$, The activity of purified enzyme was increased by L-cysteine and 2-mercaptoethanol, while decreased by O-phenanthroline, p-CMB, EDTA, and iodoacetate. The $K_m$ and the $V_{max}$ value of purified enzyme were $1.2\%$ and 59.5 U/mg, respectively. The deacetylation activity of purified enzyme was not detected at optimal reaction condition when chitin particle suspension was used.

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Effect of Harvest Stage, Wilting and Crushed Rice on the Forage Production and Silage Quality of Organic Whole Crop Barely (수확시기, 예건 및 싸라기 처리가 유기 청보리의 사초 생산성 및 사일리지 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Lee, Hyun-Jin;Jeon, Kyeong-Hup;Yang, Ga-Young;Kwon, Chan-Ho;Sung, Ha-Guyn;HwangBo, Soon;Jo, Ik-Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2010
  • Although whole crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is now widely grown as a silage crop in Korea, forage production and silage quality of that for organic farm have not been published. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of harvest stage on forage production and quality of organic barley, and effect of field wilting and crushed rice for shortening of harvest date and improvement of forage quality. The experiment was split-plot design with three replications. Main plots were heading, milking and yellow stages, and sub-plot were field wilting for I day, crushed rice 10% (CR10%) and 15% (CR15%) treatments. The dry matter (DM) contents of heading, milking and yellow stages were 12.8%, 21.9% and 29.8%, respectively. The DM yields of heading, milking and yellow stages were 10,346, 15,819 and 18,336 kg/ha, respectively, and the total digestible nutrients (TDN) of these were 6,288, 9,550 and 10,178 kg/ha, respectively. The pH of milking stage showed low 4.00 pH values. The crude protein, ether extract, crude ash, non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and TDN contents were decreased as harvest stage progressed, while neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were increased. The crude ash (CA) of milking stage showed the lowest among harvest stages. Field wilting and crushed rice treatments decreased CA, NDF and ADF contents, and increased NFC and TDN contents. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) decreased with progressed harvest stage, while field wilting and crushed rice treatments increased that of barley silage. Lactic acid and total organic acid contents of milking stage were the highest, and butyric acid of milking stage was the lowest among harvest stage. The good effect of field wilting and crushed rice was observed in heading stage. The experiment results indicate that optimum harvest stage of barley silage for organic was milking stage. The field wilting and crushed rice additive could be recommended as effective method for shortening harvest date and increasing forage quality of organic barley silage

A Study on the Effect of Fluidizing Media on the N2O Production in Fluidized Bed Incineration of Sewage Sludge (하수슬러지 유동층 소각에서 유동매체가 N2O 발생에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jong-Ju;Lee, Seung-Jae;Ryu, In-Soo;Jeon, Sang Goo;Park, Yeong-Sung;Moon, Seung-Hyun
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.390-397
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of fluidizing media on $N_2O$ production in fluidized bed incineration of sewage sludge. The fluidized media were prepared in a form of 2 mm bead by mixing zeolite powders in our lab. Sand having 0.4 mm of the mean size showed 0.44 m/s of minimum fluidization velocity ($U_{mf}$), while the prepared zeolite media 0.5 m/s. When the ratio of fluidizing media height to the inside diameter of the incinerator (bed aspect ratio) increased from 1.4 to 3.1, it was found that $U_{mf}$ of the zeolite media was varied from 0.5 m/s to 0.7 m/s. Under the operation conditions in 1.79 of excess air ratio, $909^{\circ}C$ of bed temperature and ca. 1.65 m/s of superficial velocity, as the weight of fluidizing meadia was increased, $O_2$ concentration in the flue gas was slightly decreased, and $CO_2$ increased. Above 6 kg of fluidizing media weight (1.98 of bed aspect ratio), it was observed that $N_2O$ concentration was significantly reduced, which might result from the decomposition of $N_2O$ on the zeolite media rather than transformation of $N_2O$ to NOx. On the other hand, in a variation of the zeolite media mixing ratio to sand and bed temperature at a constant total bed height, significant difference was exhibited in $N_2O$ emission concentration according to the temperature. Considering the operation temperature in the incineration, the effective calcination temperature of the zeolite media was suggested to be around $900^{\circ}C$.

Chemical Compositions of Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata (발효더덕의 화학성분)

  • Park, Sung-Jin;Seong, Dong-Ho;Park, Dong-Sik;Kim, Seung-Seop;Gou, Jing-Yu;Ahn, Ju-Hee;Yoon, Won-Byung;Lee, Hyeon-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.396-400
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    • 2009
  • Dodok (Codonopsis lanceolata Bench. et Hook) root contains abundant pharmaceutical substances and is widely used as a food and a medicinal herb. To identify the major components, fermented Codonopsis lanceolata was analyzed for its chemical compositions prior to their pharmaceutical substances, which were used as the fundamental data. The contents of carbohydrate, crude protein, crude lipid and ash are 79.3%, 13.0%, 2.40% and 5.3%, respectively. The calories of fermented Codonopsis lanceolata was 390.5 kcal. Total dietary fiber was 47.4% of total carbohydrates. The protein was composed of 18 different amino acids. The contents of essential and non-essential amino acids were 8,118.18 mg and 10,913.42 mg. The K was the largest mineral followed by P, Ca and Mg, which means fermented Codonopsis lanceolata is alkali material. The contents of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 37.76%, 3.84%, and 35.64%, respectively. Therefore, the amount of the total unsaturated fatty acid was higher than that of any other plant. The content of crude saponin in fermented Codonopsis lanceolata was 60.1 mg/g. It is expected that a follow up study on fermented Codonopsis lanceolata through development and evaluation of processed foods for their functional properties would provide useful information as a source of medicinal foods.

Preparation and Quality Characteristics of Seasoned and Dried Fish Slice Products Using Rainbow Trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) (송어 육포의 제조와 품질 특성)

  • Heu, Min-Soo;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Ham, Joon-Sik;Park, Shin-Ho;Kim, Hye-Suk;Kang, Kyung-Tae;Jee, Seung-Joon;Lee, Jae-Hyoung;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.348-356
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    • 2008
  • For the effective use of rainbow trout, the seasoned and dried rainbow trout slice (SR) was prepared and its characterization was compared with the commercial skipjack tuna (CSS) and pork products (CSP) by determining chemical components and sensory evaluation. The moisture content of SR, 20.5%, was lower, and the lipid content of SR, 7.5%, was higher than those of commercial products, CSS and CSP. The protein content of SR (41.4%) was higher than that of CSS (28.6%), but lower than that of CSP (50.1%). The water activity of SR was 0.654, which was lower than those of CSS and CSP, 0.724 and 0.771, respectively. According to the results, the color of SR was lower in lightness and redness and higher in browning index and ${\Delta}$E value than that of commercial products. The texture of SR was harder than that of CSS, but softer than that of CSP. According to the result of taste value, the taste of SR was stronger than that of CSP, while weaker than that of CSS. The mineral (Ca, P, and Fe), total amino acid contents, and the n-3/n-6 of SR showed significant levels in nutrition and health functional senses.

Interpretation of Limestone Provenance, Materials and Making Characteristics for Lime-Soil Mixture on Tomb Barrier of the Yesan Mokri Site in Joseon Dynasty (조선시대 예산 목리유적 회격묘의 재질 및 제작특성과 석회의 산지 해석)

  • Lee, Chan Hee;Cho, Ji Hyun;Kim, Jiyoung
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.471-490
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated provenance of raw materials and making technique of lime-based materials used in the tomb barriers of the Yesan Mokri tombs from Joseon dynasty on the basis of analysis to material characteristics and physical properties. In the barrier materials, dry density and porosity are the highest value ($1.82g/cm^3$) and the lowest value (25.20%) in the south wall of No. 1 tomb, respectively. Dry density and porosity are inversely proportional in all barrier materials, but unconfined compressive strength, which is the highest value of $182.36kg/cm^2$ in the No. 2 tomb, does not show an interrelation with porosity and density. Mineral components in the lime-soil mixtures of the tomb barrier are mainly quartz, feldspar, mica and calcite about 200 to $600{\mu}m$ size with yellowish brown matrix. Hydrotalcite and portlandite are detected in the lime mixture, and kaolinite in the soils. The lime materials of the tomb barrier occurred in large quantities weight loss and variable endothermic peaks caused by decarbonization reaction of $CaCO_3$ in the range from 600 to $800^{\circ}C$ in thermal analysis. Making temperature of lime for the tomb barrier is presumed approximately about $800^{\circ}C$ based on the occurrences, compositions and thermal analysis. The tomb barriers are revealed to very wide composition ranges of major elements and loss-on-ignition (22.5 to 33.6 wt.%) owing to mixture of the three materials (lime, sand and clay). It is interpreted that low quality construction technique was applied as the limes are very heterogeneous mixture with aggregates, and curing of the lime was poorly processed in the tomb barriers. Possible limestone sources are distributed in many areas around the Mokri site where limestone conformation and quarries for commercial production are found within Yesan and Hongseong areas. Therefore, we estimated that raw materials were possibly supplied from the local mines near the Mokri site.