• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\gamma}$-oryzanol

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Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanolic Extracts from Milling Fractions of Black Rice (흑미의 도정분획 메탄올 추출물의 항산화 성분 및 항산화 효과)

  • Kong, Suh-Yun;Choi, Young-Min;Lee, Seon-Mi;Lee, Jun-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.815-819
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    • 2008
  • The colored rice, particularly black rice, has been well characterized to possess antioxidant properties. Rice bran, a by-product of the rice milling process, contains high levels of several phytochemicals which have antioxidant activities as well as health-beneficial properties. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts from milling fractions and whole grain of two black rice cultivars. Whole black rice of the two cultivars were milled into rice bran and endosperm using the gradual milling system. These were evaluated for antioxidative activities by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. To determine the antioxidant compounds in the methanolic extract from the milling fractions, the content of polyphenolics, flavonoids, anthocycanins and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol were measured by spectrophotometric methods and vitamin E analysis was carried out by HPLC. The yield of whole black rice, rice bran, and endosperm were 3.1, 15.3, and 0.9% for Heugjinjubyeo and 2.7, 15.5, and 1.1% for Heugkwangbyeo, respectively. The methanolic extracts from rice bran showed generally higher antioxidant activities than the extracts from whole grain and endosperm. In addition, antioxidant compounds distributed much higher contents in rice bran extract than in the extracts from whole grain and endosperm. A significant correlation was also noted between free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic compounds. The results of this study show that notable antioxidant activity in black rice bran are considered to have significant health benefits.

Antioxidant Components and Antioxidant Activities of 70% Ethanol Extracts on Suweon-511 and Ilpum Rice (수원 511호와 일품쌀의 항산화성분 및 70% 에탄올 추출물의 항산화활성)

  • Woo, Koan-Sik;Jeong, Eung-Gi;Suh, Sae-Jung;Yang, Chang-Ihn;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Kim, Kee-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.10
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    • pp.1223-1230
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    • 2008
  • To evaluate the potential of a new breed, Suweon-511, antioxidant components and antioxidant activities of the 70% ethanol extracts of Suweon-511 (SWE) and Ilpum (IPE) were measured. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were 318.17 and 167.21 $\mu$g/g for SWE, which were higher than that of IPE (222.16 and 100.89 $\mu$g/g). Both $\alpha$- and $\gamma$-tocopherol contents were higher in SWE as well. The total tocopherol contents of SWE (1.31 mg/100 g) was higher than that of IPE (0.86 mg/100 g). The $\alpha$-, $\gamma$- and $\delta$-tocotrienol contents of SWE (0.10, 0.43, and 0.02 mg/100 g) that of IPE (0.09, 0.43, and 0.03 mg/100 g) showed little difference. For $\gamma$-oryzanol, Suweon-511, which contained 76.58 $\mu$g/g, contained ten times as much as I lpum (7.77 $\mu$g/g). The total antioxidant activity of SWE and IPE were 16.00 and 9.73 mg AA eq/g, respectively. For reducing power, at 5 mg/mL, both extracts were 0.18, but at 20 mg/mL, SWE showed 0.61 and that of IPE was 0.58. The DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of SWE were 42.00, 21.59, 23.27, and 17.13% at 5 mg/mL, and for IPE, they were 30.10, 22.37, 25.18, and 18.08%, respectively. These data, as well, did not show big difference between the two breeds. As indicated in the data above, the newly-bred Suweon-511 had higher content of antioxidant components compared to Ilpum, but similar or a little higher antioxidant activity.

Purple Rice Bran Extract Attenuates the Aflatoxin B1-Induced Initiation Stage of Hepatocarcinogenesis by Alteration of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes

  • Suwannakul, Nattawan;Punvittayagul, Charatda;Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan;Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3371-3376
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    • 2015
  • Pigmented rice bran has been suggested to be a valuable source of beneficial phytochemicals. We investigated genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effects of purple rice bran extract (PRBE) in rats using a liver micronucleus assay. Purple rice bran was extracted with methanol, obtaining large amounts of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and small amounts of gamma-oryzanol. The experimental protocols were divided into two sets. Male rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 was a negative control, while Groups 2 and 3 were fed with 100 and 500 mg/kg bw of PRBE, respectively, for 28 days. PRBE had no effect on micronucleus formation or xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. Experiments concerning the effect of PRBE on $AFB_1$ showed that PRBE significantly lessened the amount of micronucleated hepatocytes in $AFB_1$ treated rats. Furthermore, it modulated metabolic activation of $AFB_1$ metabolism in the liver by suppressing activity and protein expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A and CYP 450 reductase, and enhancing phase II enzymes including GST and UGT. Overall, purple rice bran extract was not genotoxic in rats. It exhibited anti-genotoxicity by modulation some xenobiotic enzymes active in $AFB_1$ metabolism.

Effects of Rice Bran Extracts on Oxidative Stability of Corn Oil (옥수수유의 산화안정성에 대한 미강 추출물의 효과)

  • Yeon, Jeyeong;Lee, Seon Mi;Yang, Jinwoo;Kwak, Jieun;Kim, Youngwha;Jeong, Heon Sang;Lee, Junsoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.10
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    • pp.1513-1517
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    • 2016
  • Rice bran contains high amounts of fiber and various phytochemicals, including vitamin E, ${\gamma}$-oryzanol, and phenolic acids. The oxidative stabilities of corn oil added with three rice bran extracts from two rice cultivars (Dasan 1 and Ilpum) were evaluated. The three rice bran extracts were unsaponifiable matter of rice bran (USM), methanolic extract of rice bran oil (MEO), and methanolic extract of defatted rice bran (MEDR). Each sample was stored at $50^{\circ}C$ for 24 days. Oxidation of these samples was determined every 3 days by measuring the peroxide value (POV) and conjugated diene value (CDV). Vitamin E content was analyzed on day 0 and day 24. The results show that the POV and CDV values of samples increased gradually during the storage period. The order of oxidative stability was shown as BHT> MEDR> MEO> USM> control, regardless of cultivars. In the case of vitamin E, ${\alpha}$-T, ${\gamma}$-T, ${\alpha}$-T3, and ${\gamma}$-T3 contents decreased by 89%, 31%, 83%, and 32% after storage for 24 days, respectively. In conclusion, MEDR showed higher oxidative stability and may have potential as a source of natural antioxidants in the oil industry.

Cytotoxic and Apoptotic-inducing Effects of Purple Rice Extracts and Chemotherapeutic Drugs on Human Cancer Cell Lines

  • Banjerdpongchai, Ratana;Wudtiwai, Benjawan;Sringarm, Korawan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6541-6548
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    • 2013
  • Pigmented rice is mainly black, red, and dark purple, and contains a variety of flavones, tannin, polyphenols, sterols, tocopherols, ${\gamma}$-oryzanols, amino acids, and essential oils. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of purple rice extracts (PREs) combined with chemotherapeutic drugs on human cancer cells and mechanisms of cell death. Methanolic (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of three cultivars of purple rice in Thailand: Doisaket (DSK), Nan and Payao (PYO), were tested and compared with white rice (KK6). Cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, prostate cancer LNCaP and murine normal fibroblast NIH3T3 cells. MeOH-PYO-PRE was the most cytotoxic and inhibited HepG2 cell growth more than that of LNCaP cells but was not toxic to NIH3T3 cells. When PREs were combined with paclitaxel or vinblastine, they showed additive cytotoxic effects on HepG2 and LNCaP cells, except for MeOH-PYO-PRE which showed synergistic effects on HepG2 cells when combined with vinblastine. MeOH-PYO-PRE plus vinblastine induced HepG2 cell apoptosis with loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) but no ROS production. MeOH-PYO-PRE-treated HepG2 cells underwent apoptosis via caspase-9 and-3 activation. The level of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol was highest in DCM-PYO-PRE (44.17 mg/g) whereas anthocyanin content was high in MeOH-PYO-PRE (5.80 mg/g). In conclusion, methanolic Payao purple rice extract was mostly toxic to human HepG2 cells and synergistically enhanced the cytotoxicity of vinblastine. Human HepG2 cell apoptosis induced by MeOH-PYO-PRE and vinblastine was mediated through a mitochondrial pathway.

Effect of Heat Pretreatment on the Functional Constituents of Rice Germ

  • Kwon, Yun-Ju;Lee, Ki-Teak;Yun, Tae-Moon;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.330-335
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    • 2004
  • Changes in functional constituents of rice germ prepared using three different heat pretreatments: roasting, steaming and microwave heating, were determined and compared with those of non-treated rice germ. The yield of rice germ oil increased generally and then decreased with increasing time for all three heat pretreatments, although the yields of rice germ oil varied among the three heat pretreatments. There were no major differences in fatty acid compositions among the rice germ oils subjected to the three different heat pretreatments. Levels of $\alpha$-tocopherol in rice germ oil increased up to about 1.5 times at 3 min of roasting and microwave heating, compared to control, and then decreased with increasing treatment time, but $\alpha$­tocopherol concentrations in rice germ oil gradually decreased with increasing steaming time. The contents of three phytosterols ($\beta$-sitosterol, stigmasterol and ergosterol) decreased progressively with increases in roasting and steaming time, while concentrations of the three phytosterols increased up to - 15$\%$ with 3 min of microwave process as compared to control, and then decreased thereafter. Levels of $\gamma$-oryzanol in rice germ oil decreased gradually with increasing time during all three different heat pretreatments. However, levels of $\gamma$ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rice germ decreased gradually with increasing roasting time, while those of GABA increased greatly up to about 2 times after 10 min of steaming process, and then decreased slowly thereafter. During microwave heating, the contents of GABA increased at 3 min of treatment time and then decreased. These results suggest that microwave heating may be the most suitable processing method to preserve functional constituents in rice germ.

Nutritional and Functional Properties of Rice (쌀의 영양학적.기능적 우수성)

  • 하태열
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2002
  • Rice(Oryza stiva L.) is a major cereal food providing nourishment to over half of the world's populations and was considered only as a source of energy. However, The recent many researches have been made to suggest that rice may relate to prevention chronic disease and health-promoting properties such as postprandial glucose response, hypocholesterolemic effect and blood pressure-lowering effect. There has been numerous observation supporting that rice has hypocholesterolemic effect. Rice, rice bran, rice bran oil and unsaponifiable matter of rice bran oil reduced plasma cholesterol in rat, hamster as well as human. Components of rice showing hypocholesterolemic effect include dietary fiber(hemicellulose, phytic acid). protein, ${\gamma}$-oryzanol, $\beta$-sitosterol, and tocotrienols. Crapo et al has been studied that the effect of various of starchy foods on the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses in healthy and diabetic humans. The results showed that rice had lower blood glucose and insulin responses compared to potato, bread and dextrose. The different physical forms in the same starch also produce the different postprandial glucose and insulin responses. In recent years, several studies have shown that some components of rice have potent antioxidant activity against Fe$^{2+}$ -ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomal membranes. Cell culture and animal studies have shown that some components of rice have inhibitory effect on the growth and proliferation of several types of human cancer cell. It was also reported that the methanol extract of brown rice has antimutagenic activity against various mutagens. In addition, the pepsine hydrolysate from rice protein is reported to inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme activity. GABA (${\gamma}$ - aminobutyric acid) and GABA enriched rice germ is also effective for lowering blood pressure and triglyceride levels.s.

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Effects of Feeding Purple Rice (Oryza sativa L. Var. Glutinosa) on the Quality of Pork and Pork Products

  • Jaturasitha, Sanchai;Ratanapradit, Punnares;Piawong, Witapong;Kreuzer, Michael
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.555-563
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    • 2016
  • Purple rice is a strain of glutaneous rice rich in anthocyanins and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol. Both types of compounds are involved in antioxidant and lipid metabolism of mammals. Three experimental diet types were used which consisted approximately by half either of purple rice, white rice or corn. Diets were fed to $3{\times}10$ pigs growing from about 30 to 100 kg. Meat samples were investigated either as raw or cured loin chops or as smoked bacon produced from the belly. Various physicochemical traits were assessed and data were evaluated by analysis of variance. Traits describing water-holding capacity (drip, thaw, and cooking losses) and tenderness (sensory grading, shear force) of the meat were mostly not significantly affected by the diet type. However, purple rice feeding of pigs resulted in lower fat and cholesterol contents of loin and smoked bacon compared to white rice, but not compared to corn feeding except of the fat content of the loin. The shelf life of the raw loin chops was improved by purple rice as well. In detail, the occurrence of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 9 days of chilled storage was three to four times higher in the white rice and corn diets than with purple rice. The n-6:n-3 ratio in the raw loin chops was 9:1 with purple rice and clearly higher with 12:1 with the other diets, meat lipids. Level and kind of effect of purple rice found in raw meat was not always recovered in the cured loin chops and the smoked bacon. Still the impression of flavor and color, as well as overall acceptability were best in the smoked bacon from the purple-rice fed pigs, whereas this effect did not occur in the cured loin chops. These findings suggest that purple rice has a certain, useful, bioactivity in pigs concerning meat quality, but some of these effects are of low practical relevance. Further studies have to show ways how transiency and low recovery in meat products of some of the effects can be counteracted.

Antioxidant Compounds and Activities of Foxtail Millet, Proso Millet and Sorghum with Different Pulverizing Methods (분쇄방법에 따른 조, 기장, 수수의 항산화성분 및 항산화활성)

  • Seo, Myung-Chul;Ko, Jee-Yeon;Song, Seuk-Bo;Lee, Jae-Saeng;Kang, Jong-Rae;Kwak, Do-Yeon;Oh, Byeong-Geun;Yoon, Young-Nam;Nam, Min-Hee;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Woo, Koan-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.790-797
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    • 2011
  • We evaluated the antioxidant compounds and activity of the methanolic extracts of foxtail millet (FM), proso millet (PM), and sorghum (SG) using different pulverizing methods (pin mill and ultra fine). The particle size of the FM, PM, and SG were 102.12, 89.52, and $102.25\;{\mu}m$, respectively, using the pin mill pulverizer. The sizes were 9.43, 9.52, and $10.18\;{\mu}m$, respectively, using the ultra fine pulverizer. There was no difference in moisture, crude fat, ash, or protein content between the two different pulverizing methods. The total ${\gamma}$-oryzanol content of the FM using the pin mill and ultra fine pulverizers was 116.07 and $145.30\;{\mu}g$/g, respectively. The total polyphenol content of the SG using the pin mill and ultra fine pulverizers was 14.58 and 15.03 mg/g extract residue, respectively. There was no difference in total flavonoid or tannin content of the methanol extracts between the two different pulverizing methods. The major phenolic compounds in FM were pyrogallol, gallic acid, (+)-catechin, salicylic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin; in PM, they were pyrogallol, rutin, gallic acid, kaempfrol, and salicylic acid; in SG, they were (+)-catechin, salicylic acid, pyrogallol, myricetin, hesperidin and chlorogenic acid. SG had a higher radical scavenging activity than FM or PM extracts. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the SG extracts using the ultra fine pulverizer were 178.10 and 251.56 mg TE/g extract residue, respectively. We noted a significant correlation between free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic compound.

Agronomic and Chemical Properties of a New Black Waxy Giant Embryo Mutant, Milyang 263, in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

  • Park, Dong-Soo;Park, Soo-Kwon;Yi, Gihwan;Hwang, Un-Ha;Kim, Sang-Min;Han, Sang-Ik;Seo, Woo-Duck;Lee, Jong-Hee;Cho, Jun-Hyun;Song, You-Chun;Yeo, Un-Sang;Jang, Ki-Chang;Kwon, Taek-Min;Nam, Min-Hee;Park, Sung-Tae;Kang, Hang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.463-469
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    • 2010
  • Rice is a staple food for more than 50% of the world's population. Embryo comprises only 2 to 3% of the weight distribution of the entire pericarp but has higher concentration of vitamins, proteins, and essential fatty acids than the other parts of grains. Moreover, ${\alpha}$-tocoperol, ${\gamma}$-oryzanol, phytic acid and ${\gamma}$-aminobutric acid that have nutraceutical value are abundant. Increasing the volume of embryo assures the fortification of nutritional value of rice grain. We developed new black waxy giant embryo rice, Milyang 263 by crossing Josaengheugchal, a black waxy rice variety, and $ge^t$, a giant embryo mutant generated by tissue culture. The nutrient contents and physical properties of Milyang 263 were compared with several giant embryo mutants and normal embryo rice varieties. Changes in the nutrient properties after germination were also observed. Results indicated that this new black waxy giant embryo rice, Milyang 263, offers a promising source for improving nutritional quality of rice especially anthocyanin, essential minerals, and GABA.