• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\gamma}$-oryzanol

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Determination of Optimal Harvest Time of Chuchung Variety Green Rice® (Oryza sativa L.) with High Contents of GABA, γ-Oryzanol, and α-Tocopherol

  • Kim, Hoon;Kim, Oui-Woung;Ha, Ae Wha;Park, Soojin
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.97-103
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    • 2016
  • In our previous study, an early-maturing variety of rice (Oryza sativa L.), Jinbu can have feature with unique green color, various phytochemicals as well as nutritive components by the optimal early harvesting, called Green Rice$^{(R)}$ (GR). The aims of the present field experiments were to evaluate the changes in the weight of 1,000 kernels, yield, and contents of proximate and bioactive compounds in Chuchung, a mid-late maturing variety, during the pre-harvest maturation of rough rice and to research the appropriate harvest time and potent bioactivity of Chuchung GR. The weights of 1,000 kernels of Chuchung GR dramatically increased until 27 days after heading (DAH). The yields of Chuchung GR declined after 27 DAH and significantly declined to 0.0% after 45 DAH. The caloric value and total mineral contents were higher in the GR than in the full ripe stage, the brown rice (BR). In the GR, the contents of bioactive compounds, such as ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid, ${\gamma}$-oryzanol, and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol, were much higher (P<0.05) than those in the BR, specifically during 24~27 DAH. Therefore, bioactive Chuchung GR can be produced with a reasonable yield at 24~27 DAH and it could be useful for applications in various nutritive and functional food products.

Anti-invasive Activity against Cancer Cells of Phytochemicals in Red Jasmine Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

  • Pintha, Komsak;Yodkeeree, Supachai;Pitchakarn, Pornsirit;Limtrakul, Pornngarm
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4601-4607
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    • 2014
  • Red rice contains pharmacological substances including phenolics, oryzanol, tocotrienol and tocopherol. Recently, red rice extract has been employed as a source of antioxidants for inhibition of tumor growth. This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-invasion effects of red rice extract fractions on cancer cells. It was found that at $100{\mu}g/ml$ of crude ethanolic extract (CEE), hexane fraction (Hex) and dichloromethane fraction (DCM) could reduce HT1080 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell invasion. Hex and DCM revealed higher potency levels than CEE, whereas an ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc) had no effect. Gelatin zymography revealed that Hex decreased the secretion and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and-9). In contrast, the DCM fraction exhibited slightly effect on MMPs secretion and had no effect on MMPs activity. Collagenase activity was significantly inhibited by the Hex and DCM fractions. High amounts of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol and ${\gamma}$-tocotrienol were found in the Hex and DCM fractions and demonstrated an anti-invasion property. On the other hand, proanthocyanidin was detected only in the CEE fraction and reduced MDA-MB-231 cells invasion property. These observations suggest that proanthocyanidin, ${\gamma}$-oryzanol and ${\gamma}$-tocotrienol in the red rice fractions might be responsible for the anti invasion activity. The red rice extract may have a potential to serve as a food-derived chemotherapeutic agent for cancer patients.

Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of the 70% Ethanol Extracts from Brown and Milled Rice by Cultivar (벼 품종별 현미와 백미 70% 에탄올 추출물의 항산화 성분 및 항산화 효과)

  • Kim, Dae-Jung;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Chun, A-Reum;Hong, Ha-Cheol;Lee, Jun-Soo;Kim, Yeon-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.467-473
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this study were to determine various bio-active components from some brown rice and milled rice of some cultivars, as well as to assess their contribution to the radical scavenging linked-antioxidant activity. DPPH or ABTS radical scavenging activities, and reducing power have been used to investigate the relative antioxidant activities of 70% ethanol extracts. The contents of total polyphenol, total flavonoid, $\gamma$-oryzanol, and vitamin E in the extracts were also measured by spectrophotometric methods or HPLC. The antioxidant components and antioxidant activities of 70% ethanol extracts from brown rice were higher than those from milled rice. In addition, our results showed that the high level of antioxidant compounds was found in brown rice of Hongjinju, and the antioxidant activities of the 70% ethanol extracts from pigmented brown rices, such as Hongjinju and Heugkwang, were comparably higher than the others.

Effect of γ-Oryzanol on Lipid Oxidation of Linoleic Acids and Ground Pork (감마 오리자놀이 리놀산 및 분쇄돈육의 항산화효과에 미치는 영향)

  • 조수현;박범영;김진형;김용곤;이종문;안종남
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.587-594
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    • 2006
  • Gamma-oryzanol was prepared from rice bran, and added at 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% or 0.20%(w/w) to linoleic acid and ground pork to determine their antioxidant effect. Linoleic acid containing γ-oryzanol had significantly lower peroxide values than the control during the storage of 10 days at 40℃ compared to the control (P<0.05). The peroxide values of linoleic acids containing γ-oryzanol decreased as the addition level increased (P<0.05). Raw ground pork patties containing oryzanol 0.20% had significantly lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values as equivalent with butylated hydroxy anisole(BHA) when stored at 4℃ for 6 days. Cooked ground pork patties containing more than 0.05% of γ-oryzanol showed lower TBARS values than those containing BHA during storage at 4℃ for 4 days (P<0.05). This study indicated that γ-oryzanol can be used to inhibit lipid oxidation for meat and meat products.

Cultivar Comparison on Tocopherols, Tocotrienols, and Antioxidant Compounds in Rice Bran (미강의 토코페롤 및 토코트리에놀 함량과 항산화 물질의 품종간 비교)

  • Chun, Areum;Lee, Yoo-Young;Kim, Dae-Jung;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Choi, Im-Soo;Hong, Ha-Cheol
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.367-375
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    • 2013
  • The rice bran, a by-product of rice milling process, is well known for various functional components, such as tocopherol, tocotrienol, ${\gamma}$-oryzanol, carrying antioxidant activities. This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant components and antioxidant activities in rice bran of different Korean rice cultivars. The 8 isomers of vitamin E, ${\gamma}$-oryzanol, flavonoids, and polyphenolics in rice bran from 16 Korean premium and high quality rice cultivars were quantified. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and reducing power of the ethanol extracts of rice bran were measured. 'Hopum' showed the highest total vitamin E content, $221.47{\mu}g/g$ among the cultivars, and 'Hanseol' showed the lowest content. The rice bran showed different compositions of ${\alpha}-$, ${\beta}-$, ${\gamma}-$, ${\delta}-$ tocopherol and tocotrienol among rice cultivars. The antioxidant contents were also different by cultivar; the ${\gamma}$-oryzanol contents ranged from 1.99 mg/g (Unkwang) to 4.30 mg/g (Chilbo), the polyphenol contents ranged from 427.22 mg gallic acid eq./100 g (Odaebyeo) to 775.80 mg gallic acid eq./100 g (Hopum). 'Hopum' also had the highest DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities, 9.82% and 187.5 AEAC mg/100 g, respectively. In vitro, the rice bran extracts from 'Hopum' had significantly higher antioxidant activities than that of other cultivars.

Rice bran fermentation by lactic acid bacteria to enhance antioxidant activities and increase the ferulic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, and γ-oryzanol content

  • Le, Bao;Anh, Pham Thi Ngoc;Kim, Jung-Eun;Cheng, Jinhua;Yang, Seung Hwan
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.62 no.3
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 2019
  • Rice bran is considered a natural source of antioxidants. In this study, rice bran was fermented with lactic acid bacteria to increase its antioxidant activity. Four strains isolated from fermented food, Lactobacillus plantarum MJM60383, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MJM60392, Lactobacillus fermentum MJM60393, and Lactobacillus paracasei MJM60396, were confirmed as safe through stability tests such as safety assessment for biogenic amine production, hemolytic activity, and mucin degradation, and showed high reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity of rice bran fermentation altered by these strains was evaluated using several methods including measurement of $Fe^{2+}$ chelating activity and scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and nitric oxide assays. In this study, the total phenolic content and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to non-fermented rice bran and a commercial product, rice bran fermented with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MJM60392 showed the highest phenolic content (844.13 mg GAE/g). Moreover, the content of ferulic acids, ${\rho}$-coumaric acid, and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol in rice bran increased after fermentation with L. lactis subsp. lactis MJM60392 and L. fermentum MJM60393 compared to other samples. Indeed, the DPPH radical scavenging activity and NO scavenging activity were also found to be high in these fermented rice brans. These results indicated that fermentation with lactic acid bacteria increases the active compound levels and the potent antioxidant activities of rice bran.

Supplementation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid with γ-Oryzanol for 12 Weeks Effectively Reduces Body Fat in Healthy Overweight Korean Women

  • Kim, Jung-Hee;Kim, Ok-Hyun;Ha, Yeong-Lae;Kim, Jeong-Ok
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.146-156
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    • 2008
  • The enhancement of the human body fat reduction of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) with the supplementation of $\gamma$-oryzanol (OZ) was investigated on overweight Korean women (n=51, BMI> 23). Subjects were divided into 4 groups of control, CLA, glyceride form of CLA (GCLA), and CLA plus OZ (CLA-OZ). The soft-gel capsule (500 mg) was used to deliver control (500 mg olive oil), CLA (500 mg CLA), GCLA (500 mg GCLA) and CLA-OZ (500 mg CLA plus 50 mg OZ). Three capsules were taken twice a day for 12 weeks. The CLA-OZ supplementation reduced 1.35% body fat that was 0.34% enhancement against CLA supplementation. As considered subject variations, CLA-OZ reduced body fat ranged from 7.9% to -2.7%, equivalent to 5.6 kg loss to 0.7 kg gain in body fat mass, against CLA. The CLA-OZ reduced body weight and body mass index (BMI), relative to control, but the reductions by CLA-OZ were not different from those by CLA and GCLA. All biochemical markers analyzed for safty were not significantly different within or between groups and were within the normal range. The CLA-OZ supplementation significantly reduced blood pressure, as compared to the supplementation of CLA, GCLA and control. These results suggest that OZ could be a useful ingredient to mix with CLA for the reduction of human body fat.

Antioxidant Activity and Antioxidant Components in Methanolic Extract from Geumjong Rice (금종쌀 Methanol 추출물의 항산화 성분 및 항산화 효과)

  • Kong, Su-Hyun;Choi, Young-Min;Kim, Young-Wha;Kim, Dae-Jung;Lee, Jun-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.807-811
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    • 2009
  • In this study, the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of Geumjong brown rice were measured to evaluate functional properties and to compare with white rice and Chuchung brown rice. The content of polyphenolics, flavonoids and $\gamma$-oryzanol were measured by spectrophometric methods and tocopherol and tocotrienol analyses were carried out by HPLC. ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power were used to measure antioxidant activity. The extraction yield of Chuchung white rice, Chuchung brown rice, and Geumjong brown rice were 1.5, 2.3, and 3.5%, respectively. The high level of antioxidant activity (69.77 mg TEAC/100 g) and total polyphenolic content (69.1 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g) were found in Geumjong brown rice, whereas the reducing power of Geumjong brown rice was lower than that of Chuchung brown rice.

유기 및 관행재배 쌀의 생리활성 성분 분석법 확립 및 함량 비교

  • Kim, Gi-An;Lee, Yu-Seok;Lee, Yeong-Han;Choe, Gyeong-Ju;Lee, Yeon;Han, Tae-Ho;Park, Geun-Hyeong;Mun, Je-Hak
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Organic Agriculture Conference
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    • pp.319-319
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    • 2009
  • 관행재배 농산물에 대한 유기재배 농산물의 우수성이 구전되고 있으나 객관적인 과학적 데이터가 부족한 실정이다. 그래서 본 연구에서는 한국인이 주식으로 하고 있는 쌀(동진 1호)을 대상으로 생산이력이 분명한 유기 및 관행재배 시료를 이용하여 독자적으로 확립한 분석법을 이용해 유기 및 관행재배 쌀에 함유된 생리활성성분의 함량 비교를 행하였다. 생리활성성분 분석은 $\gamma$-oryzanol, $\beta$-sitosterol 및 tocopherol류를 대상으로 행하였다. 쌀에 함유된 주요 4종의 $\gamma$-oryzanol류의 동정을 위해 그 4종 화합물들을 ESI-MS 및 NMR 분석을 행한 결과, ODS 컬럼 상에서 cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartenyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate 및 $\beta$-sitosteryl ferulate 순으로 용출됨을 확인하였다. 동정된 각 성분들을 HPLC로 분석한 결과, cycloartenyl ferulate와 $\beta$-sitosteryl ferulate의 함량은관행보다 유기재배 쌀에서 유의(p<0.05)하게 높은 값을 보였다. 또한 $\gamma$-oryzanol 중 24-methylene cycloartenyl ferulate와 campesteryl ferulate의 함량은 유의차는 인정되지 않았으나 관행보다 유기재배 쌀에서 더 높은 경향을 보였다. 그리고 $\beta$-sitosterol 함량에 있어서는 유의차가 인정되지 않았으나 관행보다 유기재배 쌀에서 더 높은 경향을 나타냈다. 관행재배와 유기재배 쌀의 tocopherol류의 함량을 분석한 결과, $\alpha$-tocopherol의 함량에 있어서는 관행과 유기재배 쌀 간의 유의차가 관찰되지 않았고, $\beta$- and/or $\gamma$-tocopherols의 함량에 있어서는 유기재배 쌀에서 더 높은 경향이 관찰되었다. 이처럼 쌀에 함유된 생리활성 성분과 그로 인해 발휘되는 기능성 측면에 있어서 유기농산물의 우수성은 유기농산물 재배 농가의 수익 창출에 도움이 되는 홍보자료 제공 및 식품 기능학적 측면에 있어 중요한 기초자료로 활용될 수 있으리라 기대된다. 그러나 본 결과는 본 실험에서 대상으로 한 시료에 한정될 수 있으며, 유기재배 방법과 재배환경 및 조건에 따라 다양한 결과가 얻어질 수 있음에 주의가 요구된다.

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Mutagenicity and Antimutagenicity of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Extracts of Thai Northern Purple Rice

  • Punvittayagul, Charatda;Sringarm, Korawan;Chaiyasut, Chaiyawat;Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9517-9522
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    • 2014
  • Purple rice (Oryza sativa L. var. indica) cv. Kum Doisaket is cultivated in northern Thailand. This study evaluated the mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of hydrophilic and lipophilic components of purple rice using the Ames test. The seed and hull of purple rice were extracted with hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water. The methanol extracts had the highest amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids, while the hexane extracts contained large amount of tocols and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol. None of the extracts were mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. The hexane extract of rice hull and the methanol extract of rice seed were strongly effective against aflatoxin B1- and 2-amino-3, 4 dimethylimidazo (4, 5-f) quinoline-induced mutagenesis, while aqueous extracts showed weakly antimutagenic properties. All extracts with the exception of aqueous extracts enhanced the number of revertant colonies from benzo (a) pyrene induced-mutagenesis. None of the extracts inhibited mutagenesis induced by the direct mutagens 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-acrylamide and sodium azide. The hull extracts showed more potent antimutagenicity than the seed extracts. Based on a chemical analysis, ${\gamma}$-oryzanol and ${\gamma}$-tocotrienol in the hull and cyanidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside in the seed are candidate antimutagens in purple rice. The antimutagenic mechanisms of purple rice might be related to either modulation of mutagen metabolizing enzymes or direct attack on electrophiles. These findings supported the use of Thai purple rice as a cancer chemopreventive agent.