• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\gamma}$-oryzanol

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Quantitative Analysis of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ in Rice Bran (미강의 약리성분 감마-오리자놀의 정량)

  • Kwak, Tae-Soon;Park, Hee-Juhn
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 1997
  • Phytochemical analysis on rice bran and its pitch was performed by the tool of TLC, UV- and IR-spetroscopy, so that it was found that they contained ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ and free sterol. GC-MS analysis of free sterol revealed that it was composed of ${\beta}-sitosterol$, campesterol and stigmasterol. Successive phytochemical analysis of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ revealed that it was composed of ferulic acid ester of triterpene and sterol, respectively. Triterpene moieties of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ were identified as follows: cycloartanol, cycloartenol, 24-methylenecycloartanol and unknown triterpene; And sterol moieties were found to be identical with free sterols. In addition, characteristic absorption band in UV spectrum (220-340 nm) was exclusively due to ${\gamma}-oryzanol$. Thus, it was suggested that rice brans of nearly all species of Oryza sativa can be quantitatively analyzed by UV absorption spectrometry, even when water soluble pigments was contained in the rice bran.

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Treatment Effect of Green Manure Crops on Content of γ-Oryzanols from Korean Rice Variety, Unkwangbyeo (녹비 작물 처리에 따른 운광벼 중 감마오리자놀 변화)

  • Kim, Heon-Woong;Shin, Jae-Hyeong;Lee, Min-Ki;Lee, Sung-Hyeon;Jang, Hwan-Hee;Cho, Hyun-Suk;Lee, Jeong-Tae;Jeon, Weon-Tai;Kim, Jung-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.98-104
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND: ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol, a mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols and sterols, are a nutritionally important group of rice secondary metabolites. The ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol content and composition were found to vary with enviromental factors such as growth temperature, varietal origin, and cultivation method. Therefore, the effect of green manure treatments will be also be an important factor in their content. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ${\gamma}$-Oryzanols extracted using dichloromethane/methanol were analyzed equipped liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. A total of ten components of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol including ${\Delta}7$-stigmastenyl ferulate were isolated of which, cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and sitosteryl ferulate were identified as the major components in Korean rice variety, Unkwang. The ${\gamma}$-oryzanol content in rice, in the presence of nitrogen fertilization using green manure was similar to conventional nitrogen fertilization, but was higher than the control(no fertilizations). The ${\gamma}$-oryzanol ontent in rice, in the presence of hairy vetch as green manure crop was the highest compared to other crops (opium-poppy, crimson clover, cornflower). As a result of PLS-DA using SIMCA 11.0 ver. as multivariate analysis program on the basis of total data, in all samples, the specific pattern and cluster of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol scores according to green manure crops and conditions were confirmed with possible distinguishing nitrogen effects. CONCLUSION: The nitrogen contained in the green manure crops is considered to play a major role in the formation of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol. Hairy vetch which contains higher nitrogen increased the concentration of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol in rice.

Inhibition of Warmed-Over Flavor (WOF) and 7-Ketocholesterol in Refrigerated Precooked Pork Patties containing Commercial ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol and ${\alpha}$-Tocopherol (상업적 ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol 과 ${\alpha}$-Tocopherol 첨가에 따른 냉장 조리 돼지고기의 Warmed-over flcvor(WOF)와 7-Ketocholesterol 제어 효과)

  • Kim, Joo-Shin
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.85-89
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    • 2008
  • The oxidative stability of refrigerated precooked pork patties containing commercial ${\gamma}$-oryzanoland ${\alpha}$-tocopherol was evaluated. Precooked pork patties containing either ${\gamma}$-oryzanolor ${\alpha}$-tocopherol showed higher oxidative stability (p<0.05) during storage at $4^{\circ}C$ than did the precooked pork patties without the additives (control). The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) values and warmed-over flavor (WOF) of the precooked pork patties containing ${\gamma}$-oryzanolor ${\alpha}$-tocopherol were lower (p<0.05) than those of the control during refrigerated storage (0, 1, 4, and 8 days). The correlation between TBARs and WOF values was significant (p<0.05). 7-Ketocholesterol content was lower (p<0.05) than those of the control during refrigerated storage (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 days). The correlation between TBARs values and 7-ketocholesterol content was also significant (p<0.05).

Commercial ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol Inhibits the Formation of C-7 Oxidized Cholesterol Derivatives (OCDs) in an Aqueous Model System during Cholesterol Autoxidation (수용성 모델시스템 내에서의 상업적 ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol의 C-7 산화 콜레스테롤 유도체 생성 저해효과)

  • Kim, Joo-Shin
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2008
  • The inhibition of cholesterol autoxidation by commercial ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol (0, 50, 100, and 300 ppm) was studied in an aqueous model system for 20 h at pH 5.5 and $80^{\circ}C$. The inhibition effectiveness of the commercial ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol was followed by the retention of cholesterol and the formation of C-7 oxidized cholesterol derivatives (OCDs). Changes in the amount of ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol in the aqueous system were determined during cholesterol autoxidation. A method to detect the levels of 7-ketocholesterol, $7{\alpha}$-hydroxycholesterol and $7{\beta}$-hydroxycholesterol in an aqueous model system with ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol was developed by using the hexane-ethyl acetate extraction system and high-performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the levels of C-7 OCDs in an aqueous dispersion containing 300 ppm of ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol were not significantly (p>0.05) increased, when compared to other treatments (0, 50, and 100 ppm), during the accelerated cholesterol oxidation.

Variation of γ-Oryzanol by Incorporation of Green Manure Crops in Korean Rice Cultivars

  • Kim, Heon-Woong;Lee, Sung-Hyeon;Lee, Young-Min;Jang, Hwan-Hee;Hwang, Kyung-A;Cho, Hyun-Suk;Lee, Jeong-Tae;Jeon, Weon-Tai;Kim, Jung-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.275-283
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    • 2014
  • The ${\gamma}$-oryzanol, ferulic acid esters, which are well-known for their function on cholesterol lowering and prevention of inflammation, diabetes and cancer, are found in the seeds of cereal crops such as rice, corn, wheat and rye. Among them, rice has been reported to contain the highest ferulic acid esters. Since rice cultivation with green manure as a N source is an environmental friendly agricultural practice, it is necessary to identify and quantify as well as evaluate the variations in these compounds in rice samples as affected by different green manure conditions. A total of ten components of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol were isolated and cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and sitosteryl ferulate were identified as the major components in Korean rice cultivars, 'Unkwang' and 'Hopum'. Comparing the ${\gamma}$-oryzanol contents of these varieties, 'Unkwang' showed clearly similar pattern with conventional type. With the PLS-DA (partial least squares of discriminant analysis) using SIMCA 11.0 ver., the specific pattern and cluster of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol scores with green manure conditions were confirmed, and thus distinguishing green manure effects were possible.

Effect of Nitrogen Gas Packing and ${\gamma}-Oryzanol$ Treatment on the Shelf Life of Yukwa(Korean Traditional Snack) (질소치환포장 및 ${\gamma}-Oryzanol$ 첨가가 유과의 저장성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Yoon-Jung;Chun, Hyang-Sook;Kim, Sang-Sook;Lee, Jong-Mee;Kim, Kyu-Heun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.317-322
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    • 2000
  • This study examined the effect of nitrogen$(N_2)$ gas packing and ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ treatment on the shelf life of Yukwa(Korean traditional snack). Yukwa were stored with $N_2$ gas packing(AN), $N_2$ gas packing with ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ treatment(ANA), and PE film packing with air(PE) for 20 days at $60^{\circ}C$. They were evaluated by POV, AV, conjugated diene, hexanal, color and sensory characteristics. The POV, AV and conjugated diene content increased abruptly in PE and AN, but increased slowly in ANA with prolonged storage. Higher sensory scores for Yukwa were found in ANA as compared to those in PE and AN. Hexanal content, yellowness and redness in AN were higher than those in ANA and PE. The moisture content, which is supposed to be related with browning of Yukwa, was 3 times higher in AN than that in PE. Oxygen content of each Yukwa pack, even in $N_2$ gas packing, increased remarkably as storage period increased because their highly porous, fragile and syrup-coated structure resulted in incomplete degassing before $N_2$ gas was flushed into package. Consequently, $N_2$ gas packing was inefficient, but $N_2$ gas packing combined with antioxidant(such as ${\gamma}-oryzanol$) treatment was effective for the extension of shelf life of Yukwa.

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Optimization of Ethanol Extraction of $\gamma$-oryzanol and Other Functional Components from Rice Bran (미강의 $\gamma$-oryzanol 및 생리활성물질의 에탄올 추출공정 최적화)

  • Jo, In-Hee;Choi, Yong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.281-289
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    • 2010
  • We determined the optimum ethanolic conditions for extraction of $\gamma$-oryzanol and other functional components from rice bran, using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was used to investigate the effects of the independent variables of solvent ratio ($X_1$), extraction temperature ($X_2$), and extraction time ($X_3$), on dependent variables including yield ($Y_1$), total phenolic content ($Y_2$), electron-donating activity ($Y_3$), ferulic acid level ($Y_4$), and $\gamma$-oryzanol concentration ($Y_5$). Solvent ratio and extraction temperature were the most important factors in extraction. The maximum yield was at 22.56 mL/g ($X_1$), 78.19C ($X_2$), and 522.15 min ($X_3$), at the saddle point. Total phenolic levels were little affected by solvent ratio or extraction temperature. The maximum concentration of extracted total phenolics was 90.78mg GAE/100 g at 21.26 mL/g, $94.65^{\circ}C$, and 567.97 min. A maximum electron-donating ability of 54.72% was obtained with the parameters 20.20 mL/g,$81.89^{\circ}C$, and 701.87 min, at the highest point. The maximum level of ferulic acid components was 210.47 mg/100g at 5.22 mL/g, $79.66^{\circ}C$, and 575.24 min. In addition, the maximum $\gamma$-oryzanol concentration was 660.39 mg/100g at 5.10 mL/g, $81.83^{\circ}C$, and 587.39 min. The optimum extraction conditions were a solvent ratio of 10.45 mL/g, $80^{\circ}C$ extraction temperature, and 535 min extraction time. Predicted extraction levels under optimized conditions were in line with experimental values.

Preparation of γ-oryzanol-loaded pectin micro and nanocapsules and their characteristics according to particle size (감마오리자놀 함유 칼슘-펙틴 미세 및 나노캡슐의 제조와 입자 크기에 따른 캡슐특성)

  • Lee, Seul;Kim, Eun Suh;Lee, Ji-Soo;Lee, Hyeon Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.110-116
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    • 2017
  • ${\gamma}-Oryzanol-loaded$ calcium-pectin micro- and nanocapsules were prepared by ionic gelation to improve oxidation stability and the effect of particle size on capsule properties was investigated. The physical properties were influenced by preparation conditions such as concentrations of pectin, $CaCl_2$, ${\gamma}-oryzanol$, and hardening time. Particle sizes of micro- and nanocapsules that showed the maximum encapsulation efficiency and sustained release were $2.27{\pm}0.02mm$ and $347.7{\pm}58.1nm$, respectively. Microcapsules showed higher encapsulation efficiency ($50.73{\pm}1.98%$) than nanocapsules ($17.70{\pm}2.04%$), while nanocapsules showed more sustained release and higher stability than microcapsules. Release of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ from both microand nanocapsules, which was low in gastric environments and promoted in intestinal environments, showed suitable characteristics for oral administration. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ against autoxidation of linoleic acid was prolonged by both micro- and nanoencapsulation in a ferric thiocyanate test. Therefore, micro- and nanoencapsulation using pectin can be effective for improving biodelivery, stability, and antioxidant activity of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$.

Changes in the Chemical and Functional Components of Korean Rough Rice Before and After Germination

  • Lee, Youn-Ri;Kim, Ja-Young;Woo, Koan-Sik;Hwang, In-Guk;Kim, Kyong-Ho;Kim, Kee-Jong;Kim, Jae-Hyun;Jeong, Heon-Sang
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.1006-1010
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    • 2007
  • This study investigated changes in the chemical and functional components of germinated rough rice for the development of functional foods. The chemical components that were determined for 'Ilpum', 'Goami2', 'Keunnun', and 'Heugkwang' rough rice cultivars included dietary fiber, free sugars, free amino acids, and functional components such as tocopherols and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol. The crude protein, fat, total dietary fiber, and free sugar contents of the rough rice increased significantly after germination. The essential amino acid content was particularly increased. After the germination of the 'Ilpum', 'Goami2', 'Keunnun', and 'Heugkwang' varieties, the following increases were found: ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid increased 2.4, 2.5, 6.1, and 3.4 times, respectively; ${\alpha}$-tocopherol, ${\alpha}$-tocotrienols, and ${\gamma}$-tocotrienols increased significantly; and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol content increased 0.8, 1.1, 1.5, and 1.2 times, respectively. Thus, germinated rough rice has the potential to be used as a healthy and functional food ingredient.

Changes in Content of Functional Components and Antioxidant Activity in Cooked Rice and Porridge of Selected Grains (밥과 죽 조리에 따른 일부 곡류의 기능성 성분 및 항산화 활성 변화)

  • Kim, Dagyeong;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Choi, Youngmin;Kim, Younghwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.226-234
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    • 2021
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the content of functional components and the antioxidant activity of cooked rice and porridge composed of selected grains. The results of the study showed that brown rice and oat contained considerable amounts of γ-oryzanol (78.099~238.566 mg/100 g). However, cooked rice showed a decreased content of the same. The highest content of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was observed in brown rice from Samgwang. The contents of biotin in all samples also decreased in cooked rice compared to raw cereal grains. The highest content of total polyphenols and flavonoids were observed in Heukjinmi rice, and the highest radical scavenging activity was also found in this variety. The cooking process led to a decrease in the content of functional components including γ-oryzanol, GABA, biotin, polyphenols, and flavonoids versus the corresponding raw cereal grains. These results may be useful in the development and application of home meal replacements using cereal grains.