• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid

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Kinetic Characterization and Molecular Modeling of $NAD(P)^+$-Dependent Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis as an Ortholog YneI

  • Park, Seong Ah;Park, Ye Song;Lee, Ki Seog
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.954-958
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    • 2014
  • Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) catalyzes the oxidation of succinic semialdehyde (SSA) into succinic acid in the final step of ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid degradation. Here, we characterized Bacillus subtilis SSADH (BsSSADH) regarding its cofactor discrimination and substrate inhibition. BsSSADH showed similar values of the catalytic efficiency ($k_{ca}t/K_m$) in both $NAD^+$ and $NADP^+$ as cofactors, and exhibited complete uncompetitive substrate inhibition at higher SSA concentrations. Further analyses of the sequence alignment and homology modeling indicated that the residues of catalytic and cofactor-binding sites in other SSADHs were highly conserved in BsSSADH.

Immediate Decrease in γ-AminoButyric Acid after Caffeine Intake in Adolescents: a Preliminary MRS Study

  • Hahn, Sanghyun;Kim, Yun Ho;Seo, Hyung Suk
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.102-105
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    • 2017
  • In adolescents, sleep deprivation problem is getting worse, and increased caffeine consumption is considered to relieve the stress caused by sleep deprivation and academic burden. In this study, immediate neurologic effects of caffeine intake on adolescents were evaluated in three high school students using the ${\gamma}-aminobutyric$ acid (GABA)/creatine ratio on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MEGA-PRESS MRS and TE 135 ms single voxel MRS were performed in the anterior cingulate cortex before and after drinking a cup of coffee, which contained 104 mg of caffeine. GABA and creatine were measured on LCModel 6.3, respectively. In all three students, GABA/creatine ratios were decreased after caffeine intake. The GABA/creatine ratios obtained before caffeine intake were decreased after caffeine intake in all the three adolescents. In this preliminary study, caffeine intake caused an immediate decrease in the GABA/creatine ratio in the brain and it may be related to the neurologic effects of caffeine on an adolescent's brain.

Production of ${\gamma}-Aminobutyric$ Acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus buchneri Isolated from Kimchi and its Neuroprotective Effect on Neuronal Cells

  • Cho, Yu-Ran;Chang, Ji-Yoon;Chang, Hae-Choon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.104-109
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    • 2007
  • Lactic acid bacteria that accumulated ${\gamma}-aminobutyric$ acid (GABA) in culture medium were screened to identify strains with high GAB A-producing ability. One strain, MS, which was isolated from kimchi, showed the highest GABA-producing ability among the screened strains. MS was identified as Lactobacillus buchneri based on Gram-staining, metabolic characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence determination, Optimum culture conditions for GABA production were determined: MRS broth containing 5% MSG, 1% NaCl, and 1% glucose, at an initial pH of 5.0, the incubation temperature at $30^{\circ}C$ for 36 h. Under these conditions, MS produced GABA at a concentration of 251 mM with a 94% GABA conversion rate. Moreover, culture extracts of Lb. buchneri MS partially or completely protected neuronal cells against neurotoxicantinduced cell death.

Effects of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)-Enriched Sea Tangle Laminaria japonica Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Mouse Macrophage (RAW 264.7) Cells

  • Choi, Ji-Il;Yun, In-Hye;Jung, Yeounjoong;Lee, Eun-Hye;Nam, Taek-Jeong;Kim, Young-Mog
    • Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.293-297
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    • 2012
  • ${\gamma}$-Aminobutyric acid-enriched sea tangle extract was obtained from the fermentation of Lactobacillus brevis BJ-20. The fermented sea tangle extract (FST) was separated into three fractions by molecular weight: FST I (greater than 10 kDa), FST II (1-10 kDa), and FST III (less than 1 kDa). The anti-inflammatory characteristics of the FST fractions were investigated by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells. Both NO production and iNOS expression levels were significantly inhibited by FST treatments in a dose-dependent manner. FST III was the most effective inhibitor of processes. This demonstrates that the effect of FST on LPS-induced inflammation might be closely correlated with the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine expression.

Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, meat quality, and backfat in finishing pigs

  • Zhang, Jian Ying;Hu, Jing;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.105-113
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    • 2018
  • This experiment was conducted to estimate the influence of ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, meat quality, and backfat in finishing pigs. A total of 100 mixed finisher pigs [(Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire) ${\times}$ Duroc] were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments for 10 weeks, the average initial body weight was $52.03{\pm}1.08kg$. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementation of GABA to 0.05% of the basal diet (GAB) and a CON (basal diet) without supplementation. Each treatment had 10 replicates with 5 pigs per pen (three gilts and two barrows). Measurements were made at three time period: weeks 1 - 5, weeks 5 - 10 and overall experimental period. Compared to CON, the pigs fed GABA had average daily gain (ADG) increases among phases (p < 0.05). Average Daily Feed Intake ADFI increased during the overall experimental period (p < 0.05). The digestibility of Dry Matter (DM) increased. The concentration of epinephrine decreased at 5th and 10th weeks (p < 0.05), meanwhile, cortisol decreased at 10th week (p < 0.05) in GAB treatment. Otherwise, the pigs' GABA supplementation had no effect on meat quality and backfat thickness (p > 0.05). We conclude that a dietary supplementation of GABA at 0.05% improves growth performance and the digestibility of dry matter, while reducing the stress response of finishing pigs.

PAMAM Dendrimers Conjugated with L-Arginine and γ-Aminobutyric Acid as Novel Polymeric Gene Delivery Carriers

  • Son, Sang Jae;Yu, Gwang Sig;Choe, Yun Hui;Kim, Youn-Joong;Lee, Eunji;Park, Jong-Sang;Choi, Joon Sig
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.579-584
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we synthesized functional dendrimer derivatives as nonviral gene delivery vectors. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM, generation 4) was modified to possess functional amino acids to enhance gene transfection efficiency. PAMAM G4 derivatives conjugated with L-arginine (Arg) and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) showed higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity compared to the native PAMAM G4 dendrimer. The polyplex of the PAMAM G4 derivative/pDNA was evaluated using an agarose gel retardation assay and Picogreen reagent assay. Additionally, the MTT assay was performed to examine the cytotoxicity of synthesized polymers. All PAMAM G4 derivatives showed lower cytotoxicity than PEI25kD. Particularly, PAMAM G4-GABA-Arg displayed enhanced transfection efficiency compared to the native PAMAM G4 dendrimer.

Production and Its Anti-hyperglycemic Effects of γ-Aminobutyric Acid from the Wild Yeast Strain Pichia silvicola UL6-1 and Sporobolomyces carnicolor 402-JB-1

  • Han, Sang-Min;Lee, Jong-Soo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.199-203
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    • 2017
  • This study was done to produce ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from wild yeast as well as investigate its anti-hyperglycemic effects. Among ten GABA-producing yeast strains, Pichia silvicola UL6-1 and Sporobolomyces carnicolor 402-JB-1 produced high GABA concentration of $134.4{\mu}g/mL$ and $179.2{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. P. silvicola UL6-1 showed a maximum GABA yield of $136.5{\mu}g/mL$ and $200.8{\mu}g/mL$ from S. carnicolor 402-JB-1 when they were cultured for 30 hr at $30^{\circ}C$ in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium. The cell-free extract from P. silvicola UL6-1 and S. carnicolor 402-JB-1 showed very high anti-hyperglycemic ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 72.3% and 69.9%, respectively. Additionally, their cell-free extract-containing GABA showed the anti-hyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats.

The crystal and molecular structure of $\gamma$-hydroxy-.$\beta$-amino butyric acid

  • Kim, Yang-Bae
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1985
  • The crystal structure or $\gamma$-hydroxy-$\betha$-aminobutyric acid was determined by MULTAN system with X-ray intensity data on a diffractometer and refined by the least-squares method to an R-value 0.034 for 711 reflections. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group $P2_{1}2_{1}2_{1}$, Z = 4, with a = 10.220, b = 8.257 and c = 6.556$\AA$. The molecule takes the zwitterionic form and skeletal conformation is trans-transform. The molecules are held together by intra-and intermolecular NH-O and OH--O hydrogen bonds.

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Effects of a Soaking-Fermentation-Drying Process on the Isoflavone and ${\gamma}$-Aminobutyric acid Contents of Soybean

  • Kim, Tae-Jin;Sung, Chang-Hyun;Kim, Young-Jin;Jung, Byung-Moon;Kim, Eung-Ryool;Choi, Won-Sun;Jung, Hoo-Kil;Chun, Ho-Nam;Kim, Woo-Jung;Yoo, Sang-Ho
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2007
  • In our study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB)-fermented whey solutions were applied in the soybean soaking process to minimize bacterial contamination and to enrich the biologically functional components of isoflavone and $\gamma$-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Among the 11 LAB tested, Bifidobacteria infantis and a mixed culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria lactis, and Streptococcus thermophilus; ABT-3) displaying the greatest $\beta$-glucosidase activity were selected to produce improved biologically functional soybean preparations. In the soybean soaking processing (without water spraying), the LAB-cultured 10% whey solution was used to soak and to ferment the soybeans and the fermented soybeans were finally dried by heat-blowing at $55^{\circ}C$. The processing conditions used in this study demonstrated that the final soybean product had a reduced contamination by aerobic and coliform bacteria, compared to raw soybeans, likely due to the decrease in pH during LAB fermentation. The aglycone content of the isoflavone increased up to 44.6 mg per 100 g of dried soybean by the processing method, or approximately 8-9 times as much as their initial content. The GABA contents in the processed samples increased as the processing time of soaking-fermentation proceeded as well. The soybean sample that fermented by ABT-3 culture for 24 hr showed the greatest increase in GABA content (23.95 to 97.79 mg/100 g), probably as a result of the activity of glutamate decarboxylases (GAD) released from the soybean or produced by LAB during the soaking process.

Optimization of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production by Enterococcus faecium JK29 Isolated from a Traditional Fermented Foods (전통발효식품 유래 Enterococcus faecium JK29에 의한 γ-aminobutyric acid의 생산 최적화)

  • Lim, Hee Seon;Cha, In-Tae;Lee, Hyunjin;Seo, Myung-Ji
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.26-33
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    • 2016
  • Dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from traditional fermented foods to obtain rare ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing LAB. Out of 147 isolates, 23 strains that could produce GABA with 1% (w/v) L-monosodium glutamate (MSG) were first isolated. After further screening of these rare GABA-producing LAB by analysis of the glutamate decarboxylase and 16S rRNA gene sequences, Enterococcus faecium JK29 was isolated, and 1.56 mM of GABA was produced after 48 h cultivation in basic de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) medium. To enhance GABA production by E. faecium JK29, the culture conditions were optimized. When E. faecium JK29 was cultivated in optimized MRS medium containing 0.5% (w/v) sucrose and 2% (w/v) yeast extract with 0.5% (w/v) MSG, GABA production reached 14.86 mM after 48 h cultivation at initial conditions of pH 7.5 and $30^{\circ}C$.