• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid

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Isolation and Characterization of Lactobacillus buchneri Strains with High ${\gamma}$-Aminobutyric Acid Producing Capacity from Naturally Aged Cheese

  • Park, Ki-Bum;Oh, Suk-Heung
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.86-90
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    • 2006
  • Two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with high ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing capacity were isolated from naturally aged cheese. Examination of the biochemical features using an API kit indicated that the two strains belonged to Lactobacillus. They were gram positive, rod-type bacteria, and fermented arabinose, melezitose, melibiose and xylose, but did not utilize cellobiose or trehalose. 16S rDNA sequencing analysis confirmed that they were Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus sp. They were accordingly named as Lactobacillus buchneri OPM-1 and Lactobacillus sp. OPM-2, and could produce GABA from MRS broth supplemented with 10 g/L of monosodium glutamate (MSG) at a productivity of 91.7 and 116.7 mg/L/hr, respectively. Cell extracts of L. buchneri OPM-1 and Lactobacillus sp. OPM-2 showed glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity, for which the optimum pH and temperature were 5.5 and $30^{\circ}C$, respectively.

Changes in the Levels of γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Free Amino Acids during Kimchi Fermentation (김치 발효 숙성 중의 γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) 및 아미노산 함량의 변화)

  • Lee, Hye-Hyun;Kim, Gun-Hee
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.671-677
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to examine the levels of free amino acids and identify the correlation between ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA)and L-glutamic acid contents in Kimchi during fermentation. During 2 weeks of fermentation, the acidity of Kinchi increased, i.e., the pH level decreased from 5.24 to 4.40. The content of amino acids determined using HPLC differed significantly (p < 0.05) during 7 weeks of fermentation. Over the 7 weeks of fermentation, the content of most free amino acids increased in the order L-valine > L-glutamic acid > L-glycine, except L-methionine decreased. Initially, the GABA content was found to be $72.43{\mu}M/100g$ fresh weight (fw), and it increased to $229.06{\mu}M/100g$ fw after 7 weeks. This rapid increase in the GABA content in the initial stage is considered to be due to L-glutamic acid. However, during the period of 0~7 weeks, no correlations were found between the L-glutamic acid and GABA contents.

(γ-Aminobutyric Acid Transporter 2 Binds to the PDZ Domain of Mammalian Lin-7 ((γ-Aminobutyric acid transporter 2와 mammalian Lin-7의 PDZ결합)

  • Seog, Dae-Hyun;Moon, II-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.940-946
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    • 2008
  • Neurotransmitter transporters, which remove neurotransmittesr from the synaptic cleft, are regulated by second messenger such as protein kinases and binding proteins. Neuronal ${\gamma}-aminobutyric$ acid transporters (GATs) are responsible for removing the inhibitory neurotransmitter ${\gamma}-aminobutyric$ acid (GABA) from the synaptic cleft. ${\gamma}-aminobutyric$ acid transporters 2 (GAT2/BGT1) is involved in regulating neurotransmitter recycling, but the mechanism how they are stabilized and regulated by the specific binding protein has not yet been elucidated. Here, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify the specific binding protein(s) that interacts with the C-terminal region of GAT2 and found a specific interaction with the mammalian LIN-7b (MALS-2). MALS-2 protein bound to the tail region of GAT2 but not to other GAT members in the yeast two-hybrid assay. The "T-X-L" motif at the C-terminal end of GAT2 is essential for interaction with MALS-2. In addition, this protein showed specific interactions in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay. An antibody to GAT2 specifically co-immunoprecipitated MALS associated with GAT2 from mouse brain extracts. These results suggest that MALS may stabilize GAT2 in brain.

Production of the Quality Germinated Brown Rices Containing High ${\gamma}$-Aminobutyric Acid by Chitosan Application (키토산처리에 의한 ${\gamma}$-Aminobutyric acid 고함유 우량 발아현미 생산)

  • 오석흥;최원규
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.615-620
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    • 2000
  • To obtain quality germinated brown rices containing high levels of ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA), chitosan was applied during the brown rice germination. The GABA contents in germinated brown rices (1,035 nmole/g fresh weight) and brown rices germinated by water (771 nmole/g fresh weight) or by lactiv acid (728 nmole/g fresh weight). In addition to the enhancement of GABA, germination in the chitosan solution increased alanine concentration and decreased glutamic acid, aspartic acid and serine concentrations in the brown rices. The activity of glutamate decarboxylase was also enhanced by the chitosan treatment. Furthermore, germination by chitosan reduced fungal contamination markdely, compared with germination by water or germination by lactic acid. These results suggest that quality germinated brown rices containing high levels of GABA can be obtained by chitosan application.

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Co-Localization of GABA Shunt Enzymes for the Efficient Production of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid via GABA Shunt Pathway in Escherichia coli

  • Pham, Van Dung;Somasundaram, Sivachandiran;Park, Si Jae;Lee, Seung Hwan;Hong, Soon Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.710-716
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    • 2016
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid, which is an important inhibitor of neurotransmission in the human brain. GABA is also used as the precursor of biopolymer Nylon-4 production. In this study, the carbon flux from the tricarboxylic acid cycle was directed to the GABA shunt pathway for the production of GABA from glucose. The GABA shunt enzymes succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GabD) and GABA aminotransferase (GabT) were co-localized along with the GABA transporter (GadC) by using a synthetic scaffold complex. The co-localized enzyme scaffold complex produced 0.71 g/l of GABA from 10 g/l of glucose. Inactivation of competing metabolic pathways in mutant E. coli strains XBM1 and XBM6 increased GABA production 13% to reach 0.80 g/l GABA by the enzymes co-localized and expressed in the mutant strains. The recombinant E. coli system developed in this study demonstrated the possibility of the pathway of the GABA shunt as a novel GABA production pathway.

An Efficient Synthesis of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-Derived Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors from Acyl Cyanophosphoranes and Amine Derivatives (아실 시아노포스포레인과 아민 유도체로 부터 γ-아미노부틸산에서 유도된 포스포리파제 A2 저해제의 효과적인 합성)

  • Lee, Kie-Seung;Kim, Dae-Keun
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2004
  • A series of ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid-derived, potent human cytosolic phospholipase A$_2$ inhibitors have been prepared from acyl cyanophosphoranes and amine derivatives in a convergent manner. The ${\alpha}$-keto amide functionalities in the inhibitors have been introduced as electrophilic fragments via direct coupling reactions between the labile ${\alpha},{\beta}$-diketo nitriles and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid t-butyl ester derivatives at -78 $^{\circ}C$ in moderate to good yields.

Analysis of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Content in Fermented Plant Products by HPLC/UV

  • Lee, Dong Gu;Cho, Sunghun;Lee, Jamin;Cho, Seon Haeng;Lee, Sanghyun
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.303-309
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    • 2015
  • ${\gamma}$-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in fermented plant products and their main plant materials (aerial part of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus, fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida, and whole plant of Morus alba) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. GABA was quantified using a reverse-phase column with a gradient elution program (water:acetonitrile =90:10 to 0:100 for 40 min). UV detection was conducted at 280 nm. GABA content was measured in fermented plant products (15.07 mg/g), aerial part of A. sessiliflorus (4.49 mg/g), fruit of C. pinnatifida (10.59 mg/g), and whole plant of M. alba (2.31 mg/g). The presence of GABA in fermented plant products, including A. sessiliflorus, C. pinnatifida, and M. alba is important in industrial application for health supplements.

Screening of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)-Producing Wild Yeasts and their Microbiological Characteristics

  • Han, Sang-Min;Jeon, Sun-Jeong;Lee, Hyang-Burm;Lee, Jong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2016
  • From 182 non-pathogenic wild yeast isolates from flowers, Pichia silvicola UL6-1 and Sporobolomyces carnicolor 402-JB-1 were selected for potent ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid production and microbiological characteristics were investigated. Pichia silvicola UL6-1 formed ascospores and pseudomycelia. The strain was also halotolerant, growing well in 5% NaCl-containing yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) medium. Sporobolomyces carnicolor 402-JB-1 did not form ascospores or pseudomycelia and grew well on 10% glucose-yeast extract-peptone medium.

Regulation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production in Tobacco Plants by Expressing a Mutant Calmodulin Gene

  • Oh, Suk-Heung;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.69-73
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    • 2000
  • In order to understand the biological role of calmodulin in plants, transgenic plants expressing a mutant calmodulin (VU-4, Iys to ile-115) have been analyzed. We found that tobacco plants expressing VU-4 calmodulin have approximately twofold higher $\gamma$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels than the control plants. Cell suspension cultures established from the stem explants of the transgenic tobacco seedlings also have higher levels of GABA than the control cell cultures. Specific activity of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to $CO_2$ and GABA, of the transgenic tobacco cell extracts was about twofold higher than the activity of the control cell extracts. Western-blot analysis showed that the GAD is highly expressed in the transgenic tobacco plants. GAD partially purified from tobacco cell extracts showed approximately threefold $Ca^{2+}$/calmodulin-dependent activation. These data suggest that GABA synthesis in the transgenic tobacco plants is elevated, possibly due to higher levels of the calmodulin-dependent GAD enzyme and/or as a result of enhanced activation due to increased levels of the foreign calmodulin.

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Improvement of $\gamma-Aminobutyric$ Acid (GABA) Production Using Cell Entrapment of Lactobacillus brevis GABA 057

  • Choi Soo-Im;Lee Jae-Won;Park Sang-Min;Lee Moo-Young;Ji Geun-Eog;Park Myeong-Soo;Heo Tae-Ryeon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.562-568
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    • 2006
  • GABA $(\gamma-aminobutyric\;acid)$ is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. For the efficient production of GAB A, a semi continuous cell entrapment system using Lactobacillus brevis GABA 057 was optimized, including the substrate concentration, bead-stabilizing additives, and reaction conditions. The converted monosodium glutamate (MSG), which was added as a substrate for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), increased from 2% (w/v) to 12% (w/v). The addition of isomaltooligosaccharide to the alginate beads also increased the stability of the entrapped L. brevis and GABA productivity. Consequently, when optimal conditions were applied, up to 223 mM GABA could be produced from 534 mM MSG after 48 h of reaction by using alginate-beadencapsulated L. brevis GABA 057.