• Title/Summary/Keyword: ${\beta}$-carotene

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Effect of Dietary Vitamin A on the Status of Antioxidants in Ethanol-Treated Rats (비타민 A 섭취가 에탄올을 급여한 흰쥐의 체내 항산화 영양소 상태에 미치는 영향)

  • 서정숙;양경미;최미정
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.848-858
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    • 1995
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin A on the antioxidant status in ethanol-treated rats. Weaning rats were fed a basal diet until they reached about 160-180g body weight. Thereafter, four experimental groups were fed a liquid diet containing 36% ethanol of total calorie and four pair-fed groups were fed isocaloric sucorse instead of ethanol. Additionally, the liquid diet contained adequate amount of ${\beta}-carotene$, retinyl acetate, or 13-cis-retinoic acid except vitamin A deficient diet. The rats were sacrificed after 7 weeks of feedng periods. Significant decrease in hepatic vitamin E content was found in rats treated with chronic ethanol. However, dietary supplementation of retinyl acetate modified the change to some extent. Total vitamin C content of liver increased in vitamin A-deficient or ${\beta}-carotene$ groups with ethanol feeding. The ratio of reduced/oxidized vitamin C increased in the plasma and liver of ${\beta}-carotene$ group with ethanol feeding. Chronic ethanol intake did not change the total glutathione content of rat liver, but increased reduced glutathione(GSH)/oxidized glutathione(GSSG) ratio. This increase in hepatic GSH after chronic ethanol treatment. The changes of Se content in plasma and liver was not consistant. Fe content of liver increased by ethanol treatment, but this increase reduced in rats fed dietary retinyl acetate or 13-cis-retinoic acid. Fe content of plasma increased in vitamin A-deficient and ${\beta}-carotene$ supplemented groups with ethanol intake.

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Formation of Volatile Compounds by the Thermal Degradation of ${\beta}-Carotene$ (${\beta}-Carotene$의 열분해(熱分解)에 의한 휘발성(揮發性) 화합물(化合物)의 생성(生成))

  • Park, Joon-Yung;Kim, Ok-Chan;Kim, Young-Hoi
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.260-265
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    • 1986
  • Thermal degradation of ${\beta}-carotene$, major carotenoid present in cured tobacco leaves, were carried out at $400,\;600,\;and\;800^{\circ}C$ which are similar to temperatures existing in the combustion zones of cigarettes, and subsequent volatile degradation products were analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The volatile compounds identified from degradation products included 36 aromatic hydrocarbons, 10 ${\beta}-ionone-related$ compounds which have trimethylcyclohexane ring, and 7 others. Of these, 37 compounds including ${\beta}-cyclogeraniol$ had not been previously reported in the literature as thermal degradation products of ${\beta}-carotene$. The major compounds of degradation products at $400\;and\;600^{\circ}C$ were ${\beta}-xylene,\;{\alpha}-terpinene,\;{beta}-cyclocitral,\;ionene\;(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,1,6-trimethyl\;naphthalene),\;{\beta}-ionone$, and dihydroactinidiolide. The major compounds at $800^{\circ}C$ were the above six compounds plus toluene.

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$\beta-Carotene,\;\alpha$-Tocopherol Concentrations in Maternal-Umbilical Cord Plasma and Their Relationships to Pregnancy Outcome (임신 말 모체와 제대혈의 Retinol, $\beta-Carotene,\;\alpha$-Tocopherol의 농도 및 임신결과와의 상관성)

  • 이금주;이민숙;안홍석
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.151-160
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intake of antioxidant vitamins and plasma concentrations of those in 60 maternal-infant pairs (30 in normal term delivery group, NT; 30 in preform delivery group, PT). We also investigated the relationship between vitamin levels of maternal-umbilical cord plasma and pregnancy outcome. Mean energy intakes of NT and PT pregnant women were 93.2% and 85.4%, and their protein intakes were 113.3% and 110.9% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), respectively. While vitamin A intakes were only 51.2% and 39.6% of the RDA in NT and PT pregnant women. The vitamin E intake was about 50% of the RDA (NT 6.27 mg, PT 7.78 mg). The levels of retinol in maternal plasma of NT and PT were $1.51\mumol/\ell\;and\;1.43\mumol/\ell$, respectively. The retinol levels in umbilical cord plasma in NT and PT were $0.72\mumol/\ell\;and\;0.61\mumol/\ell$, respectively. The level of $\beta-carotene$in maternal plasma of NT was 0.49 $\mu$mol/$\ell$, significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that of PT ($0.31\mumol/\ell$).The $\beta-carotene$ of umbilical cord plasma of NT and PT were $0.702\mumol/\ell\;and\;0.01\mumol/\ell$, respectively. The plasma $\alpha$-tocopherol of maternal of NT and PT were $0.72\mumol/\ell\;and\;0.01\mumol/\ell\;29.51 /mumol/\ell\; and 27.17\mumol/\ell,\;respectively.\; The $\alpha$-tocopherol of umbilical cord plasma of NT and PT were $4.16\mumol/\ell\;and\;3.80\mumol/\ell$, respectively. The antioxidant vitamin levels (retinol, $\beta-carotene,\;and\;\alpha$-tocopherol) in maternal plasma were significantly higher (p<0.0001) than those in umbilical cord plasma. However, there was no correlation between the vitamin levels in maternal plasma and those in umbilical cord plasma. The maternal plasma $\beta$-carotene level showed a positive correlation to gestational age. Also Apgar score at 1 min produced a positive correlation to maternal plasma $\beta$-carotene level.

Carotenoid Contents of Yellow Sweet Potatoes (황색고구마의 Carotenoid 색소 함량)

  • Kim, Seon-Jae;Rhim, Jong-Whan;Jung, Soon-Teck;Ahn, Young-Sup;Oh, Yong-Bee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.218-222
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    • 1997
  • Twelve varieties of yellow sweet potatoes were measured for carotenoids content to assess their potential as a source of natural food colorant. Benihayato variety had the highest content of carotenoids (20.2 mg/100 g fr wt) but other varieties ranged with $4.6{\sim}16.7\;mg/100\;g$ fr wt. Hunter's +a-values (redness) increased linearly $(R^{2}=0.826)$ with carotenoids content of yellow sweet potatoes. Absorption spectrum of carotenoids extracted from the Benihayato variety was similar to that of standard ${\beta}-carotene$ indicating that carotenoids in yellow sweet potato are mostly composed of ${\beta}-carotene$.

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Studies on Screening of Paraquat Toxicity Reducing Agent and its Inhibition Mechanism (Paraquat 독성 경감제 검색 및 그 억제 기전에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jeong-Hun;Koo, Sung-Ja;Choung, Se-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.192-198
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    • 1998
  • In this study, we intended to evaluate the modulatory effects of natural products, ${\beta}-carotene$, aloesin and semiessential amino acid, taurine on the toxicitiy of paraquat. In the taurine treated groups, serem glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (s-GOT), serem glutamic pyruvic transaminase (s-GPT). blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in serum and MDA, ALP activity, collagen in lung tissue were decreased to the normal values. In the aloesin treated groups, s-GPT, BUN, creatinine, MDA level in serum were decreased to the normal values significantly. In the ${\beta}-carotene$ treated group, only s-GPTactivity was reduced to the normal values. In the lung tissue of taurine treated groups, MDA value, G-6-phosphatase activity and collagen synthesis were recovered to the normal valuse and ALP activity was increase about 40%. From these results, we concluded that taurine is an effective agent to inhibit the pulmonary and internal organs toxicities induced by paraquat and the inhibition effects of taurine are due to remove free radicals directly.

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Effect of Dietary Fatty Acids and Vitamin E Supplementation on Antioxidant Vitamin Status of the Second Generation Rat Brain Sections (식이 지방산 및 비타민 E 보충 식이가 흰쥐의 뇌조직 부위별 항산화 비타민 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • 박정화;황혜진;김미경;이양자
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.754-761
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    • 2001
  • Effects of dietary fatty acids and vitamin E on antioxidant vitamin status were studied in rat brain sections. Sources of dietary fat(10t%) were safflower oil(SO) poor in $\omega$3 fatty acid and mixed oil (MO) with computer-adjustd fatty acid ratios(AA/DHA=1.4, $\omega$6/$\omega$3=6.3, P/M/S=1.0/1.5/1, AA=2.%)with (ME) and without(MO) vitamin E(500mg/kg diet). Rats were fed the three kinds of diet from 3-4 wks prior to the conception. At the age of 3 & 9wks of the 2nd generation rat, antioxidant vitamins were measured in frontal cortex(FC), corpus striatum (CS), cerebellum(CB) and hippocampus(HP) using a multiwavelength, reverse phase gradient HPLC system. The levels of antioxidant vitamins converged to the similar value in all groups at 9 wks of age. Retinol, lycopene and cryptoxanthin levels of all experimental groups were found to be the highest in hippocampus at both 3 & 9wks of age. The levels of vitamin E appeared to be higher in the order of HP>CS-CB>FC in MO & ME. Beta-carotene and retinol showed the lowest level in hippocampus of vitamin E supplemented groups, even though vitamin E level tended to be higher in other sections. It seemed that vitamin E has an inhibitory action on the uptake of beta-carotene or acts as a preferred antioxidant to beta-carotene in certain section of the brain. By improving fatty acid balance (AA/DHA = 1.4, $\omega$6/$\omega$3=6.3, P/M/S=1.0/1.5/1, AA = 2%), the levels of vitamin E, retinol, lycopene & beta=carotene tended to be higher in MO than in SO, although crytoxanthin became lower at 3wks of age. In short, dietary fatty acids and vitamin E have different influence on antioxidant vitamin status in different rat brain sections. The higher levels of antioxidant vitamins in hippocampus should be pursued further in relation to behavioral development of rats.

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The Study of Lipid-peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes, and the Antioxidant Vitamins in NIDDM Patients with Microvascular-diabetic Complications (한국인 제2형 합병증동반 당뇨병 환자에 있어 과산화지질, 항산화 효소, 및 항산화비타민에 관한 연구)

  • 하애화
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of oxidative stress in NIDDM patients with diabetic complications and to determine the relationship between oxidative stress and diabetic complications. For this study, 139 NIDDM patients were recruited, 85 with diabetic complications and 54 without complications were recruited. The concentration of malondialdehyde(MDA) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase(SOD), gluthatione peroxidase(GSH-Px)were determined. The daily intakes and plasma concentrations of beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein nd alpha-tocopherol were determined by food frequency questionnaire and by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), respectively. Among the antioxidant enzymes studied, only GSH-Px activity was lower in NIDDM patient, with diabetic complications than in those without complications(2.91$\pm$0.80 vs 3.54$\pm$0.44 U/mgHb, p<0.05). Those NIDDM patients with diabetic complications had higher MDA concentrations than those without diabetic complications(1.40$\pm$0.25 vs 1.25$\pm$0.11 nmol/ml, p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the dietary intakes of total carotenoids(2854 vs 2824ug/day)or vitamin E (9.5$\pm$3.2 vs 9.5$\pm$2.0mg/day)between NIDDA patients with and without complications. However, the plasma concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene were significantly lower in NIDDM patients with complications than in NIDDM patients without complications (Beta-carotene : 24.2$\pm$12.5 vs 33.1$\pm$16.2(ug/dl), lycopene : 2.8$\pm$2.1 vs 4.3$\pm$2.8(ug/dl)). This study showed that in NIDDM patients with complications, the lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes was higher increased and the antioxidant reserves were significantly dipleted, compared with NIDDM patients without complications. The lower plasma concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in NIDDM patients may be due to the presence of diabetic complication, not due to the lower dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins. To define the role of carotenoids in diabetes, more experimental and clinical studies are needed.

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Optimization for Extraction of ${\beta}-Carotene$ from Carrot by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (초임계 유체에 의한 당근의 ${\beta}-Carotene$ 추출의 최적화)

  • Kim, Young-Hoh;Chang, Kyu-Seob;Park, Young-Deuk
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.411-416
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    • 1996
  • Supercritical fluid extraction of ${\beta}$-carotene from carrot was optimized to maximize ${\beta}$-carotene (Y) extraction yield. A central composite design involving extraction pressure ($X_1$ 200-,100 bar), temperature ($X_2,\;35-51^{\circ}C$) and time ($X_1$$ 60-200min) was used. Three independent factors ($X_1,\;X_2,\;X_3$) were chosen to determine their effects on the various responses and the function was expressed in terms of a quadratic polynomial equation,$Y={\beta}_0+{\beta}_1X_1+{\beta}_2X_2+{\beta}_3X_3+{\beta}_11X_12+{\beta}_22X_3^2+{\beta}_-12X_1X_2+{\beta}_12X_1X_2+{\beta}_13X_1X_3+{\beta}_23X_2X_3,$ which measures the linear, quadratic and interaction effects. Extraction yields of ${\beta}$-carotene were affected by pressure, time and temperature in the decreasing order, and linear effect of tenter point (${\beta}_11$) and pressure (${\beta}_1$) were significant at a level of 0.001(${\alpha}$). Based on the analysis of variance, the model fitted for ${\beta}_11$-carotene (Y) was significant at 5% confidence level and the coefficient of determination was 0.938. According to the response surface of ${\beta}$-carotene by cannoical analysis, the stationary point for quantitatively dependent variable (Y) was found to be the maximum point for extraction yield. Response area for ${\beta}$-carotene (Y) in terms of interesting region was estimated over $10,611{\mu}g$ Per 100 g raw carrot under extraction.

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Changes of Organic Acids, Polyphenols, Pigments and Fiber Concentration with a Different Stalk Position and Grade of Korean Flue-cured Leaf Tobacco

  • Volgger Dietmar;Hwang Keon-Joong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.186-192
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to analyze the organic acids, polyphenols, pigments and fiber materials concentration with a different stalk position and grade of korean leaf tobaccos. Eight kinds of flue-cured leaf tobaccos which were different stalk position and grade were used for this study. Three kinds of major organic acids(citric, malic and oxalic), 2 kinds of polyphenols(chlorogenic acid and rutin), 3 kinds of pigments($\beta$-carotene, chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b), and 2 kinds of fiber components(pectin and lignin) were analyzed. All of these chemical components were changed with a different stalk position. When the citric acid, malic acid, $\beta-carotene$, chlorophyll-a, and lignin concentration were low in the middle stalk position and high in both bottom and upper position, oxalic acid and chlorogenic acid show the highest concentration in the middle stalk position. All of these chemical components also changed with a different grade of leaf tobaccos. As the citric acid, malic acid, $\beta-carotene$, chlorophyll-b, and lignin concentration decreased as the grade ascended, the oxalic acid and chlorogenic acid concentration increased as the grade ascended. This results assumed that the quality of korean leaf tobacco was directly proportional to oxalic acid and chlorogenic acid concentration but it was inversely proportional to citric acid, malic acid, $\beta-carotene$, chlorophyll-b and lignin concentration.

Change of Biologically Functional Compounds of Pimpinella brachycarpa(Chamnamul) by Blanching Conditions (데침조건에 따른 참나물의 생리활성 성분 변화)

  • Oh, Sang-Suk;Lee, Jong-Mee;Choi, Nam-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.388-397
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    • 2001
  • Wild edible plants are consumed as raw and/or processed. Analytical data for raw biologically functional compounds were relatively well established. The changes on functional compounds during processing are, however, not well studied. This study was carried out to investigate the change of the quality of wild edible plants, Pimpinella brachycarpa(Chamnamul) at various conditions. Samples were blanched at the salt concentration of 0%, 1% or 2% for 1, 2, and 3 minutes each. The biologically active compounds, vitamin C, ${\beta}-carotene$, chlorophyll, flavonoids, polyphenols and minerals were analyzed. The concentration of vitamin C in Chamnamul decreased as blanching time increased. Beta-carotene in Chamnamul showed high concentration when Chamnamul was treated under longer blanching time. Higher salt concentration of blanching water, however, resulted in the increased concentration of ${\beta}-carotene$ in the blanched Chamnamul. Higher salt concentration of blanching water also reduced the loss of total flavonoids and total polyphenols from the blanched Chamnamul. The change of colors in the blanching water seemed to be corresponding to those of total flavonoids and total polyphenols concentrations in the blanching water.

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