- Health Sciences ＞ Development of Pharmaceutical
Volume 2 Issue 1
Lee, Eun-Sook 5
This study was undertaken to identify the levels and affecting factors of the maternal role attainment(MRA) in the primipara during the postpartum period. The healthy ninety primiparous from the one university hospital and two local clinics in KwangJu city were selected and two Semantic Differential Scales (SD-Myself as Mothers, SD-My Baby) and the Pharis Self Confidence Scale were used in this study. Questionnaires were distributed at the 3rd days and the 4-6 weeks of the primiparous not showing any complication after normal delivery. The data collected were analysed statistically using t-test, Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and ANOVA. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1) On the 3rd day after the delivery, the scores of SD-myself as mother, SD-baby and Pharis Self Confidence were 70.6 points, 73.6 points and 78.6 points, respectively, showing the low level of MRA. 2) On the 4-6 weeks after delivery, the score of SD-myself as mother, SD-baby and Pharis Self Confidence were 72.8 points, 77.9 points, and 86.9 points, respectively, indicating the moderate level of MRA. 3) The mean scores of the SD scale and the Pharis Self Confidence during the postpartum periods were higher than those of the 3rd days, showing the SD-myself as mother (t=-2.09, P<.05), SD-baby(t=-4.12, P<.001), Pharis Self Confidence(t=-6.59, P<.001), respectively. 4) Positive correlations (r=.24
$\sim$.69) were shown in the concepts related to the MRA and the cognitive-motor skill components and cognitive-affective skill components of the MRA became harmonious over time. 5) The relationships between the score of the MRA and the demographic and obstetric variables were as follows ; a) the score of the MRA in the twenties was higher than those of the thirties. b) the group with higher educational background showed higher MRA socres than the group with lower one. c) those who wanted pregnancy sustenance had higher MRA scores than those who did not. d) the group that did think of festus-feature represented higher MRA scores than those who did not. e) the group of mothers who have the daughters showed higher MRA scores than those who have boys. It can be concluded from the results that the MRA in the primiparous increased gradually, and that the cognitive-motor skills and cognitive-affective skills became harmonious over time. The level of the MRA was affected partly by the mothers general, obstetrical variables. Following suggestion were made oil the basis of the present study ; a) The longitudinal study on the MRA is needed. b) Multivariate analyses should be done for the identification of the factors influcening on the MRA. c) Education program for primiparous mother should be designed and developed to improve the MRA.
Midwives' Perceptions of the Importance of Teaching the Lamaze Method of Childbirth Preparation, Their Practice of it and Inhibiting Factors.Yoon, Gui-Nam;Cho, Mi-Young 21
This study was done to investigate how importantly midwives thought of Lamaze Method of Childbirth, how satisfactorily they performed their Lamaze Method of Childbirth and what inhibited their activities from being performed if not done satisfactorily. The subjects of this study were 76midwives at midwifery in Pusan, Deagu, Kyungnam and Kyungbok. Data were collected by using questionaire from Sep. 1 to Sep.30, 1991. The measurement tools was maded by the researcher based on Kim's scale for prenatal nursing activities. The statistical analysis was done with based statistical values likes frequencies, means, standard deviations and advanced methods such as Pearson's correlation coefficient, 1-test, F-test, F-test by using SPSS package program. The results of this study can be summarized as follows ; 1. The results of Investigating perception according to importance degree and performance degree of Lamaze Method of Childbring showed that midwives were slightly below both perception according to importance(2.17) and performance(2.16) of Lamaze Method of Childbirth 2. Inhibiting factors of Lamaze Method of Childbirth were abscence of husband(3.08), lack of teaching room(2.71), and lack of books or literature of Lamaze Method (2.58). 3. There appears to be a positive relation between perception according to importance degree and performance degree of Lamaze Method of Childbirth (r=0.69, P<0.01). There appears to be a negative relation between perception according to importance degree and inhibit factors of performance (r=-0.38, P<0.01). There appears to be a negative relation between performance and inhibit factors of performance (r=-0.22. P<0.01). 4. The item of highest perception defree in prenatal education is 1st, Consultation about sexual life (2.53), End, illustration of the importance of a bath and perinal cleanliness and Avoidance of excessive respiration method and also its comfortable application during uterine contractility(2.45). The item of lowest perception degree is about pregnant symptom sign and predicted date of birth (E.D.C.). On the other hand, The item of highest performance degree is education about nurtrition during pregnacy. 2nd, Illustration of the Importance of a bath and perineal cleanness(2.45). The lowest one is leaching the pregnant woman and her family about the role of husband and her family and also teaching the couple to learn exercise and respiration method (1.84). Though importance perception degree and performance degree is low. Midwives who wert subject in this research shoves that they perform general items concerning prenatal education well. 5. In the relationship between perception according to importance degree of Lamaze Method of Childbirth and the general characteristics of subjects, the differences in mean number of visiting pregnacies for 1 month. 6. In the relationship between performance degree of Lamaze Method of Childbirth and the general characteristics of subjects, the differences in age, marriage, and mean number of visiting pregnancies for 1 month. With the above information we see the importance of midwife prenatal care education and high correlation between performance degree and perception degree. When Lamaze prenatal education is well performed the number of pregnant woman who have follow-up, check-ups increase. Therefore in this research we can validity that there is a relation between Lamaze prenatal education and patient follow-up. This research showes in a situation where if one does not maximally perform a prenatal education there is a possibility that the popular use of midwife activities may encounter obstacles so the education to save new knowledge and training for prenatal education is needed as a function of Lamaze prenatal education, when a special Lamaze education is well performed for the pregnant woman, who follows-up at amidwife clinic. With the above conclusion we can suggest : 1. Continued research which minimized obstacles to Lamaze prenatal education is needed. 2. The official method of midwives is necessary.
Kim, Hea-Sook 34
지난 10년 동안 구미에서는 부모-아동 관계 영역에 혁신을 가져왔다. 특히 부모-아동 애착이론의 획기적인 변화로 가족 중심 출산 경험을 강조하고 있다. 과거에는 남편이 아내의 출산에 참여하던 것이 타부시되어 왔지만 애착의 개념이 대두되면서 남편도 출산에 함께 참여하도록 고려하여 임신에서부터 부부가 함께 이 과업을 완수하도록 모든 환경을 변화시키고 있다. 애착이론은 다양하여 정신분석이론, 학습이론, 인지발달이론과 동물 행동학적 측면에서 이해되고 있다. 다양한 이론적 배경과 개념들을 가지고 아버지-아동의 애착 및 유대관계에 대한 연구가 지난 10여년 이상 되어오고 있다. 가장 관심의 촛점이 되어 연구 되어온 것으로는 애착형성을 위해 중요하다고 하는 민감한 시기(Critical period)를 중심으로 애착의 특성인 시각, 청각, 촉각, 상호호혜적 관계, 긍정적 애정을 바탕으로 연구되어졌다. 이 연구는 부아 애착(Paternal Infant Attachment)의 연구를 연구방법, 측정도구 및 방법상문제와 변수들을 중심으로 재정리하여, 이 분야에 있어서 앞으로의 연구 방향을 살펴보았다. 17편의 연구들을 각각 년도, 표본수, 방법 및 측정, 결과 및 비고난을 비교 분석하여 도표를 작성하였다. 이론적 기틀과 문헌고찰에 근거하여 다음과 같은 적용과 제언을 한다. 1. 출산전 아버지의 특성에 대한 사정이 필요하다. 2. 연구자가 집단간 비교를 용이하게 하기 위해 연구전에 표본의 특성을 정확히 기술해야 한다. 3. 부모와 아버지의 과거력에 대한 상세한 정보수집이 강조되어야 한다. 4. 앞으로의 연구는 이론적 모델에 근거하여 이루어져, 대중교육 뿐 아니라 정책 결정에 기여해야 한다. 5. 연구결과 평가와 해석을 위해 정확한 이론적 근거가 필요로 된다. 6. 간호연구는 부적절한 부아 애착 형성에 있어서 아버지의 특성을 확인하고 부아유대와 애착 증진의 요소를 파악해야한다. 7. 부아 유대에 대한 위협요소 확인을 위한 도구개발과 그들에 대한 효과적인 간호전략이 필요 된다. 8. 가족에 있어서 모든 부모행위가 하나의 독립변수로서 연구되어야 하고 부아유대 증진에 관한 연구가 시도되어야겠다. 오늘날 부모들은 임신기간동안 많은 정보에 접하기를 원한다. 산전, 산후의 교육과 지식은 긍정적인 부아 관계를 증진시키고, 이것은 아동의 발달에 크게 기여할 수 있다. 긍정적으로 이러한 관계는 가족단위를 강하게 통합시키게 되므로 건강관리자(Health care workers)들은 애착에 대해 높은 관심을 갖어야 하겠다.
Shin, Hee-Sun;Kim, Dong-Oak;Hong, Kyung-Ja 45
The purpose of this study was to explore the stressors in pediatric intensive care unit and impaired psychological responses of children after open heart surgery. Sixteen children aged 6 to 11, who were admitted to the hospital for open heart surgery during the period from July, 1991 to February, 1992 were the subjects of the study. Observations, drawings, and interviews were used to collect data for study. Behavioral responses about intensive care unit phenomena were analyzed according to the 4 categories identified to assess children's perceived stressors in ICU. Impaired psychological responses were examined using observational and interview data. Drawings were analyzed by content and color by this researcher and validated by the psychologist. The findings were as follows : 1. The most frequently perceived stressors by children in ICU were the physical stressors causing pain and discomfort(68.5%). It was followed by social stressors which denote disruption of relationship with family and friends(13.0% ), environmental stressors which denote unfamiliar surroundings, noise, staff, and other patients (11.2%), and psychological stressors which denote factors affecting self-esteem such as inability to communicate and inadquate knowledge of the situation (7.3%). 2. 81.3% of the children showed of least one of the impaired psychological responses. Three children (18.8%) experienced time disorientation. An equal number of subject experienced perceptual illusion. Two children(12.5%) experienced hallucination. Vivid dream about ICU phenomena was reported by 2 children. Seven children(43.8%) were identified as having exaggerated fear. They feared about oxygen mask and ICU environment in general. Seven children(43.8%) experienced impairment of memory about treatments, procedures, and environment of ICU. 3. The analysis of children's drawing revealed that 56.3% of children experienced fear in the ICU. 75% of children included nurses in the drawings and 62.5% of children drew other children. 81.3% of children drew and identified himself in the drawing. The colors used most by children were green, purple, and brown. From this result, it is recommended to prepare children before open heart surgery to reduce their stressors and impaired psychological responses in ICU.
College Women Students' Attitude Toward Mestruation, Perception of Sex Roles and Pre and Postmenstrual Discomfort.Kim, Jeong-Eun 55
This study was planned and carried out 1) to identify the general menstrual characteristics, 2) to understand perimenstrual discomfort, menstrual attitude, and sex role acceptance, 3) to investigate the correlation between perimenstrual discomfort, menstrual attitude, sex role acceptance in order to provide basic information about menstruation. The subjects of this study were 313 college women and they were asked to check Menstrual Discomfort questionnaire, Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire, and Role Acceptance Scale. Data were gathered from April 1 to June 24, 1992. The results were as follows : 1) The mean age of the subjects was 19, and the mean age of monarch was 13.6 ranged from 11 to 19. The distribution of menstrual cycle showed a wide variation and the mean cycle was 29.7 days. The duration of menstrual cycle was between 2-8 days, and in 65.8% the amount of menstrual fluid was within normal limit. 2) The frequencies of perimenstrual discomfort was 56.9% when asked to check it on 5 point scale. 3) All scores of perimenstrual discomfort were higher on premenstrual period than intermenstrual period, and higher on menstrual period than premenstrual period. They were statistically significant. 4) In general, the college women perceived menstruation as natural, somewhat bothersome, and not very debilitating or predictable, although they did not deny that menstruation had some effects. 5) The correlation between perimenstrual discomfort and menstrual attitude was significant. 6) The correlation between perimenstrual discomfort and sex role acceptance was significant. 7) The correlation between menstrual attitude and sex role acceptance was significant.
Lee, Kyung-Hee;Chang, Choon-Ja 70
What is the meaning of menopause experienced by urban Korean women? Nurses need an under standing of menopause as it is experienced by women themselves. Nursing needs to build knowledge of womens' health experiences. This phenomenological study examined what menopause means to modern Korean woman to build a structure of knowledge useful for practice to enhance the quality of life of women throughout this experience. Traditional definition of menopause according to physiological changes, as illness and more recently as psychosociocultural phenomena were examined along with the folk lore information generally available in the society A review of the research and scientific literature was done from the perspectives of four models including the medical model of menopause as disease, the psychosocial model as positive and negative behavioral responses to menopause, a feminist model of menopause as a time of rebirth and a nursing model of the changing patterns of meaning, rythms and transformation women experience through menopause. Van Kaam's method was used to analyse data audio-recorded during interviews by the investigator with 65 women, 40 to 60 years of agey whose confidentility was assured. Interpretation of the data was enhanced luther by consultation with professional colleugues and with informants. Four rhythmical patterns of process emerged : from suffering to comfort, from oppression to freedom from being a good wife and wise mother to becoming a woman and from a hard life to an abundant life. The detailed common elements making up each of the four patterns and definitions of each pattern were presented. Each pattern was discussed critically from the point of view of medical, psychosociocultural, womens' and nursing models. The structural definition of the synthesis of the four process patterns was stated as : in spite of suffering the middle-aged urban Korean woman find she is able to help herself to feel comfortable and to realize release as she moves from oppression to liberation and freedom from being a good wife and wise mother she experiences rebirth as a woman : she begins to live a profitable and valuable life : her life becomes one of transformed abundant living. The definition transcends the medical and phychosociocultural model to embody a nursing model. The analysis was critiqued by using Parse' Human Becomming theory of nursing because the emerging themes were process patterns. Parse' theory provides and explanation of the experience of menopause consistant with the data which enhances nursing understanding of womens' experience of menopause. Parse' practice methodology provide guidance for promoting womens' quality of life throughout the experience of menopause. Feminist analysis contributes valuable critique to nursing research, richly expanding the perspective from traditional approaches to promote understanding of the meaning of womens' health experiences.