The study incorporates model uncertainty into the private equity (PE) valuation model (SWY model) (Sorensen et al., 2014) to evaluate how model uncertainty distorts the leverage and valuations of PE funds. This study applies a continuous-time model to PE project valuation, modeling the LPs' goal as multiplier preferences provided by Anderson et al. (2003), and assuming that LPs' aversion to model uncertainty causes endogenous belief distortions with entropy as a measure of model discrepancies. Concerns regarding model uncertainty, according to the theoretical model, have an unclear effect on LPs' risk attitude and GPs' decision, which is based on the value of the PE asset. It also demonstrates that model uncertainty lowers the certainty-equivalent valuation of the LPs. Finally, we compare the outcomes of the Full-spanning risk model with the Non-spanned risk model, and they match the intuitive economic reasoning. The most important implication is that model uncertainty will have negative effects on the LPs' certainty-equivalent valuation but has ambiguous effects on the portfolio allocation choice of liquid wealth. Our works contribute to two literature streams. The first is the literature that models the PE funds. The second is the literature introduces model uncertainty into standard finance models.
The main goal of this study is to look at how South Korea can catch up to the rest of the world through policy-driven structural change and manufacturing revolutions. To achieve the objective, this study used annual data on real exports and real GDP from the World Development Indicator WDI of South Korea for the period 1960 to 2019. The study's goal is to use econometrics to detect this policy-driven structural change trend. Multiple nonlinear Granger causality test was used to accomplish this. The findings revealed structural breaks and nonlinearities in the dynamic link between South Korea's real GDP and real exports. Furthermore, results also show evidence of multiple structural breaks in South Korean data. South Korea's economic catch-up was the result of a constant reevaluation of industrial policies, readjustment, and structural change to constantly explore and utilize comparative advantage, realizing economies of scale at the global level, and reallocating and redistribution of resources towards productive sectors with high value-added output, according to econometric analysis. If South Korea would have not done this structural change this miracle to escape the middle-income trap would not have been possible. These findings support the descriptive evidence of structural change in favor of manufacturing revolutions and value addition industry development in South Korea.
Established and new companies face similar business challenges in achieving performance and competitiveness. Furthermore, several empirical studies using competitive advantage resource-based view theory show that established companies achieve performance and competitiveness with breakthrough innovations. Similarly, new business ventures with limited resources must incorporate breakthrough innovations to achieve performance and competitiveness. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the impact of ambidextrous innovation on new venture performance and competitiveness. It used an online survey to collect data from 178 newly established shipping agency companies in 22 provinces in Indonesia. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis with WarpPLS 7.0, where the analysis unit was an organization represented by a director. The results showed that ambidextrous innovation positively and significantly affects firm performance and new venture competitiveness. This means that ambidextrous innovation that emphasizes adaptation and development improves the firm's internal business processes, even with limited resources. Moreover, it increases new ventures' competitiveness in responding to threats and taking advantage of market opportunities. These results contribute to the competitive advantage resource-based view theory, specifically for new venture empirical examination. Also, they contribute to practical implications in the transportation business, demonstrating that exploitative breakthrough innovation can improve new venture competitiveness and performance.
The paper aims to examine the impact of exports on the growth of Vietnamese manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by exploring the information of 36,053 enterprises across 24 manufacturing sectors from the Vietnam Annual Enterprise Survey (VAES) in the period 2014-2019. To deal with the problem of variable variance, autocorrelation, and endogeneity of the model, the paper uses the OLS regression method with a strong standard error method and system GMM. Export participation by SMEs is positively associated with business growth in terms of sales and total assets, according to the findings. The GMM estimate shows that the rate of sales growth among exporters is 36.5 percent greater than that of non-exporting enterprises in the case of the sales growth measure. Exporters' average total asset growth rate is 19% greater than the rate estimated for non-exporting businesses. The study's findings indicate the need of adopting policies that promote SMEs in transition economies like Vietnam to engage in exporting activities. Furthermore, the findings show that financial assistance and suitable ownership would enable SMEs to take advantage of export opportunities to increase sales and total assets.
Platform lending or online lending, sometimes called peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, arose due to the digital revolution to meet people's requirements for simple fund borrowing. It quickly became an alternative to other traditional lending techniques, for example, loans banks. Along with the growth of P2P lending, several academics have investigated how information technology is used in financial services, emphasizing extended application methods. This study proposes an enhanced technology acceptance model (TAM) that investigates how consumers embrace P2P lending platforms by using quality of service and perceived risk as drivers of trust, relative advantage and compatibility as drivers of perceived usefulness. For the purpose of this study, we created a questionnaire, distributed it to clients of P2P lending platforms and fintech services in general in cities in Java, Indonesia. We received 290 replies to our questionnaire. The data was analyzed to test the hypotheses using structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings show that consumers' trust, relative advantage, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use in P2P lending platforms substantially affect their views toward adoption. The research's findings are useful for fine-tuning platform marketing strategies and putting strategic goals into action.
The goal of this research was to find the relationship between the work environment and societal issues that impede women's advancement to senior management positions. The study included 500 women professionals from diverse firms in Pakistan's business sector, of whom 100 were chosen as the sample size using a purposive sampling method. Experts confirmed the validity of the study tool, which was a questionnaire, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to verify its reliability (0.704-0.982). The model's standardized regression coefficients suggested that social factors (0.298) were the most important factors determining women's empowerment in terms of career development and that they were further influenced by factors related to the work environment (0.411). It was concluded that organizational rules for female employees assist them to maintain a balance between work and family, resulting in a less stressful working environment. The role of the social factor as a mediator is also thought to be important in maintaining a healthier work environment in companies. It was also determined that much more work needs to be done on promotional regulations, as well as gender-blind legislation so that women's professional advancement is not limited to middle management.
To investigate the short-run effects of social capital on migration decisions of individuals in the rural areas of Vietnam, we conducted dataset mining and performed regression model analysis in the form of panel data. As control variables, we employed the variable of social capital, which is measured by an individual's network, as well as demographic characteristics of individuals and households. We discovered that when a household is in financial distress, social networks such as linkages or asking for aid from others often enhance individual capacity. Individuals with a large social network outside of their immediate area are more inclined to relocate to the location where their connectors live. Individual participation and degree of participation in the organizational community, on the other hand, have little bearing on the likelihood of migration. In addition, this research examines theories and empirical research on the relationship between social capital and migration. Based on our research findings, we have recommended some measures to boost the efficiency of social capital and migration in rural areas of Vietnam through local government solutions.
Religions and beliefs can affect the shopping behaviors of its followers and practitioners. However, the knowledge about the factors that motivate, facilitate and even constrain customers' purchase of spiritual goods, such as feng shui items, is limited. Therefore, in this study, I examined the reasons, facilitators, and constraints of purchasing spiritual goods from the buyers' perspective. Two research questions directed the examination process, including (1) why users buy spiritual goods? And (2) what factors may facilitate or constrain the purchase and use of spiritual goods? Using Vietnam's feng shui market as the context, I applied the autoethnographic and ethnographic methods to collect and analyze the data. I found that the two main reasons to purchase the feng shui items were the products' meaning and beauty. In addition, I observed three groups of factors that could facilitate or constrain the purchase and use of feng shui items, including information about the products and their sellers, disposable income and life stage of the buyers, and price and authenticity of the products. Finally, based on these findings, I discussed the practical implications for managing the spiritual goods market in Vietnam.
The main purpose of this study was to gauge the patient satisfaction index and subsequently discuss the Importance-Performance (IP) matrix analysis of the inpatient services in the context of the private hospital setting. The Malaysian Customer Satisfaction Index Model was employed as the theoretical framework for the above purposes. This study involving 242 patients in Malaysian's private healthcare sector used a Web-based survey as the main method of data collection. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was utilized for data analysis. Using Fornell et al. (1996)'s formula, the resulting patient satisfaction index was slightly lower than the "very satisfied" category, the target level required for positioning as one of the world's premier medical tourism players. The IP matrix showed that medical quality is the main competitive advantage of the private hospitals that can propel their growth in the global healthcare marketplace. The results also indicate that outcome quality, patient rights, and privacy, and service quality are the three quality domains that need to be prioritized for further improvement. On the other hand, the servicescape quality domain needs to be strategized as the unique selling proposition as the performance of the private hospitals in this regard is already extremely good.
This study aims to develop a concept based on empirical research on improving optimal business performance. This goal is achieved by examining the relationship between variables of entrepreneurial orientation, talent management, market orientation, and business performance. The construction of the relationship between research variables, namely entrepreneurial orientation, talent management, on business performance is mediated by market orientation on handicraft businesses in Indonesia. The sampling method was used to collect data from 145 businessmen in Indonesia, using surveys and questionnaires. Data was collected using a survey technique carried out from June 2020 to December 2020. The data obtained was analyzed using the PLS Pro 19. This study developed 9 hypotheses that were tested directly, indirectly, and through mediation. This study has five findings. First, Entrepreneurship Orientation does not directly affect Business Performance. Second, Entrepreneurship Orientation also has a significant direct effect on Talent Management and market orientation. Third, Talent Management and market orientation have a direct and significant impact on business performance. Fourth, market orientation mediates the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on business performance. Fifth, talent management mediates the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on business performance. The results show that entrepreneurial orientation mediated by talent management and market orientation can improve creative industry business performance for the better.
The uncertainty regarding inventory may impart dynamic impacts on corporate-level financial decisions. Among others, a decision about capital investment is a crucial decision that requires overall financial stability. Following these theoretical notions, the current study aims to identify possible consequences of inventory volatility relating to corporate capital investment decisions. We employed ten years of data (2010-2019) of non-financial sector firms to achieve the objective. The Driscoll-Kraay model was used to quantify the regression. The statistical results imply that inventory volatility negatively influences capital investment decisions due to information asymmetry about the current financial position. Additionally, more volatility brings discrepancies in managers' investing decisions to fulfill the possible demand options of capital investment that require processing the inventory. However, based upon the statistical findings, it is suggested to corporate managers that they should consider the financial sensitivity of enterprises regarding inventory volatility. Thus, the current study introduces new thoughts regarding inventory volatility and its empirical role in determining capital investment.
This study examines the relationship between debt maturity structure and bankruptcy risk. There are various studies of leverage's effect on bankruptcy risk. Debt maturity, however, has not received the attention it deserves, especially in emerging markets with a high degree of information asymmetry. Using Vietnamese listed company data and various estimations, we find that leverage is positively associated with the likelihood of default. Importantly, short-term leverage shows a significantly positive effect on bankruptcy risk, while long-term leverage does not show significant results. The findings highlight that rollover risk firms are exposed to when using short-term debt increases bankruptcy risk. Meanwhile, firms do not cope with this risk in case of long-term debt adoption. High information asymmetry in emerging markets may be the main reason for the difference. The result is robust for subsamples of firms in different financial conditions, in concentrated and competitive industries, as well as for manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies. We also find that firms in a better financial situation and concentrated industries experience a higher short-term leverage effect than their counterparts. We, however, do not find a significant difference in the impact between manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies. This paper is among the first to examine the relation between debt maturity and bankruptcy risk in Vietnam.
This paper examines the relationship between investor sentiment and the risk of a stock price crash at the firm level. Our dataset includes 131 firms listed on the Saudi stock exchange (Tadawul) from 2011 to 2019, as well as 953 firm-year observations. To evaluate crash risk, we employ two distinct proxies and propose an index for measuring firm-level sentiment which we use for the first time in our study. The average turnover rate, price-earnings ratio, and overnight return are the three sentiment proxies we utilize in our index. Our findings show that high levels of investor emotion increase managers' proclivity to withhold unfavorable news from investors, which aggravates the risk of a stock price crash. We undertake cross-sectional regressions by sector to ensure the robustness of our findings, and our findings are confirmed. After accounting for any endogeneity issues with the GMM technique, the results remain the same. Furthermore, we analyze the liquidity effect by dividing our sample into subsamples with better and worse liquidity and find that firms with worse liquidity have a considerably greater positive impact of investor mood. Overall, our findings help investors and regulators recognize the significance of this downside risk and how to manage it in the stock market.
The study estimates the Structured VAR and the Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Model for the Vietnamese economy based on the new Keynesian model for small and open economies, with the output gap, inflation, policy interest rate, the Vietnamese exchange rate, and the inflation and interest rate in the United States. The paper aims to clarify the impulse response of the macro variables through their shocks. It offers to model the SVAR and DSGE processes, as well as describe why and how interest rate policy is important in the impulse response of macro variables like the output gap and inflation process. The study supports the central role of monetary policy by giving empirical evidence for the new Keynesian theory, according to which an interest rate shock causes the output gap to widen and inflation to decrease. Finally, the application of the DSGE model is becoming more and more popular in the State Bank of Viet Nam to improve its policy planning, analyzing, and forecasting policy towards sustainable and stable growth.
By analyzing the impact of oil prices on economic growth, this study has shown a new insight into the link between oil price inflation and economic growth. The primary goal of this study is to determine if oil prices are pro-growth or anti-growth. To provide empirical proof, the series data for both the core and control variables from 1972 to 2020 was used to justify the association on empirical grounds. To account for the presence of a unit root, the Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test was used, and after making the series compatible for co-integration, the Autoregressive distributed lag model was used to determine the empirical estimate. Additionally, the empirical models were used to diagnose heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation. The reference point model reveals that in developing nations like Pakistan, economic growth is anti-growth with an increase in prices, and it responds negatively to economic growth in the long and short run. As a result, oil price inflation in Pakistan fails to have a significant beneficial impact on economic growth in both the long and short run, but it does raise the general price level in the economy.
Theoretical literature agrees on the interaction between financial instability and economic activity but explains it's dynamic in two points of view: one is that the transmission mechanism occurs in one unique regime and the other reckons a shift of regime leads to the alteration of the transmission mechanism. This study aims to find evidence of the multi-regime transmission for ASEAN developing countries. The author employs the technique of Threshold vector auto regression using the financial stress index standing for financial instability. Monthly data is collected, covering a period long enough with many episodes of high stress in recent decades. There are two conclusions: (1) A financial shock has a negative and stronger impact on economic activity during a high-stress period than it does during a low-stress period; (2) the response of economic activity to a negative financial shock during high-stress periods is stronger than it is during normal times. The findings point to the importance of the financial stress index as an additional early warning indicator for the real economy sector, as well as the positive effect that a reduction in financial stress may have on economic activity, implying the importance of "unconventional" monetary policy in times of high financial stress.
The study empirically examines the impact of monetary fundamentals along with global oil prices on the Pak-rupee exchange rate using the monthly data over 2001-2020. Employing the cointegrating vector autoregressive with exogenous variables (VARX) and vector error correction model with exogenous variables (VECMX), the study analyzes the impact of domestic monetary fundamentals while considering the foreign variables as weakly exogenous. In order to account for the structural breaks in the data, the Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root test with two structural breaks has been used (Lee & Strazicich, 2003). The empirical results reveal that the domestic and foreign monetary variables significantly explain the exchange rate movements in Pakistan both in the long run and in the short run. The dynamic properties of the monetary model of exchange rate have been analyzed using the persistence profile analysis and generalized impulse response functions (GIRFs). The results reveal that the responses of shocks to domestic monetary fundamentals are consistent with the predictions of the monetary model of the exchange rate. Furthermore, being a net oil importer, a rise in global oil prices significantly depreciated the Pak-rupee exchange rate over the period of study. The global financial crisis (GFC) and pandemic (COVID-19) were also found to cause the Pak-rupee exchange rate depreciation.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) has increased at an exponential rate during the last two decades. It is now a feature of emerging market economies as well. Foreign direct investment and financial development are important factors in an economy's growth. Various studies have examined the impact of foreign direct investment and financial development on economic growth in different countries and areas. However, the findings are currently inconclusive. Using updated data from 1970 to 2020, this study will examine the relationships between FDI, financial development, and economic growth in 30 rising economies.GDP is the dependent variable, while FDI, financial development, trade openness, infrastructure, exchange rate, and GDP growth are the independent factors. To estimate the panel data, we used the most recent econometric models. The study's major findings suggest that FDI and financial development are critical determinants in emerging economies' economic progress. Furthermore, multiple robustness checks supported the study's empirical findings. The results of this study include various practical recommendations for investors, governments, and policymakers, given the increased interest in global economic integration and member states' reliance on FDI as a critical aspect of sustaining prosperity.
The study's goal is to determine how factors affecting tourism resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic affect Ho Chi Minh Tourism's ability to respond to changes and disruptions. The model and research hypotheses were tested using Multiple Regression Analysis Models. The statistical findings showed that the tourism resilience components have a significant influence on the tourism resilience in Ho Chi Minh city. The analyses revealed that tourism resilience consisted of four latent dimensions. There are 4 explanatory variables with a significance coefficient < 0.05. Therefore, the variables Economic resilience, Ecological resilience, Institutional resilience, and Social resilience all have a significant impact on tourist resilience, which is consistent with Jamaliah and Powell (2017). The findings have important managerial implications for local governments, as well as factors that contribute to tourism resilience, as they must attempt to adapt to changes and turbulences during a pandemic, ensuring that the tourism system rebounds in the future. The four components of tourist resilience are defined in the theoretical contribution. The findings of the study could serve as a starting point for developing future tourist resilience strategies. Because the application of tourist resilience theory is still relatively new, this study presents two theoretical and methodological contributions.
High-profile corporate crises have sparked a surge in interest in corporate governance (CG) and corporate reputation (CR). Company governance issues in many companies contribute to corporate failures and a bad reputation. Transparency is the glue that holds any group or organization together while also connecting it to a coalition of key stakeholders. This research focuses on how corporate governance factors (such as board independence, board size, board meetings, and board gender) and company characteristics affect the reputation of Malaysian public listed companies (PLCs). Many studies have looked into the characteristics of corporate governance in Malaysian businesses. However, none of the research has explored this issue using the new reputation measurement. A sample of the 100 largest companies listed on Bursa Malaysia based on their market capitalization for the year ended 2018 was selected. A new measurement, the disclosure index, was created and used to analyze reputation disclosure in the annual report of a corporation. The independent director, board size, and board meeting were statistically significant and associated with the level of reputation disclosure, according to the findings of this study. The results suggest that company directors prioritize good governance and management quality to boost their firm's reputation and acquire a competitive edge.
This article examines the link between regional disparity and social mobility in India. There has been a steady rise in economic inequality in India. The rapid economic growth coupled with a rise in income inequality is a serious concern in India. While the emphasis is on inclusive growth, it appears difficult to tackle the problem without looking at the intricacies of the problem. The Social Mobility Index is an important tool that focuses on bringing long-term equality by identifying priority policy areas in the country. We used a multivariate statistical approach to construct a social mobility index at the regional level by considering several social and economic variables. Our findings show that while the Union Territory of Delhi ranks first in the social mobility index, Chhattisgarh has the least social mobility. From a policy perspective, a comprehensive examination of the determinants of the social mobility index shows that health, education access, and quality, and equity of education are of great importance in improving social mobility. Considering India's potential economic growth resulting from its 'demographic dividend' and improved access, markets, and technology, increasing social mobility through facilitating equal opportunities in society is key to achieving inclusive growth.
This study examines changes in income for Vietnam's service labors during COVID-19. A person's income depends on several factors, such as educational level, working area, the number of activities creating jobs, the cost of living, investment, etc. This research was based on a survey of 479 workers in Vietnam's service sector, who were evenly distributed across sectors (tourism and aviation) and workplaces (State and private). Based on the collected data, the REM regression model was used to analyze the factors influencing employee income when COVID-19 took place. The research returns show that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable influence on labor incomes, and there are income disparities that exist between workers by work area and by gender. This study indicates that workers' wages in Vietnam decreased by an average of 12.22 million VND per month after the outbreak of COVID-19. In addition, the results also show that the income of workers after COVID-19 differs depending on their position (the average salary of laborers working in the public sector is about 3.946 million VND higher than the average salary of laborers in the private sector); furthermore, the incomes of workers also vary by gender.
COVID-19 struck without warning, and by the first quarter of 2020, the world had plunged into a state of total closure as a means of containing the pandemic's devastating effect. Certainly, the pandemic shook many economies; some countries were able to cope, while third-world countries lost their invulnerability. Based on this, the current study looked at financial reports from Kuwaiti conventional and Islamic banks from 2019 to 2020 (before and after the pandemic) and compared the findings to see how much of an impact Kuwaiti conventional and Islamic banks had during the COVID-19 epidemic. Financial analysis of financial reports was used as a quantitative methodology, and variables were compared and analyzed, including (the liquidity ratio, profitability ratio, and financial leverage) within (14) Kuwaiti conventional and Islamic banks. The study found that the pandemic had a detrimental impact on both conventional and Islamic banks in Kuwait, as they were the first line of defense for the Kuwaiti economy during lockdowns and quarantines. Furthermore, there were significant implications on the Rate of Return on Investment, Debt, Financial Leverage, and Return on Equity.
The role of Islamic spirituality in the relationship between organizational justice (OJ) and job satisfaction is investigated in this study (JS). The three components of OJ in this study are distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Islamic spirituality (IS) is founded on piety values, and IS was used as a moderating factor in this study to alter the link between OJ and JS among Malaysian employees of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Four hundred sets of the questionnaire were issued using a simple random selection procedure, yielding 276 completed responses, suggesting a 69 percent response rate. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA) was used to test the proposed relationships. The findings of the study demonstrate that the three OJ aspects have a considerable impact on employee JS, indicating the significance of these elements in ensuring that employees are satisfied with their jobs. IS, on the other hand, had no effect on the link between the OJ dimensions and JS. This research has added to the existing body of knowledge by giving further empirical evidence on the impact of OJ aspects on employee JS in SMEs, notably in Malaysia.
Localization of e-commerce websites is a useful tool for providing the world with business organizations and money-making enterprises. However, studies on e-Commerce website localization within the language domain are still quite limited. Thus, the study aims to investigate the relationship between the Arabic language and a wide range of e-Commerce website intentions, clarifying the indirect effects of the Arabic language on intentions to use e-Commerce websites using perceived risk and trust as mediating variables, and determining whether trust and perceived risk work as mediating variables between the Arabic language and e-Commerce website intentions. Survey data collated from participants totaling up to 264 has been used to test the research framework. The selection of these participants is based on their experiences employing e-Commerce websites. Structural equation modeling (SEM) through partial least square (PLS) software was used for the data analysis. The results show that the Arabic language, trust, and perceived risk play effective roles for e-Commerce websites adoption. More importantly, trust and perceived risk positively mediate the relationship between the Arabic language and intentions to use e-Commerce websites. Implications of the study's findings and suggestions for further research are discussed.
COVID-19 has spread across the world in the last two years, confining people to their homes and shutting down businesses and markets. The world is currently experiencing a catastrophic economic and social crisis. To benefit people and to protect them, industries invented new products. These products were made by small and medium-sized businesses across the globe. In South Asia, there was also a rigorous lockdown, people were laid off, and SMEs adopted E-commerce to assist clients and customers. Therefore, the study aims to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on E-commerce adoption through open innovation strategies in South Asian countries. 500 respondents were selected through an online questionnaire to collect data from different countries of South Asia. The prominent countries are; India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The results of the study show that perceived compatibility and complexity have a positive influence on E-commerce adoption. In normal circumstances, however, the open innovation model is feasible. Knowledge and experience sharing and management attitude have a moderate impact on E-commerce adoption. These results are beneficial for researchers and SME managers in South Asia to overcome the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic and increase the number of skilled people employed. This study suggests that SMEs should hire skilled workers to upgrade their systems.
Environmental protection has been infused into the development of numerous fields by the Chinese government. The government's implementation of green development has also shifted its focus to green transformation and governance of highpolluting companies. In the context of green and sustainable development, this study employs DEA data envelopment analysis to compare the operating efficiency of listed firms that implemented Green Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) in China in 2018. The conclusions of this study are as follows: First, China's green M&A enterprises are unevenly dispersed among the country's east, middle, and western regions. Second, compared to before the implementation of Green M&A, operational efficiency has improved in most industries. Third, the difference in Green M&A across industries is generally favorable, showing that most organizations have improved their operational performance as a result of Green M&A implementation. In 2018, however, the gap in operating efficiency is more negative. Fourth, whereas the eastern and western areas' operational efficiency has improved as a result of Green M&A, the central region's has not. Based on this conclusion, this study makes recommendations for China's future sustainable development of heavily polluted firms.
The objective of this study is to examine the influence of fraud investigation on organizational performance of Thai listed companies through mediating effects of internal audit quality, accounting information transparency and financial effectiveness, and moderating effect of corporate governance. In this study, 333 Thai listed companies are the samples of the study. Both the structural equation model and multiple regression analysis are used to examine the research relationships. The results of this study show that fraud investigation has a significant influence on internal audit quality, accounting information transparency, and financial effectiveness. Internal audit quality significantly influences accounting information transparency, financial effectiveness, and organizational performance while financial effectiveness significantly influences organizational performance. Next, both internal audit quality and financial effectiveness potentially mediate the fraud investigation-organizational performance relationships. In addition, corporate governance critically moderates the fraud investigation-internal audit quality relationships and the fraud investigation-financial effectiveness relationships. In summary, fraud investigation functions as an important valuable technique of internal audit practices. As a result, businesses must build and implement a systematic fraud investigation procedure to generate and improve beneficial outcomes in the short, medium, and long term.
The aim of this research is to use a conceptual model to experimentally evaluate the mediating impact of government financial and training support on structural social capital and non-financial performance of family farms. Questionnaires were used to collect data from family farms in Guangxi, China, from August 25th to September 8th, 2021. There were 759 valid responses, accounting for 94.99 percent of the total number of respondents. The scales' reliability and validity, and the research's mediating effects and hypotheses, are tested using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 26.0. The findings suggest that the impact of government financial assistance on family farms' non-financial performance cannot be substantiated. The intermediary chain connection of financial and training support, on the other hand, has a significant mediating effect between structural social capital and family farm non-financial performance. Direct financial assistance could be thought to encourage family farms to rely too much on funding, making them less competitive in market competition, innovation, and long-term operations. According to the conclusions of the study, government assistance to family farms could take a variety of forms, including providing diversified skills training programs in farming practices, managerial skills, and other areas.
Humans are facing many environmental challenges. Climate change, water pollution, global warming, and hazardous waste disposal are all issues that many countries throughout the world are dealing with. People's psychology and consumer behavior are significantly affected by these challenges, particularly generation Z, which is immediately affected by environmental changes. Young people have a strong sense of curiosity and have access to readily updated knowledge. Today's youth, in particular, live a civilized and responsible lifestyle. As a result, people recognize the significance of their own consumption behavior in affecting environmental change and are increasingly replacing them with green, ecologically friendly products as a fantastic method to mitigate their harmful consequences. In this research, there are four factors related to the young generation and environmental awareness that affect green consumption intention: perceived environmental responsibility, green knowledge, green attitude, and green product value. The goal of this study is to look into how detrimental environmental changes affect Generation Z's green consumption habits. This study used primary data from over 1000 people in the age group, which was processed using the AMOS 20 software. All the characteristics described above had an impact on Generation Z's green consumption intentions, according to the findings.
This study examines the impact of female representation on board of directors and audit committees on financial reporting quality, which also discusses the moderating role of family ownership in female representation on boards of directors and audit committees and financial reporting quality. The unbalanced panel is made up of 271 non-financial companies listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) from 2008 to 2019.The findings reveal that female representation on the board of directors has a large and negative impact on financial reporting, but female representation on the audit committee has a significant positive impact on financial reporting quality. Furthermore, the results reveal that family ownership has a negative impact on the relationship between female presence on boards of directors and financial reporting quality. Furthermore, the findings show that family ownership reduces the impact of female involvement in audit committees on the quality of financial reporting. However, family ownership has no direct impact on financial reporting quality.Our findings suggest that selecting females to serve on boards of directors and audit committees should be based on specific criteria (e.g., monitoring abilities, business competence, knowledge, and experience) rather than on family relationships.
Small and medium businesses (SMEs) play a critical role in the economy, yet they are plagued by a shortage of finance. Determining the influence of cash sources both inside and outside the firm is critical to the company's survival and growth. As a result, the purpose of this research is to determine the impact of capital on the growth of SMEs in Vietnam. The key factors of this research are equity and liabilities, which are two proxies for a firm's capital. The data is based on the results of a survey conducted every two years from 2005 to 2015, which included over 2,600 SMEs in 20 processing and manufacturing industries in ten provinces and cities, including Hanoi, Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City, Ha Tay, Phu Tho, Nghe An, Quang Nam, Khanh Hoa, Lam Dong, and Long An. The findings show that characteristics such as equity capital, total workforce growth rate, and male entrepreneurs have a positive impact on enterprise growth, whereas liabilities, firm age, and export have a negative impact on enterprise growth. The study has demonstrated that equity has a positive impact while liabilities have a negative impact on the growth of Vietnamese SMEs.
Entrepreneurs are valuable assets for any country. Rather than being confronted with new obstacles, they should be fostered and nurtured. Entrepreneurial firms have the power to influence how we live and work, in addition to producing jobs and contributing to economic progress. Entrepreneurs have the ability to change the world by creating diversified skill sets and profitable businesses that are vital to the advancement of our economies. How does one go about being a successful business, though? More resources are believed to be needed to create entrepreneurial environments in higher education that foster progressive ideas and innovation while also providing students with the practical knowledge and skills they need to navigate the troublesome, difficult, and uncertain situations that come with owning a business. This article will outline the scales of components from which to measure variables impacting universities' ability to encourage entrepreneurial behavior among students, based on the aforementioned significance of universities. This article is based on a survey of 507 students from different universities and backgrounds in Vietnam. The research methods used are Cronbach's alpha test and Structural Equation Modeling. From the research results, it can be seen that the university's environment plays a significant role in fostering entrepreneurial behavior among students.
Due to the lack of information, medical tourists are regarded to be at high risk. Prior medical tourism research has found that various types of perceived risks have a significant impact on medical tourists' purchase behavior. Even though medical tourism is predicted to increase, there is a lack of behavioral research to explain how perceived risks affect medical tourists' purchase behavior. In the context of Korean medical tourism, this study attempts to evaluate the effects of multi-level (macro, organizational, and personal) factors on medical tourists' perceived risks and purchase intentions. A conceptual model and hypotheses were built and empirically validated to investigate links between multi-level characteristics, perceived risks, and purchasing intentions. The data for this study was collected from Chinese tourists using a questionnaire. The impact of cognitive country image, affective country image, and medical service quality on fundamental risk is confirmed by statistical testing. Surprisingly, expectancy discrepancy risk is influenced only by cognitive country image and information search capabilities. Both fundamental and expectation discrepancy risks lower medical tourists' purchase intentions. The findings of this study show that a multi-level strategy is required to investigate the links between perceived risks and medical tourism purchasing intentions based on macro, organizational, and personal factors.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of emotional arousals of guilt versus shame on health message compliance. The study also investigates the moderation impact of two individual factors that have not been studied much in health communications, including regulatory focus and self-construal. This study employs a 2 (guilt versus shame appeals/arousals) between-subjects experiment and a survey to test the conceptual model. The context of the study is binge drinking, and the survey respondents (n = 330) are male university students in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The results confirm the positive effects of guilt and shame arousals on health message compliance. In addition, the results show moderating effects of the two individual characteristics of regulatory focus and self-construal on the relationships between guilt/shame arousals and health message compliance. The findings of this study have not only theoretical implications but also practical implications in the field of health communications. The insights could help health marketers, policymakers, and health promotion agencies to effectively develop health communications campaigns with more appealing message content (guilt versus shame) and relevant media selection (regulatory focus and self-construal).
This paper aims to evaluate the effects of Critical work factors on Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction of young Vietnamese employees. The four most essential work aspects were consisting of the Work environment, Employee empowerment, Salary, and Promotion opportunities. To empirically evaluate the proposed research model, the authors assemble data through conducting questionnaire interviews with young employees working in Vietnamese firms. A sample of 216 respondents was constructed using the PLS-SEM program to highlight the testing of thirteen hypotheses. The testing results indicate that four Critical work factors positively impact the job motivation of young employees, especially two factors as Salary and Promotion opportunities. Surprisingly, the hypothesis regarding the positive direct relationship between Promotion opportunities and Job satisfaction is not supported. Meanwhile, the rest influence factors have a significant connection with the Vietnamese worker's job satisfaction. The mediation role of Work motivation was also tested by examining the indirect positive relationship between four Critical work factors and Job satisfaction. This paper is the first study that focuses on young employees; hence, these research findings provide Vietnamese human resource managers some suggestions for reference, which can be considered the dynamic factors on the young Vietnamese employees.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how the country-of-origin image mediates the effect of national stereotypes along two dimensions of perceived competence and warmth, on consumers' consumption behaviors, especially in today's environment, the capricious COVID-19 and the deepening and expanding "The Belt and Road" initiative. Research design, data, and methodology: After collecting 1500 primary data from twelve countries along the 21st - Century Maritime Silk Road, this paper conducts ANOVA and SEM in SPSS25.0 and AMOS 24.0 separately to analyze measurements, structural models, and hypotheses via using 1277 final samples. The mediation results illustrate the asymmetric dominance of the two dimensions of national stereotypes, indicating that the country-of-origin image shows the complementary mediation in the effect of perceived competence on purchase intention; whereas, the country-of-origin image holds the indirect-only mediation in the impact of perceived warmth on purchase intention. The results of the moderation show that the effect of country-of-origin image on purchase intention is more significant for consumers who perceive COVID-19 in China to be of lesser severity than those who believe it to be of higher severity. Based on the paper's results, some implications for practice and theory are highlighted.
Sharing culture brings many benefits to enterprises, creating initiative and efficiency in the work performance of managers and employees. The study aims to test the correlation between Sharing culture, opportunistic behavior, and effectiveness of employee management in enterprises in Vietnam. There is the implementation of a quantitative research method, through analysis of linear structural model SEM, with survey data including 601 samples of employees at enterprises. Research results show that sharing culture has a direct and negative impact on opportunistic behavior, positively on the effectiveness of employee management in enterprises. In these correlations, the employee's Trust and Organization commitment act as mediators. At the same time, opportunistic behavior has also been shown to play a mediating role in the relationship between the impact of Sharing culture on the effectiveness of employee management. Based on those results, the study suggested several recommendations to improve the effectiveness of employee management. The findings of this study have shown the importance of sharing culture and its direct and indirect correlation with opportunistic behavior and the effectiveness of employee management. These are meaningful contributions in both theory and practice of the research, and they will be the important basis for further research.
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