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The Influence of Change Prevalence on Visual Short-Term Memory-Based Change Detection Performance

변화출현확률이 시각단기기억 기반 변화탐지 수행에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2021.09.10
  • Accepted : 2021.09.10
  • Published : 2021.09.30

Abstract

The way of change detection in which presence of a different item is determined between memory and test arrays with a brief in-between time interval resembles how visual search is done considering that the different item is searched upon the onset of a test array being compared against the items in memory. According to the resemblance, the present study examined whether varying the probability of change occurrence in a visual short-term memory-based change detection task can influence the aspect of response-decision making (i.e., change prevalence effect). The simple-feature change detection task in the study consisted of a set of four colored boxes followed by another set of four colored boxes between which the participants determined presence or absence of a color change from one box to the other. The change prevalence was varied to 20, 50, or 80% in terms of change occurrences in total trials, and their change detection errors, detection sensitivity, and their subsequent RTs were analyzed. The analyses revealed that as the change prevalence increased, false alarms became more frequent while misses became less frequent, along with delayed correct-rejection responses. The observed change prevalence effect looks very similar to the target prevalence effect varying according to probability of target occurrence in visual search tasks, indicating that the background principles deriving these two effects may resemble each other.

짧은 시차를 두고 출현하는 기억과 검사배열 사이에 차이 항목의 유무를 찾아내는 변화탐지 원리는 검사배열 출현 시 기억항목들과 견주어 차이가 있는 한 항목을 탐색한다는 점에서 시각탐색 원리와 닮아있다. 본 연구는 두 과제 사이의 이러한 유사성을 배경으로, 시각단기기억 기반 변화탐지 과제에서 변화의 출현 가능성 증감이 변화탐지 반응의사결정에 미치는 영향 즉 변화출현확률 효과의 양상을 조사했다. 이를 위해 네 개의 색상 사각형에 뒤이어 출현한 또 다른 네 개의 색상 사각형 사이의 색상들을 비교해 색상 변화 항목의 유무를 판단하는 단순세부특징 변화탐지 과제를 실시했다. 변화 항목의 출현 가능성은 전체 시행 대비 20, 50 및 80% 확률로 처치되었으며 그에 따른 변화탐지 수행 오류와 탐지민감도 및 반응시간을 분석했다. 그 결과 변화 항목의 출현 가능성이 증가할수록 오경보는 증가하고 실수 반응은 감소했으며 정기각 반응시간 또한 지연된 것이 관찰되었다. 이 변화출현확률 효과는 시각탐색 과제에서 표적의 출현 가능성 증감에 따라 관찰되는 표적출현확률 효과와 매우 유사했으며 이는 두 효과를 초래하는 배경 원리가 서로 닮아있을 가능성을 시사한다.

Keywords

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