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Perception and Production of American English Vowels by Korean University Students

한국 대학생들의 미국영어 모음의 발화와 인지

  • Cho, Mi-Hui
  • 초미희 (경기대학교 영어영문학과)
  • Received : 2021.01.19
  • Accepted : 2021.03.29

Abstract

Motivated by the mixed results in the previous studies on the relationship between speech production and perception, the current study aims to investigate the relationship between production and perception in depth through a case study on how Korean EFL university students produce and perceive American English vowels. To this end, 19 Korean students at a university located in the Seoul-metropolitan area participated in the production and perception tests on American English vowels to elucidate the precedence relationship and the correlation between production and perception. Results showed that precedence of neither perception nor production was found in the overall result. However, either precedence of perception or production was found for the vowels [ɛ], [α], [ɔ], [u], which implies that the precedence relationship between production and perception varies depending on individual vowels. As for the correlation between production and perception, no correlation was attested between production and perception, suggesting that production and perception skills are not closely linked for these participants. Given that mastering language requires to coordinate two distinct production and perception skills and that L2 learners' preception and production skills become more closely connected as the learners' L2 experience and proficiency increases, no correlation between production and perception attested by the current EFL students implies that the correlation between production and perception varies during the course of foreign language/L2 acquisition in such a way that production and perception skills become increasingly related. Implications of the findings were further discussed and pedagogical suggestions were provided.

모국어 습득과 달리 제2언어 또는 외국어 습득 분야에서는 발화와 인지의 관계가 연구마다 다르게 나타나고 있다는 점에서 본 연구는 영어를 외국어로 배우는 한국 EFL 대학생들의 영어 모음의 발화와 인지 테스트의 사례연구를 통해서 인지와 발화의 관계를 심도 있게 고찰하는 것을 목표로 하였다. 이를 위해 19명의 수도권의 대학생을 대상으로 미국영어 모음에 대한 발화와 인지 테스트를 실시하였으며, 그 결과를 통해서 발화와 인지의 선행관계와 상관관계를 살펴보았다. 첫 번째 연구문제인 미국영어 모음에 대한 발화와 인지의 선행관계는 전체 모음의 결과에서 발화와 인지 정확도 사이의 유의한 차이가 나타나지 않았으므로 인지 선행론이나 발화 선행론에 대한 증거가 되지 못했다. 개별 모음에서는 [ɛ], [α], [ɔ], [u] 모음들의 발화와 인지 정확도 차이만 유의하게 나타났으며 나머지 모음들의 발화와 인지 정확도의 차이는 유의하지 않았으므로 발화와 인지의 선행 관계는 모음에 따라서 다르다고 볼 수 있다. 두 번째 연구문제인 미국영어 모음에 대한 발화와 인지 사이의 상관관계는 전체 모음 뿐 만 아니라 개별 모음들에서도 상관관계가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 즉, 인지 정확도가 높다고 해서 발화 정확도가 높거나, 거꾸로 발화 정확도가 높다고 해서 인지 정확도가 높을 만큼의 발화와 인지 사이에 밀접한 관계를 보여주지 못했다. 언어습득은 인지와 발화를 통합하는 과정이고, Flege와 동료들이 보고한 것처럼 L2 경험이 많을수록 발화와 인지 능력이 밀접하게 관련되어 발전한다는 점을 고려하면, 영어 경험이 상대적으로 적은 EFL 학생을 대상으로 한 본 연구 결과는 발화와 인지 사이의 상관관계는 언어 습득 단계에 따라서 발화와 인지가 서로 연결되는 방향으로 변화한다는 것을 시사한다. 본 연구 결과를 바탕으로 영어교육현장에 접목하는 시도가 있었다.

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