Immunomodulatory effects of fermented Platycodon grandiflorum extract through NF-κB signaling in RAW 264.7 cells

  • Park, Eun-Jung (Department of Food and Nutrition, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University) ;
  • Lee, Hae-Jeung (Department of Food and Nutrition, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University)
  • Received : 2019.12.30
  • Accepted : 2020.05.06
  • Published : 2020.10.01


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), an oriental herbal medicine, has been known to improve liver function, and has both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. However, little is known about the immune-enhancing effects of PG and its mechanism. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether fermented PG extract (FPGE), which has increased platycodin D content, activates the immune response in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. MATERIALS/METHODS: Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and the nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured using Griess reagent. Cytokine messenger RNA levels of were monitored by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying immunomodulatory actions of FPGE in RAW 264.7 cells, we have conducted luciferase reporter gene assay and western blotting. RESULTS: We found that FPGE treatment induced macrophage cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. FPGE also modulated the expression of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. The activation and phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were increased by FPGE treatment. Moreover, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, an activator of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), significantly reduced both lipopolysaccharides- and FPGE-induced NF-κB reporter gene activity. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings suggest that FPGE may be a novel immune-enhancing agent acting via AMPK-NF-κB signaling pathway.


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