Difference between the Types of Visual Materials Preferred by Students and Those Presented in the Science Textbooks

  • Kwak, Ock Keum (Dept. of Chemistry Education, Gyeongsang National Univ) ;
  • Han, Ok Hee (Dept. of Chemistry Education, Gyeongsang National Univ) ;
  • Park, Jong Keun (Dept. of Chemistry Education, Gyeongsang National Univ)
  • Received : 2020.05.22
  • Accepted : 2020.06.03
  • Published : 2020.06.30


The purpose of this study is to examine whether the visual materials presented in the science textbooks coincide with those visual materials that are preferred the most by students. After analyzing the visual materials presented in the unit "Molecular Motion and Change of State" of science textbooks for the first grade of middle school, questionnaires by teaching-learning process are made. Thereafter, students are requested to select those types of visual materials that were preferred by them by process and describe their reasons for the selection. According to the results of the survey of students' perception, students at the high science achievement level prefer those visual materials that were presented conceptually and implicatively, while students at the low science achievement level prefer concrete and detailed visual materials. Except for the learning motivation process, the proportion of non-preferred visual materials is higher in the remaining processes and those visual materials that were presented in the science textbooks are much different from those visual materials that were preferred by students.



  1. F. Abd-El-Khalick, J.Y. Myers, R. Summers, J. Brunner, N. Waight, N. Wahbeh, A.A. Zeineddin, and J. Belarmino, "A Longitudinal Analysis of the Extent and Manner of Representations of Nature of Science in U.S. High School Biology and Physics Textbooks," Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 82-120, 2017.
  2. J.G. Cromley, S.M. Weisberg, T. Dai, N.S. Newcombe, C.D. Schunn, C. Massey, and F.J. Merlino, "Improving Middle School Science Learning Using Diagrammatic Reasoning," Science Education, Vol. 100, No. 6, pp. 1184-1213, 2016.
  3. E. Patron, S. Wikman, I. Edfors, B. Johansson-Cederblad, and C. Linder, "Teachers' reasoning: Classroom visual representational practices in the context of introductory chemical bonding," Science Education, Vol. 101, pp. 887-906, 2017.
  4. J.K. Park, "Study on Effective Visual Resources according to Their Role in Teaching-Learning Activity," Journal of the Korean Chemical Society, Vol. 60, No. 5, pp. 327-341, 2016.
  5. M. Evagorou, S. Erduran, and T. Mantyla, "The role of visual representations in scientific practices: from conceptual understanding and knowledge generation to 'seeing' how science works," International Journal of STEM Education, Vol. 2, pp. 11, 2015.
  6. M.O. Peterson, "Schemes for Integrating Text and Image in the Science Textbook: Effects on Comprehension and Situational Interest," International Journal Environmental & Science Education, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 1365-1385, 2016.
  7. W.-M. Roth, G.M. Bowen, and M.K. McGinn, "Differences in graph-related practices between high school biology textbooks and scientific ecology journals," Journal Research Science Teaching, Vol. 36, No. 9, pp. 977-1019, 1999.
  8. S.P.W. Wu and M.A. Rau, "Effectiveness and efficiency of adding drawing prompts to an interactive educational technology when learning with visual representations," Learning Instruction, Vol. 55, pp. 93-104, 2018.
  9. J.E. Upahi and U. Ramnarain, "Representations of chemical phenomena in secondary school chemistry textbooks," Chemistry Education Research Practice, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 146-159, 2019.
  10. V. Lopez and R. Pinto, "Identifying secondary-school students' difficulties when reading visual representations displayed in physics simulations," International Journal of Science Education, Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 1353-1380, 2017.
  11. S. Kasmaienezhadfard, M. Pourrajab, and M. Rabbani, "Effects of pictures in textbooks on students' creativity," Multi-Disciplinary Education Global Quest, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 2250-3048, 2015.
  12. M. Cook, "Visual Representations in Science Education: The Influence of Prior Knowledge and Cognitive Load Theory on Instructional Design Principles," Science Education, Vol. 90, No. 6, pp. 1073-1091, 2006.
  13. I.S. Park, O.K. Kwak, and J.K. Park, "Analysis of visual resources illustrated in the unit 'Characteristics of Materials' -Focused on 9th grade science textbooks-," Journal of the Research Institute of Curriculum Instruction, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 1101-1133, 2014.
  14. N.S. Alrwele Dr., "Effects of Infographics on Student Achievement and Students' Perceptions of the Impacts of Infographics," Journal of Education and Human Development, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 104-117, September 2017.
  15. R. Pinto and J. Ametller, "Students' difficulties in reading images," International Journal Science Education, Vol. 24, No.3, pp. 333-341, 2002.
  16. L. Pozzer-Ardenghi and W.-M. Roth, "Making sense of photographs," Science Education, Vol. 89, No. 2, pp. 219-241, 2005.
  17. M. Hannus and J. Hyona, "Utilization of Illustrations during Learning of Science Textbook Passages among Low- and High-Ability Children," Contemporary Educational Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 95-123, 1999.
  18. S.W. Slough, E.M. McTigue, S. Kim, and S.K. Jennings, "Science Textbooks' Use of Graphical Representation: A Descriptive Analysis of Four Sixth Grade Science Texts," Reading Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 301-325, 2010.
  19. M. Khine and Y. Liu, “Descriptive Analysis of the Graphic Representations of Science Textbooks,” European Journal of STEM Education, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 6-20, 2017.
  20. A. Savinainen, A. Makynen, P. Nieminen, and J. Viiri, "The Effect of Using a Visual Representation Tool in a Teaching-Learning Sequence for Teaching Newton's Third Law," Research in Science Education, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 119-135, 2017.