Available Technology and Integrated Management Plan for Energy-positive in the Sewage Treatment Plant

에너지 생산형 하수처리장을 위한 가용 기술과 통합관리 방안

  • Song, Minsu (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Hyoungho (Busan Environmental Corporation) ;
  • Bae, Hyokwan (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University)
  • 송민수 (부산대학교 사회환경시스템공학과) ;
  • 김형호 (부산환경공단) ;
  • 배효관 (부산대학교 사회환경시스템공학과)
  • Received : 2019.12.27
  • Accepted : 2020.01.30
  • Published : 2020.01.30


Because of the intensified environmental problems such as climate change and resource depletion, sewage treatment technology focused on energy management has recently attracted attention. The conversion of primary sludge from the primary sedimentation tank and excessive sludge from the secondary sedimentation tank into biogas is the key to energy-positive sewage treatment. In particular, the primary sedimentation tanks recover enriched biodegradable organic matter and anaerobic digestion process produces methane from the organic wastes for energy production. Such technologies for minimizing oxygen demand are leading the innovation regarding sewage treatment plants. However, sewage treatment facilities in Korea lack core technology and operational know-how. Actually, the energy potential of sewage is higher than sewage treatment energy consumption in the sewage treatment, but current processes are not adequately efficient in energy recovery. To improve this, it is possible to apply chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT), high-rate activated sludge (HRAS), and anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to the primary sedimentation tank. To maximize the methane production of sewage treatment plants, organic wastes such as food waste and livestock manure can be digested. Additionally, mechanical pretreatment, thermal hydrolysis, and chemical pretreatment would enhance the methane conversion of organic waste. Power generation systems based on internal combustion engines are susceptible to heat source losses, requiring breakthrough energy conversion systems such as fuel cells. To realize the energy positive sewage treatment plant, primary organic matter recovery from sewage, biogas pretreatment, and co-digestion should be optimized in the energy management system based on the knowledge-based operation.


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. An, H, L., Song, J, K., Kim, C, M., Sung, J, I., and Kwon, Y, H. (2002). Co-generation system using the bio-gas of sewage plant, Journal of The Korean Institute of Plant Engineering, 105-112. [Korea Literature]
  2. Angelidaki, I., and Ahring, B. K. (1994). Anaerobic thermophilic digestion of manure at different ammonia loads: effect of temperature, Water Research, 28(3), 727-731.
  3. Angelidaki, I. and Sanders, W. (2004). Assessment of the anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants, Reviews in Environmental Science & Bio/Technology, 3(2), 117-129.
  4. Bae, H. K. (2018). Recovering the energy potential of sewage as approach to energy self-sufficient sewage treatment, Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, 34(1), 121-131. [Korea Literature]
  5. Bae, M. S., Lee, J. Y., and Lee, J. G. (2016). Process technologies of reforming, upgrading and purification of anaerobic gas for fuel cells, Transactions of the Korean Hydrogen and New Energy Society, 27(2), 135-143. [Korea Literature]
  6. Baek, S. K. (2018). Energy saving and independence of sewage treatment facilities-major policy seminars in Busan, Busan City, [Korea Literature]
  7. Bai, M. D., Cheng, S. S., and Chao, Y. C. (2004). Effects of substrate components on hydrogen fermentation of multiple substrates, Water Science and Technology, 50(8), 209-216.
  8. Bohnke, B. (1977). Das Adsorptions-Belebungsverfahren, Korrespondenz Abwasser, 24, 121-127. [German Literature]
  9. Cho, E, S. (2011). A study on the improvement of energy management for wastewater utilities, Korea Environment Institute, 2011-18. [Korea Literature]
  10. Cho, I. H., Ko, I. B., and Kim, J. T. (2014). Technology trend on the increase of biogas production and sludge reduction in wastewater treatment plants: sludge pre-treatment techniques, Korean Chemical Engineering Research., 52(4), 413-424. [Korea Literature]
  11. Cho, S. H. (2016). Strategies for the improvement of energy efficiency and energy self-reliance in public sewage treatment facilities in Gwangju, Gwangju Jeonnam Research Institute 2016-23. [Korean Literature]
  12. Choi, G. H., Kim, T. H., Lee, M. A., Park, W. C., Cho, G. Y., and Park, J. C. (2008). The Effects of ammonia based on the long-term anaerobic digestion for food waste, Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Technology, 9(4), 264-269. [Korea Literature]
  13. Chudoba, J., Grau, P., and Ottova, V. (1973). Control of activated-sludge filamentous bulking - Selection of microorganisms by means of a selector, Water Research, 7(10), 1389-1398.
  14. Daigger, G. T. and Grady, Jr. C. L. (1982). The dynamics of microbial growth on soluble substrates: a unifying theory, Water Research, 16(4), 365-382.
  15. Delgado, K., Maier, L., Tischer, S., Zellner, A., Stotz, H., and Deutschmann, O. (2015). Surface reaction kinetics of steam-and $CO_2$-reforming as well as oxidation of methane over nickel-based catalysts, Catalysts, 5(2), 871-904.
  16. Dong, L., Zhenhong, Y., Yongming, S., Xiaoying, K., and Yu, Z., (2009). Hydrogen production characteristics of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes by anaerobic mixed culture fermentation, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 34(2), 812-820.
  17. Erden, G. and Filibeli, A. (2010). Ultrasonic pre-treatment of biological sludge: consequences for disintegration, anaerobic biodegradability, and filterability, Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 85(1), 145-150.
  18. Evans, T. D. (2003). Independant review of retrofitting CAMBI to MAD, Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, Water Environment Federation, 2003(1), 1390-1400.
  19. Gavala, H. N., Yenal, U., Skiadas, I. V., Westermann, P., and Ahring, B. K. (2003). Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge. Effect of pre-treatment at elevated temperature, Water Research, 37(19), 4561-4572.
  20. Goel, R., Tokutomi, T., Yasui, H., and Noike, T. (2003). Optimal process configuration for anaerobic digestion with ozonation, Water Science and Technology, 48(4), 85-96.
  21. Gude, V. G. (2015). Energy positive wastewater treatment and sludge management, Edorium Journal of Waste Management, 1, 10-15.
  22. Guven, H., Dereli, R. K., Ozgun, H., Ersahin, M. E., and Ozturk, I. (2019). Towards sustainable and energy efficient municipal wastewater treatment by up-concentration of organics, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 70, 145-168.
  23. Haga, K., Adachi, S., Shiratori, Y., Itoh, K., and Sasaki, K. (2008). Poisoning of SOFC anodes by various fuel impurities, Solid State Ionics, 179(27-32), 1427-1431.
  24. Han, Y. H. (2010). Scheme of energy independence for sewage treatment facilities in gangwon province, Research Institute for Gangwon, 10-33. [Korea Literature]
  25. Haug, R. T., Stuckey, D. C., Gossett, J. M., and McCarty, P. L. (1978). Effect of thermal pretreatment on digestibility and dewaterability of organic sludges, Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 73-85.
  26. Kim, D. J. (2013). Pre-treatment technology of wastewater sludge for enhanced biogas production in anaerobic digestion, Clean Technology, 19(4), 355-369. [Korea Literature]
  27. Kobayashi, T., Xu, K. Q., Li, Y. Y., and Inamori, Y. (2012). Evaluation of hydrogen and methane production from municipal solid wastes with different compositions of fat, protein, cellulosic materials and the other carbohydrates, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 37(20), 15711-15718.
  28. Lee, D. G, Bae, J. S., Son, J. I., Kang, J. G., Jeon, T. W., and Shin, S. K. (2016). A study on optimization of operation in the biogas production facility of organic waste (III), National Institute of Environmental Research, NIERPR2016-398. [Korea Literature]
  29. Lee, J, G., Jun, J, H., Park, K, H., Chol, D, S., and Park, J, Y. (2007). Anaerobic digester gas purification for the fuel gas of the fuel cell, Transactions of the Korean Hydrogen and New Energy Society, 18(2), 164-170. [Korea Literature]
  30. Lee, J. W., Cha, H. Y., Park, K. Y., Song, K. G., and Ahn, K. H. (2005). Operational strategies for an activated sludge process in conjunction with ozone oxidation for zero excess sludge production during winter season, Water Research, 39(7), 1199-1204.
  31. Levlin, E. (2010). Maximizing sludge and biogas production for counteracting global warming, In International scientific seminar, Research and application of new technologies in wastewater treatment and municipal solid waste diposal in Ukraine, 95-104.
  32. Li, Y. and Noike, T. (1992). Upgrading of anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by thermal pretreatment, Water Science and Technology, 26(3-4), 857-866.
  33. Lim, K. C. (2007). A study on the progress of energy management system of major countries and domestic introduction plan, Korea Energy Economics Institute, 07-04. [Korea Literature]
  34. McCarty, P. L. and McKinney, R. E. (1961). Salt toxicity in anaerobic digestion, Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 33(4), 399-415.
  35. Meerburg, F. A., Boon, N., Winckel, T. V., Vercamer, J. A. R., Nopens, I., and Vlaeminck, S. E. (2015). Toward energy-neutral wastewater treatment: A high-rate contact stabilization process to maximally recover sewage organics, Bioresource Technology, 179, 373-381.
  36. Ministry of Environment (ME). (2010). Basic Plan for Energy Independence, Ministry of Environment. [Korea Literature]
  37. Ministry of Environment (ME). (2015a). Fundamental Study for the Operational Management of Livestock Manure Bioenergy Facility, Ministry of Environment. [Korea Literature]
  38. Ministry of Environment (ME). (2015b). Technical guidelines of Food Waste Biogasification Facility, 11-1480000-001416-01, Ministry of Environment. [Korea Literature]
  39. Ministry of Environment (ME). (2018a). 2016 Statistics of Sewerage, Ministry of Environment. [Korea Literature]
  40. Ministry of Environment (ME). (2018b). Policy direction of energy Independence in public sewage treatment plant, Ministry of Environment. [Korea Literature]
  41. Observ'ER. (2018). The state of renewable energies in europe, Edition 2017, 17th EurObserv'ER Report.
  42. Oh, J. H. (2015). Seoul Government building acquired ISO 50001 certification for the first time in a national institution, Ministry of the Interior and Safety. [Korea Literature]
  43. Park, H. C., Kim, S. J., Jang, B, Y., Oh, Y. K., Park C. H. Shin, D. H., and Huh, K. Y. (2013). A Study on Operation Characteristics of Anaerobic Digestion by Nitrogen Loading Rate using Food Waste Water, Journal of the Korean Society of Urban Environment, 13(3), 209-215. [Korea Literature]
  44. Park, S. Y., Park, J. H., Na, H. S., and Kim, M. I. (2012). Estimation of influening factors for efficient anaerobic digestion of high strength ammonia-nitrogen wastewater, Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, 26(5), 649-658. [Korea Literature]
  45. Parker, D. S., Barnard, J., Daigger, G. T., and J, E. (2001). The Future of Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment: Evolution Not Revolution, WATER 21, 49-56.
  46. Poggi-Varaldo, H. M., Rodriguez-Vazquez, R., Fernandez-Villagomez, G., and Esparza-Garcia, F. (1997). Inhibition of mesophilic solid-substrate anaerobic digestion by ammonia nitrogen, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 47(3), 284-291.
  47. Rahman, A., Clippeleir, H. D., Thomas, W., Jimenez, J. A., Wett, B., Omari, A. O., Murthy, S., Riffat, R., and Bott, C. (2019). A-stage and high-rate contact-stabilization performance comparison for carbon and nutrient redirection from high-strength municipal wastewater, Chemical Engineering Journal, 357, 737-749.
  48. Sarah, G. and Michael, M. (2015). Energy efficiency and recovery opportunities analysis for municipal wastewater treatment plant operations, Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, Water Environment Federation, 2015(2), 1-9.
  49. Sim, J. P. (2008). A technology development trend of Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFC & DMFC), The Magazine of the The Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, 35(6), 71-81. [Korea Literature]
  50. Show, K. Y., Mao, T., and Lee, D. J. (2007). Optimisation of sludge disruption by sonication, Water Research, 41(20), 4741-4747.
  51. Soares, R. B., Memelli, M. S., Roque, R. P., and Gonçalves, R. F. (2017). Comparative analysis of the energy consumption of different wastewater treatment plants, International Journal of Architecture, Arts and Applications, 3(6), 79-86.
  52. Song, G. S. (2016). Technology development trend small-scale cogeneration, Korea Environmental Industry & Technology Institute, 2016-076. [Korea Literature]
  53. Stillwell, A., Hoppock, D, and Webber, M. (2010). Energy recovery from wastewater treatment plants in the United States: a case study of the energy-water nexus, Sustainability, 2(4), 945-962.
  54. Wan, J., Gu, J., Zhao, Q., and Liu, Y. (2016). COD capture: a feasible option towards energy self-sufficient domestic wastewater treatment, Scientific Reports, 6, 25054.
  55. Weemaes, M., Grootaerd, H., Simoens, F., and Verstraete, W. (2000). Anaerobic digestion of ozonized biosolids, Water Research, 34(8), 2330-2336.
  56. Yeo, K. H. (2016). Technology trend of organic waste energy, Konetic report, 2016-074. [Korea Literature]
  57. Yeom, I. T., Lee, K. R., Lee, Y. H., Ahn, K. H., and Lee, S.H. (2002). Effects of ozone treatment on the biodegradability of sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants, Water Science and Technology, 46(4-5), 421-425.
  58. Yousuf, A., Rahman, K., Pirozzi, D., Wahid, Z. A., and Atnaw, M. (2017). Economic and market value of biogas technology, Waste Biomass Management-A Holistic Approach, Springer, Cham, 137-158.
  59. Yu, M, J. (2011). Trend of potential assessment and utilization technology for sewage treatment plant energy-resource, Seoul Development Institute, 2011-WP-13.