DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Evaluation the Feed Value of Whole Crop Rice Silage and Comparison of Rumen Fermentation according to Its Ratio

신규 조사료원 사료용 벼 사일리지의 사료가치 평가 및 급여 비율에 따른 반추위 발효성상 비교

  • Park, Seol Hwa (Animal Nutrition & Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Baek, Youl Chang (Animal Nutrition & Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Lee, Seul (Animal Nutrition & Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, Byeong Hyeon (Animal Nutrition & Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Ryu, Chae Hwa (Animal Nutrition & Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration)
  • 박설화 (농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원 영양생리팀) ;
  • 백열창 (농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원 영양생리팀) ;
  • 이슬 (농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원 영양생리팀) ;
  • 김병현 (농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원 영양생리팀) ;
  • 류채화 (농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원 영양생리팀)
  • Received : 2020.10.23
  • Accepted : 2020.11.26
  • Published : 2020.12.31

Abstract

This study was to evaluate the feed value of whole crop rice silage (WCRS) and to investigate a suitable ratio of the WCRS and concentrate by an analysis of rumen fermentation. A total of 6 treatments were used according to WCRS: concentrate ratio on in vitro rumen fermentation: T1 (100:0), T2 (60:40), T3 (40:60), T4 (20:80), T5 (10:90), and T6 (0:100). The ruminal pH, total gas emission, ammonia nitrogen, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) were determined as fermentation parameters. Total nutrients digestibility trial was conducted by 4 treatments according to WCRS: concentrate ratio at 40:60 (W40), 20:80 (W20), and 10:90 (W10), respectively. Feed value was analyzed according to AOAC (2019) and nutrient digestibility was calculated based on NRC (2001). The levels of crude protein (CP), crude fat, and neutral detergent fiber of the WCRS were 12.29%, 1.67%, and 59.79%, respectively. It was found to be 51.49% as a result of predicting the total digestible nutrient of WCRS using the NRC (2001) model. In vitro rumen fermentation, T4, T5, and T6 treatments showed a greater gas emission and total VFA concentration compared with other treatments (p<0.05). Acetate and acetate to propionate ratio of T4, T5, and T6 were significantly higher than other treatments (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in the level of propionate and butyrate according to the WCRS: concentrate ratio (p<0.05). The digestibility of dry matter and CP was significantly lower in W40 than in other treatments (p<0.05); however, there was no difference in W20 and W10. In conclusion, the 20:80 (WCRS: concentrate) is beneficial for stabilizing the rumen that does not inhibit rumen fermentation and nutrient digestion. This ratio might have a positive effect on the economics of farms as a valuable feed.

References

  1. Abrams, S. 1988. Sources of error in predicting digestible dry matter from the acid-detergent fiber content of forages. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 21(2): 205-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(88)90102-2
  2. AOAC. 2019. Official methods of analysis, 21st edition (2019) - AOAC International. https://www.aoac.org/official-methods-ofanalysis-21st-edition-2019/
  3. BCNRM. 2016. Beef cattle nutrient requirements model. National Academy Press. Washington, DC. p355
  4. Boucher, S. E., Calsamiglia, S., Parsons, C. M., Stein, H. H., Stern, M. D., Erickson, P. S., Utterback, P. L. and Schwab, C. G. 2009. Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein estimated using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay: II. Distillers dried grains with solubles and fish meal. Journal of Dairy Science. 92(12): 6056-6067 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1885
  5. Chaney, A. L. and Marbach, E. P. 1962. Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clinical Chemistry. 8(2): 130-132. https://doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/8.2.130
  6. Choi, C. W., Chung, E. S., Hong, S. K., Oh, Y. K., Kim, J. G. and Lee, S. C. 2010. Feed evaluation of whole crop rice silage harvested at different mature stages in Hanwoo steers using in situ technique. Journal of the Korea Society of Grassland and Forage Science. 30(2): 143-150. https://doi.org/10.5333/KGFS.2010.30.2.143
  7. David T. M., Oh, S. J., Lee, A. R., Chae, J. I., Choi, C. W. and Choi, N. J. 2012. In vitro rumen fermentation patterns of environment friendly whole crop barley, italian ryegrass and rice straw silages. Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture. 20(2): 221-230
  8. Erwin, E. S., Marco, G. J. and Emery, E. M. 1961. Volatile fatty acid analyses of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. Journal of Dairy Science. 44: 1768-1771. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(61)89956-6
  9. Fonnesbeck, P. V., Wardeh, M. F. and Harris, L. E. 1984. Mathematical models for estimating energy and protein utilization of feedstuffs. Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 508. Logan.
  10. Hiltner, P. and Dehority, B. 1983. Effect of soluble carbohydrates on digestion of cellulose by pure cultures of rumen bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 46: 642-648. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.46.3.642-648.1983
  11. Kim, D. J., Kim, Y. K. and Maeng, W. J. 1989. Study on the dry matter digestibility of domestic herbage by pepsin-cellulase technique, 1; cell wall constituents and dry matter digestibility of wild grasses. Korean Journal of Animal Sciences. 31(5): 324-333.
  12. Kim, J. G., Chung, E. S., Ham, J. S., Seo, S., Kim, M. J., Yoon, S. H. and Lim, Y. C. 2007. Effect of growth stage and variety on the yield and quality of whole crop rice. Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science. 27(1): 1-8. https://doi.org/10.5333/KGFS.2007.27.1.001
  13. Kim, J. G., Ham, J. S., Chung, E. S., Yoon, S. H., Kim, M. J., Park, H. S., Lim, Y. C. and Seo, S. 2008a. Evaluation of fermentation ability of microbes for whole crop rice silage inoculant. Journal of the Korea Society of Grassland and Forage Science. 28(3): 229-236. https://doi.org/10.5333/KGFS.2008.28.3.229
  14. Kim, J. G., Chung, E. S., Seo, S., Kim, M. J., Lee, J. K., Yoon, S. H., Lim, Y. C. and Cho, Y. M. 2008b. Effect of growth stage and variety on the quality of whole crop rice silage. Journal of the Korea Society of Grassland and Forage Science. 28(1): 29-34. https://doi.org/10.5333/KGFS.2008.28.1.029
  15. Kim, J. G., Chung, E. S., Lee, J. K., Lim, Y. C., Yoon, S. H. and Kim, M. J. 2009. Comparison of yield and quality of direct-seeded whole crop rice. Journal of the Korea Society of Grassland and Forage Science. 29(1): 25-30. https://doi.org/10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.1.025
  16. KOSIS(Korean Statistical Information Service). 2020. Grain consumption survey of 2019. Available from: http://kosis.kr. Accessed October 22, 2020. Korean statistical information service.
  17. Licitra, G., Hernandez, T. M. and Van Soest, P. J. 1996. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 57(4): 347-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00837-3
  18. Tilley, J. M. A. and Terry, R. A. 1963. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Grass and Forage Science : The Journal of the British Grassland Society. 18(2): 104-111. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1963.tb00335.x
  19. Troelsen, J. E., and Hanel, D. J. 1966. Ruminant digestion in vitro as affected by inoculum donor, collection day, and fermentation time. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 46(3): 149-156. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas66-022
  20. Masao, O. and Takeshi, H. 1990. Effects of cropping season and soiling time and height on herbage and grain yield and feeding value. Japanese Journal of Crop Science. 59(3): 419-425. https://doi.org/10.1626/jcs.59.419
  21. Minson, D. 1982. Effect of chemical composition on feed digestibility and metabolizable energy. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews. pp.591-615.
  22. NRC(National Research Council). 2001. Nutrient Requirement of Dairy Cattle. 7th Revised Edition. National Academy Press. Washington, DC. pp.62-67.
  23. Rohweder, D., Barnes, R. F. and Jorgensen, N. 1978. Proposed hay grading standards based on laboratory analyses for evaluating quality. Journal of Animal Science. 47(3): 747-759. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1978.473747x
  24. Sakai, M. 2003. New rice varieties for whole crop silage use in Japan. Breeding Science. 53(3): 271-276. https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.53.271
  25. Stiles, D., Bartley, E., Meyer, R. E., Deyoe, C. and Pfost, H. 1970. Feed processing. VII. Effect of an expansion-processed mixture of grain and urea (starea) on rumen metabolism in cattle and on urea toxicity. Journal of Dairy Science. 53(10): 1436-1447. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(70)86412-8
  26. Sung, K. I., S. M. Hong, and B. W. Kim.2004 Plant height, dry matter yield and forage quality at different maturity of whole crop rice. Journal of the Korea Society of Grassland and Forage Science. 24(1): 53-60. https://doi.org/10.5333/KGFS.2004.24.1.053