The Effect of Maternal Rejective Parenting Attitude on Children's Leadership: Mediating Effect of Self-Esteem and Gender Difference

어머니의 거부적 양육태도가 유아의 리더십에 미치는 영향: 자아존중감의 매개효과와 성차

  • Jeong, Ji Hye (Early Childhood Education Major, Graduate School of Education, Yonsei University) ;
  • Kang, Min Ju (Department of Child & Family Studies, Yonsei University)
  • 정지혜 (연세대학교 교육대학원 유아교육전공) ;
  • 강민주 (연세대학교 아동.가족학과)
  • Received : 2009.06.19
  • Accepted : 2019.07.12
  • Published : 2019.08.30


This study examined the mediating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between maternal rejective parenting attitude and children's leadership as well as identified gender differences in the mediating pathways. The mediating effects of this study were examined after controlling the effect of maternal employment status on rejection parenting attitude and the effect of siblings on the children's leadership. Participants consisted of 330 five- and six-year-old children (151 boys and 179 girls) and their mothers. Data analyses included t-tests, F tests, $Scheff{\acute{e}}$ post-hoc tests and Pearson's correlation. Structure equation modeling examined the mediating effect of self-esteem. Bootstrapping method was applied to examine the significance of the mediating effects. Gender differences in the mediating effect were examined through multiple group path analyses. The results of this study were as follows. First, self-esteem mediated the relationship between the maternal rejective parenting attitude on children's leadership. Second, there was a significant gender difference in the mediating pathways with a full mediating effect of self-esteem for boys; however, there was only a partial mediating effect for the girls. This study has implication for investigating gender difference in the mediating mechanism of explaining variance in the leadership of preschoolers. The limitations and more implications of this study are also discussed.


  1. An, D. H. (2005). No children, single, sibling. The Korean Society of Maternal and Child Health, 4, 1-7.
  2. An, Y. R., & Lee, D. K. (2012). An understanding on the difficulties experienced by younger students in mixed-age classrooms. The Korean Open Association for Early Childhood Education, 17(4), 449-484.
  3. Bang, K. S. (2004). Childrearing attitude and burden of employed and unemployed mothers and temperament and health related variables of their preschool children. Korean Academy of Child Health Nursing, 10(2), 217-224.
  4. Bonstingl, J. J. (2006). Every child is a leader. Leadership, 35(3), 34-36.
  5. Bronte-Tinkew, J., Moore, K. A., & Carrano, J. (2006). The father-child relationship, parenting styles, and adolescent risk behaviors in intact families. Journal of Family Issues, 27(6), 850-881.
  6. Chi, S. A., & Jung, J. H. (2016). A comparison of the effects of free choice activities in the mixed and same age groups on young children's language and cognitive ability. The Korea Open Association for Early Childhood Education, 21(6), 267-291.
  7. Chi, S. A., & Shin, G. (2015). A study of the relationships among young children's leadership, language ability, attention-deficit, and self-esteem. Early Childhood Education Research & Review, 19(5), 449-474.
  8. Chi, S. A., Kim, Y. O., & Park, H. S. (2003). A study on the development of a self-esteem assessment for young children. Early Childhood Education Research & Review, 7(1), 43-67.
  9. Choi, H. M. (2011). A study on the individual inner variable and individual outer variable that affects self-esteem of young children (Unpublished doctor's dissertation). Duksung Women's University, Seoul, Korea.
  10. Choi, H. M., & Shin, D. J. (2011). Development and validation study for young children's self-esteem rating scale. Early Childhood Education Research & Review, 15(6), 167-187.
  11. Choi, H. M., & Shin, D. J. (2012). An analysis of the effects of young children's personal characteristics and external variables on their self-esteem. Journal of Early Childhood Education, 32(1), 133-158.
  12. Chung, M. J., Lim, Y. K., & Kim, D. R. (2011). Study of parental reactions to a child's negative emotions. Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 20(6), 1109-1119.
  13. Cohn, D. A. (1990). Child-mother attachment of six-year-olds and social competence at school. Child Development, 61(1), 152-162.
  14. Fukada, H., Fukada, S., & Hicks, J. (1997). The relationship between leadership and sociometric status among preschool children. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 158(4), 481-486.
  15. Gipps, C., & Tunstall, P. (1998). Effort, ability and the teacher: Young children's explanations for success and failure. Oxford Review of Education, 24(2), 149-166.
  16. Gray, P. (2011). The special value of children’s age-mixed play. American Journal of Play, 3(4), 500-522.
  17. Haltiwanger, J. (1989). The behavioral referents of presented self-esteem in young children. Poster session presented at the Biennial Meetings of The Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City, United States.
  18. Han, Y. J., Kwak, E. B., Kim, M. J., & Jang, S. O. (2007). Social education for young children. Seoul: Education Academy.
  19. Her, S. Y., & Kim, S. Y. (2013). An analysis of individual and home environmental variables affecting on young children's leadership. The Korean Journal of Child Education, 22(3), 231-244.
  20. Im, E. K., & Yu, Y. O. (2012). Relation between leadership and selfcontrol according to children's age and gender. The Journal of Child Education, 21(1), 211-224.
  21. Jang, C. S., Kim, S. M., Koo, H. R., & Hwang, D. S. (2015). A study on the difficulties and the coping strategies of the in-home child care support service. Journal of Korean Family Resource Management Association, 19(3), 17-40.
  22. Jeon, H. K. (2015). The effects of mother's parenting behavior and young children's servant leadership on young children's decision making ability. Journal of Early Childhood Education & Educare Welfare, 19(3), 89-116.
  23. Jeong, J. H., & Kwon, J. Y. (2011). The effect of young children's self-esteem and emotional intelligence on their leadership. Journal of Research on Child Care Support, 6(2), 105-125.
  24. Jung, T, Y., & Roh, H. J. (2005). Difference between the employed and the unemployed mothers in parenting guilt and behaviors. The Korean Journal of Woman Psychology, 10(2), 211-231.
  25. Kagan, L. S. (1994). Leadership: Rethinking it-making it happen. Young Children, 49(45), 50-54.
  26. Kang, H. K. (2002). The parental authority styles, self-esteem, and perfectionism in later adolescence. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 9(3), 37-55.
  27. Kang, Y. H., & Lee, S. M. (2015). The mediating effects of creative capabilities in preschool education institutes on the relationship between family interactions of young children and child leadership. The Journal of Korea Early Childhood Education, 22(3), 251-269.
  28. Kee, H. J., & Kim, H. J. (2004). Sibling interaction by birth order, sibling sex composition, and sibling temperament combination. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 25(4), 49-70.
  29. Kernis M. H., Brown A. C., & Brody, G. H. (2000). Fragile self-esteem in children and its associations with perceived patterns of parent-child communication. Journal of Personality, 68(2), 225-252.
  30. Kim, S. R., Hong J. M., & Hong, H. K. (2010). The relations among mother's behavior toward rearing, mother's rearing-stress and self-esteem of young children. The Korea Society for Children's Media, 9(2), 113-132.
  31. Kim, G. J., & Kim, P. K. (2016). The relationship study of young children's emotional intelligence, servant leadership, and sense of community. Early Childhood Education Research & Review, 20(5), 383-399.
  32. Kim, S. Y. (2007). The relationship between school entrance age and social development and school adjustment. Journal of Early Childhood Education, 27(2), 119-138.
  33. Kwon, K. O. (2011). Effects of class size on early childhood's self-concept and emotional intelligence. The Journal of Educational Administration, 29(4), 23-45.
  34. Kwon, Y. S., & Choi, H. J. (2010). The effect of preschool children's leadership on mother's rearing attitude and preschool children's temperament. Teacher Education Research, 49(2), 151-170.
  35. Lee, C. H., & Choi, I. S. (2008). The development of a leadership scale for preschool children. Journal of Korea Open Association for Early Childhood Education, 13(3), 23-37.
  36. Lee, M. R., & Shin, Y. L. (2013). Effect of employed and unemployed mother's role, child temperament, and environmental support on early child development. Journal of the Study of Child Care Policy, 7(1), 1-20.
  37. Lee, S., & Ryu, H. K. (2014). The influences of mother's child-rearing attitudes on infant's empathy ability: the mediating effect of self-esteem. The Journal of Play Therapy, 18(3), 1-16.
  38. Lee, S. Y., Kim, E. J., Park, J. S., Byoun, S. J., Oh, M. A., Lee, S. L., et al. (2018). The 2018 national survey on fertility and family health and welfare. Sejong: Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs.
  39. Lee, Y. M. (2009). Relationship of mothers' child-rearing stress, affective-rejective parenting and self-regulation in preschoolers. Family and Culture, 21(4), 41-61.
  40. Lim, S. A., & Lim, H. J. (2015). Parenting-related factors influencing young children's problem behaviors: Focusing on the differences between employed and non-employed mothers. Korea Journal of Child Care and Education, 90, 159-184.
  41. Ministry of Gender Equality and Family. (2019). 2019 Child care support project guide. Seoul: Family culture department.
  42. Ministry of Health and Welfare. (2017). Children's general status survey statistical information report. Sejong: Child Welfare Policy.
  43. Na, E. S., & Kim, K. H. (2017). The effect of mothers' rejective parenting attitude in the process of adapting to institutions: focusing on the mediating effect of children's humanity. Korean Journal of Childcare and Education, 13(1), 167-184.
  44. Na, E. S., & Lee, J. I. (2008). A test on validity and reliability of the Korean version of parental acceptance-rejection and control questionnaire: A parenting scale for Korean parents having young children. The Journal of Korea Early Childhood Education, 15(3), 215-247.
  45. Nam, K. Y. (2015). The effect of mother's self-efficacy on a young children's leadership: the mediation effect of young children's resilience. Korean Journal of Children's Media, 14(2), 157-182.
  46. Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: Theory and practice (N. H. Kim, Trans.). Seoul: Kyungmoonsa. (Original work published 2004).
  47. Park, J. Y., & Lee, S. H. (2009). Relationship between parenting attitude and children's playfulness. Korea Practice Association for Early Childhood Education, 14(1), 40-57.
  48. Park, W. R. (2015). The mediating effects of rejection sensitivity on relationships between parenting attitude and self-esteem. The Journal of Korea Elementary Education, 26(3), 237-257.
  49. Park, W. Y., Ma, J. S., & Chough, J. H. (2010). A relationship between young children’s leadership and self concept. The Journal of Korea Open Association for Early Childhood Education, 15(4), 263-282.
  50. Park, Y. K., & Hwang, H. J. (2009). A study of the classification and characteristics of children's leadership in relation to children's temperament and mothers' child rearing behaviors. Journal of Early Childhood Education, 29(4), 281-308.
  51. Parten, M. B. (1933). Leadership among preschool children. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 27(4), 430-440.
  52. Pianta, R. C., Nimetz, S. L., & Bennett, E. (1997). Mother-child relationships, teacher-child relationships, and school outcomes in preschool and kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12(3), 263-280.
  53. Ro, I. S., & Moon, H. J. (2012). The effect of mother's parental attitude and the ability of children's self-regulation on young children's leadership. Journal of Korean Child Care and Education, 8(5), 25-45.
  54. Rohner, R. P. (1986). The warmth dimension: Foundation of parental acceptance-rejection theory. NY: Sage Publication.
  55. Rohner, R. P. (1991). Handbook for the study of parental and acceptance rejection. Storrs: Centre for the Study of Parental Acceptance and Rejection, University of Connecticut.
  56. Rohner, R. P., & Khaleque, A. (2005). Parental control scale: Test manual. In R. P. Rohner., & A. Khaleque (Eds.), Handbook for the study of parental and acceptance rejection (pp. 107-135). Storrs, CT: Rohner Research Publications.
  57. Song, M. J. (2015). Developmental psychology. Seoul: Hakjisa.
  58. Song, S. O. (2017). The effects of father's involvement in child-rearing on young child's servant leadership and playfulness. Journal of Children's Literature and Education, 18(4), 207-227.
  59. Song, Y. J., Lee, M. R., & Chun, H. Y. (2014). Parenting stress changes in both of continuous working and non-working mothers after the birth of their first child: A focus on the effects of the values, knowledge and expectations about their children. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 35(5), 15-35.
  60. Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2012). 21st century skills: learning for life in our times (Korean Educational Development Institute, Trans.). Seoul: Hakjisa. (Original work published 2009).
  61. Wheatley, M. J. (2002). Turning to one another: Simple conversations to restore hope to the future. San Fransisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
  62. Yang, J. H., & Park, Y. (2009). The effects of a literary activity through peer relationship picture books on young children's self-esteem and social adjustment behaviors. The Journal of Korea Open Association for Early Childhood Education, 14(6), 123-152.
  63. Yoo, J. N., & Oh, I. S. (2015). The relationships between the mother's child-rearing attitude, children's temperament, self-esteem, and self-regulation. The Journal of Educational Studies, 46(2), 79-103.
  64. Yun, H. J. (2017). The effect of monthly age on school adjustment of elementary students. The Journal of Elementary Education, 30(4), 105-127.