Fig. 1. (a) Optic images and (b, c) 3D mapping image of 2 cm × 2 cm stainless-steel stamp by using digital microscope.
Fig. 2. Potential profiles of Li/Li symmetrical cells during galvanostatic cycling [+0.5 mA cm-2 (30 min) → Rest (10min) → -0.5 mA cm-2 (30 min) → Rest (10min)].
Fig. 3. SEM images of (a, b, c) Reference, (d, e, f) 5 wt% VC with Micro-Patterned Lithium anode after plating with a current density of 2 mA cm -2.
Fig. 4. Voltage profiles of Li (Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2)O2 electrodes (a) without VC and (b) with VC electrolyte additive during precycling.
Fig. 5. SEM images of (a, c) Reference and (b, d) 5 wt% VC with Micro-patterned lithium metal electrodes after precycling.
Fig. 6. C 1s XPS spectra of the micro-patterned lithium metal anodes (a) without and (b) with VC after precycling.
Fig. 7. Electrochemical performance of NCM622/Li cells employing Micro-patterned Lithium metal electrodes with and without VC electrolyte additive (a) Comparison of the discharge capacities of the cells at different discharge rates from 0.5C (0.792 mA cm-2) to 15C (23.76 mA cm-2) while keeping the charge rate constant at 0.5C (0.792 mA cm-2). (b) Cycling performance measured at a rate of 1C (1.584 mA cm-2) between 3.0 V and 4.3 V (vs. Li/Li+) (c) Columbic efficiencies of unit cells relevant to Fig. 7b.
Table 1. HOMO and LUMO energy levels of ethylene carbonate(EC), ethyl methyl carbonate(EMC) and, vinylene carbonate(VC), and their reduction potentials.