A review on numerical models and controllers for biped locomotion over leveled and uneven terrains

  • Varma, Navaneeth (Department of Mechanical Engineering, N.S.S College of Engineering) ;
  • Jolly, K.G. (Department of Mechanical Engineering, N.S.S College of Engineering) ;
  • Suresh, K.S. (Department of Mechanical Engineering, N.S.S College of Engineering)
  • Received : 2017.05.30
  • Accepted : 2018.06.20
  • Published : 2018.06.25


The evolution of bipedal robots was the foundation stone for development of Humanoid robots. The highly complex and non-linear dynamic of human walking made it very difficult for researchers to simulate the gait patterns under different conditions. Simple controllers were developed initially using basic mechanics like Linear Inverted Pendulum (LIP) model and later on advanced into complex control systems with dynamic stability with the help of high accuracy feedback systems and efficient real-time optimization algorithms. This paper illustrates a number of significant mathematical models and controllers developed so far in the field of bipeds and humanoids. The key facts and ideas are extracted and categorized in order to describe it in a comprehensible structure.



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