DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Analysis of Inequality of Public Transfer Income by Income Level

소득계층별 공적이전소득의 불평등 변화분석

  • Lee, Yong-jae (Dept. of Social Welfare, Hoseo University) ;
  • Kim, Yong-mi (Dept. of Social Welfare, Chung Cheong University)
  • 이용재 (호서대학교 사회복지학과) ;
  • 김용미 (충청대학교 사회복지과)
  • Received : 2018.10.29
  • Accepted : 2018.12.20
  • Published : 2018.12.28

Abstract

This study was carried out by using the concentration index calculation method from 1996 to 2016 by using the household trend survey data to confirm the difference of income transfer income and inequality in public transfer income. The main results are as follows. First, the public transfer income concentration index in 1996 was concentrated on the high income group with +0.2774, but since 2009, the concentration index has been negative (-), which has concentrated on the low income group. However, the effect of redistribution of income was small. Second, the average public transfer income of low - income households increased significantly while the number of high income earners decreased. It is gradually improving that public transfer income did not play a role in the improvement of income inequality. Third, public transfer income has been continuously increasing in all income classes, and the rate of increase is low in the low income class and slow in the high income class, so the public transfer income of the low income class is higher than that of the high income class. In sum, the inequality of public transfer income by income class in Korea is gradually improving, but it is not considered to be a level that can improve the inequality between income groups.

DJTJBT_2018_v16n12_77_f0001.png 이미지

Fig. 1. Concentration curve and Concentration index[19]

DJTJBT_2018_v16n12_77_f0002.png 이미지

Fig. 2. Changes in the Public Transfer Income Concentration Index by Income Class(’96–’16)

DJTJBT_2018_v16n12_77_f0004.png 이미지

Fig. 3. Changes in Public Transfer Income Average by Income Class(’96–’16)(Unit : won)

DJTJBT_2018_v16n12_77_f0005.png 이미지

Fig. 4. Change in the ratio of income to the pre-5th quartile relative to the overall average public transfer income(’96–’16)

DJTJBT_2018_v16n12_77_f0006.png 이미지

Fig. 5. Change in the ratio of income to the 6-10th quartile relative to the overall average public transfer income(’96–’16)

Table 1. Mean and Inequality of Public Transfer Income by Income Class(1996–2016)

DJTJBT_2018_v16n12_77_t0001.png 이미지

Table 2. Mean and Inequality of Public Transfer Income by Income Class(continued)

DJTJBT_2018_v16n12_77_t0002.png 이미지

References

  1. K. H. Jung. (2011). Survey on the Living Conditions of the Elderly in 2011, Health and Social Training Institute.
  2. R. Reich. (1999). Social Insurance and Economic Security, 6th ed. N.J. : Prentice-Hall.
  3. S. J. Won. (2017). Social Security, Yangseowon Press.
  4. Y. J. Lee. (2016). Impact on Income Inequality of Income Sources in the Elderly, The Korea Contents Society, 16(5), 591-600.
  5. S. Y. Um & Y. J. Lee. (2015). Analysis for Division of State, Market and Family in Income Sources of the Elderly, The Korea Contents Society, 15(5), 191-199.
  6. J. H. Park. (2018). Social Security, Community Press.
  7. J. Ralws. (1971). A Theory of Social Justice, Belknap Press.
  8. Neil Gilbert & Paul Terrell. (2005). Dimensions of Social Welfare Policy, 6th edition, Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
  9. S. D. Park. (2016). Social Security, Yangseowon Press.
  10. M. C. Woo & J. H. Kim (2018). The Influence of the Korean National Pension Fund on Stock Markets. Asian Review of Financial Research, 31(2), 221-258.
  11. H. B. Woo & H. J. Lim. (2017). Future Prospects and Policy Implications of Multi-pillar Old-Age Income Security by Income Level. Social Security Research, 33(4), 211-239.
  12. H. W. Shin & J. S. Lee. (2017). The Effects of Social Security Wealth on Households' Portfolio Choices across Income Groups, Journal of Korean Economics Studies, 3(1), 41-74.
  13. H. I. Ku, S. H. Lim & H. J. Moom. (2010). Impact of the National Basic Livelihood Security System on Work, Income, and Poverty, Korean Journal of Sociology, 44(1), 123-148.
  14. H. Y. Kim. (2017). The Effect of Basic Pension on Gender Poverty and Income Inequality, Journal of Critical Social Welfare, 54(1), 120-159.
  15. B. R. Ro. (2017). A Comparative Study on the Effects of Policy Configurations and Public Expenditures in Welfare Policy Areas on Inequality: Social Security Policies for Working Generations and Social Care as Effective Inequality Mitigation Strategy, Korean Journal of Public Administrationl, 55(1/4), 151-175.
  16. H. J. Lee, & C. J. Yeun & C. B. You. (2017). A Study on Inequality Reduction Effect of Cash Basic Income and In-kind Public Service, Journal of Social Science, 56(1), 93-118. https://doi.org/10.22418/JSS.2017.06.56.1.93
  17. J. I. Yoon. (2018). An Essay on the Income Distribution in Korea, Culture and Convergence, 40(3), 863-886.
  18. K. S. Kim. (2017). Development and Limitation of Income Maintenance Policy after the Financial Crisis, Korea Social Policy Review, 24(4), 151-184. https://doi.org/10.17000/kspr.24.4.201712.151
  19. Y. J. Lee. (2018). The Effects of Medical Expenditure on Income Inequality in Elderly and Non-Elderly Households by Income Class. Journal of Digital Convergence, 16(10), 49-57. https://doi.org/10.14400/JDC.2018.16.10.049
  20. B. I. Lim, S. T. Kim & J. U. Jung. (2015). A Contribution Analysis of the Increase in 1-2 Person Families on the Income Inequality and the Income Gap. Journal of Digital Convergence, 13(12), 31-39. https://doi.org/10.14400/JDC.2015.13.12.31
  21. Y. J. Lee & H. E. Kim. (2017). Impact of the Private Insurance Benefits and the medical Care Expenditure on Household Income Inequality. Journal of Digital Convergence, 15(12), 625-633. https://doi.org/10.14400/JDC.2017.15.12.625