OMA of model steel structure retrofitted with CFRP using earthquake simulator

  • Kasimzade, Azer A. (Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering) ;
  • Tuhta, Sertac (Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering)
  • Received : 2017.03.21
  • Accepted : 2017.06.19
  • Published : 2017.06.25


Nowadays, there are a great number of various structures that have been retrofitted by using different FRP Composites. Due to this, more researches need to be conducted to know more the characteristics of these structures, not only that but also a comparison among them before and after the retrofitting is needed. In this research, a model steel structure is tested using a bench-scale earthquake simulator on the shake table, using recorded micro tremor data, in order to get the dynamic behaviors. Beams of the model steel structure are then retrofitted by using CFRP composite, and then tested on the Quanser shake table by using the recorded micro tremor data. At this stage, it is needed to evaluate the dynamic behaviors of the retrofitted model steel structure. Various types of methods of OMA, such as EFDD, SSI, etc. are used to take action in the ambient responses. Having a purpose to learn more about the effects of FRP composite, experimental model analysis of both types (retrofitted and no-retrofitted models) is conducted to evaluate their dynamic behaviors. There is a provision of ambient excitation to the shake table by using recorded micro tremor ambient vibration data on ground level. Furthermore, the Enhanced Frequency Domain decomposition is used through output-only modal identification. At the end of this study, moderate correlation is obtained between mode shapes, periods and damping ratios. The aim of this research is to show and determine the effects of CFRP Composite implementation on structural responses of the model steel structure, in terms of changing its dynamical behaviors. The frequencies for model steel structure and the retrofitted model steel structure are shown to be 34.43% in average difference. Finally, it is shown that, in order to evaluate the period and rigidity of retrofitted structures, OMA might be used.



  1. Ahmed, O., Van Gemert, D. and Vandewalle, L. (2001), "Improved model for plate-end shear of CFRP strengthened RC beams", Cement Concrete Compos., 23(1), 3-19.
  2. Aliev, F.A. and Larin, V.B. (1998), Optimization of Linear Control Systems: Analytical Methods and Computational Algorithms, CRC Press.
  3. Altunisik, A.C., Bayraktar, A., Sevim, B., Kartal, M.E. and Adanur, S. (2010), "Finite element model updating of an arch type steel laboratory bridge model using semi-rigid connection", Steel Compos. Struct., 10(6), 541-561.
  4. Alvin, K.F. and Park, K.C. (1994), "Second-order structural identification procedure via state-space-based system identification", AIAA J., 32(2), 397-406.
  5. ANSI S2.47-1990 Vibration of buildings-Guidelines for the measurement of vibrations and evaluation of their effects on buildings.
  6. ARTeMIS Extractor (1999), Structural Vibration Solutions, Aalborg, Denmark.
  7. Au, S.K. and Zhang, F.L. (2016), "Fundamental two-stage formulation for Bayesian system identification, Part I: General theory", Mech. Syst. Sign. Proc., 66, 31-42.
  8. Balmes, E. (1997), "New results on the identification of normal modes from experimental complex modes", Mech. Syst. Sign. Proc., 11(2), 229-243.
  9. Bendat, J.S. (1998), Nonlinear Systems Techniques and Applications, Wiley.
  10. Brincker, R., Zhang, L. and Andersen, P. (2000), "Modal identification from ambient responses using frequency domain decomposition", Proceedings of the 18th International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC), San Antonio, Texas, USA, February.
  11. Buyukozturk, O. and Hearing, B. (1998), "Failure behavior of precracked concrete beams retrofitted with FRP", J. Compos. Constr., 2(3), 138-144.
  12. Cunha, A., Caetano, E., Magalhaes, F. and Moutinho, C. (2005), "From input-output to output-only modal identification of civil engineering structures", 1st International Operational Modal Analysis Conference (IOMAC), Copenhagen, Denmark, April.
  13. Dong, Y., Zhao, M. and Ansari, F. (2002), "Failure characteristics of reinforced concrete beams repaired with CFRP composites", Third International Conference on Composites in Infrastructure (ICCI'02), Francisco, California, USA, June.
  14. Friswell, M. and Mottershead, J.E. (1995), Finite Element Model Updating In Structural Dynamics, Springer Science-Business Media.
  15. GangaRao, H.V. and Vijay, P.V. (1998), "Bending behavior of concrete beams wrapped with carbon fabric", J. Struct. Eng., 124(1), 3-10.
  16. HO, Β. and Kalman, R.E. (1966), "Effective construction of linear state-variable models from input/output functions", at-Automatisierungstechnik, 14(1-12), 545-548.
  17. Ibrahim, S.R. (1977), "Random decrement technique for modal identification of structures", J. Spacecraft Rocket., 14(11), 696-700.
  18. Ibrahim, S.R. and Miculcik, E.C. (1977), "A method for the direct identification of vibration parameters from the free response", Shock Vib. Bull., 47(4), 183-194.
  19. Jacobsen, N.J., Andersen, P. and Brincker, R. (2006), "Using enhanced frequency domain decomposition as a robust technique to harmonic excitation in operational modal analysis", International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering (ISMA), Leuven, Belgium, September.
  20. Juang, J.N. (1994), Applied System Identification, Prentice Hall.
  21. Juang, J.N. and Pappa, R.S. (1985), "An eigensystem realization algorithm for modal parameter identification and model reduction", J. Guidance, Control, Dyn., 8(5), 620-627.
  22. Juang, J.N., Cooper, J.E. and Wright, J.R. (1988), "An eigensystem realization algorithm using data correlations (ERA/DC) for modal parameter identification", Control-Theo. Adv. Technol., 4(1), 5-14.
  23. Juang, J.N., Phan, M., Horta, L.G. and Longman, R.W. (1993), "Identification of observer/kalman filter markov parameterstheory and experiments", J. Guidance, Control, Dyn., 16(2), 320-329.
  24. Kakaletsis, D.J. (2016), "Comparative experimental assessment of seismic rehabilitation with CFRP strips and sheets on RC frames", Earthq. Struct., 10(3), 613-628.
  25. Kalman, R.E. (1960), "A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems", J. Basic Eng., 82(1), 35-45.
  26. Kasimzade, A.A. (2006), "Coupling of the control system and the system identification toolboxes with application in structural dynamics", International Control Conference (ICC2006), Glasgow, Scotland, UK, September.
  27. Kasimzade, A.A. and Tuhta, S. (2007), "Ambient vibration analysis of steel structure", Experimental Vibration Analysis of Civil Engineering Structures (EVACES'07), Porto, Portugal, October.
  28. Kasimzade, A.A. and Tuhta, S. (2007), "Particularities of monitoring, identification, model updating hierarchy in experimental vibration analysis of structures", Experimental Vibration Analysis of Civil Engineering Structures (EVACES'07), Porto, Portugal, October.
  29. Kasimzade, A.A. and Tuhta, S. (2009), "Optimal estimation the building system characteristics for modal identification", 3rd International Operational Modal Analysis Conference (IOMAC), Porto Novo, Ancona, Italy, May.
  30. Klaiber, F.W., Wipf, T.J. and Kempers, B.J. (2003), "Repair of damaged prestressed concrete bridges using CFRP", Mid-Continental Transportation Research Symposium, Ames, Iowa, USA, August.
  31. Lam, H.F. and Yang, J. (2015), "Bayesian structural damage detection of steel towers using measured modal parameters", Earthq. Struct., 8(4), 935-956.
  32. Li, Y.F. and Sung, Y.Y. (2003), "Seismic repair and rehabilitation of a shear-failure damaged circular bridge column using carbon fiber reinforced plastic jacketing", Can. J. Civ. Eng., 30(5), 819-829.
  33. Liang, J., Yu, D., Wang, J. and Yi, P. (2016), "Mechanical properties of concrete beams reinforced with CFRP prestressed prisms under reverse cyclic loading", Earthq. Struct., 11(2), 315-326.
  34. Ljung, L. (1999), System Identification: Theory for the User, Prentice Hall.
  35. Lus, H., De Angelis, M., Betti, R. and Longman, R.W. (2003), "Constructing second-order models of mechanical systems from identified state space realizations. Part I: Theoretical discussions", J. Eng. Mech., 129(5), 477-488.
  36. Marwala, T. (2010), Finite Element Model Updating Using Computational Intelligence Techniques: Applications to Structural Dynamics, Springer Science-Business Media.
  37. Mirmiran, A., Shahawy, M., Nanni, A. and Karbhari, V. (2004), Bonded repair and retrofit of concrete structures using FRP composites: Recommended construction specifications and process control manual (No. Project 10-59A FY'01).
  38. Namboorimadathil, S.M., Tumialan, J.G. and Nanni, A. (2002), "Behavior of RC T beams strengthened in the negative moment region with CFRP laminates", Third International Conference on Composites in Infrastructure (ICCI'02), Francisco, California, USA, June.
  39. Ni, Y.Q., Zhang, F.L., Xia, Y.X. and Au, S.K. (2015), "Operational modal analysis of a long-span suspension bridge under different earthquake events", Earthq. Struct., 8(4), 859-887.
  40. Ni, Y., Lu, X. and Lu, W. (2017), "Operational modal analysis of a high-rise multi-function building with dampers by a Bayesian approach", Mech. Syst. Sign. Proc., 86, 286-307.
  41. Papadimitriou, C. and Papadioti, D.C. (2013), "Component mode synthesis techniques for finite element model updating", Comput. Struct., 126, 15-28.
  42. Peeters, B. (2000), "System identification and damage detection in civil engineering", Ph.D. Dissertation, KatholiekeUniversiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
  43. Phan, M.Q., Longman, R.W., Lee, S.C. and Lee, J.W. (2003), "System identification from multiple-trial data corrupted by non-repeating periodic disturbances", Int. J. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci., 13(2), 185-192.
  44. Quanser (2008), Position control and earthquake analysis. Quanser Shake Table II User Manual, Nr 632, Rev 3.50, QuanserInc, Markham, Canada.
  45. Rahimi, H. and Hutchinson, A. (2001), "Concrete beams strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates", J. Compos. Constr., 5(1), 44-56.
  46. Ramos, G., Casas, J.R. and Alarcon, A. (2004), "Repair and strengthening of segmental bridges using carbon fibers", Eng. Struct., 26(5), 609-618.
  47. Roeck, G.D. (2003), "The state-of-the-art of damage detection by vibration monitoring: the SIMCES experience", J. Struct. Control, 10(2), 127-134.
  48. Sestieri, A. and Ibrahim, S.R. (1994), "Analysis of errors and approximations in the use of modal coordinates", J. Sound Vib., 177(2), 145-157.
  49. Smyrou, E., Karantzikis, M. and Bal, I.E. (2015), "FRP versus traditional strengthening on a typical mid-rise Turkish RC building", Earthq. Struct., 9(5), 1069-1089.
  50. Thomsen, H., Spacone, E., Limkatanyu, S. and Camata, G. (2004), "Failure mode analyses of reinforced concrete beams strengthened in flexure with externally bonded fiber-reinforced polymers", J. Compos. Constr., 8(2), 123-131.
  51. Trifunac, M.D. (1972), "Comparisons between ambient and forced vibration experiments", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 1(2), 133-150.
  52. Tseng, D.H., Longman, R.W. and Juang, J.N. (1994), "Identification of the structure of the damping matrix in second order mechanical systems", Spaceflight Mech., 167-190.
  53. Tseng, D.H., Longman, R.W. and Juang, J.N. (1994), "Identification of gyroscopic and nongyroscopic second order mechanical systems including repeated root problems", Spaceflight Mech., 145-165.
  54. Turker, T. (2014), "Structural evaluation of Aspendos (Belkis) masonry bridge", Struct. Eng. Mech., 50(4), 419-439.
  55. Van Overschee, P. and De Moor, B.L. (1996), Subspace Identification for Linear Systems: Theory-Implementation-Applications, Springer Science-Business Media.
  56. Ventura, C.E. and Schuster, N.D. (1996), "Structural dynamic properties of a reinforced concrete high-rise building during construction", Can. J. Civ. Eng., 23(4), 950-972.
  57. Wenzel, H. and Pichler, D. (2005), Ambient Vibration Monitoring, John Wiley & Sons.
  58. Zhang, F.L. and Au, S.K. (2016), "Fundamental two-stage formulation for Bayesian system identification, Part II: Application to ambient vibration data", Mech. Syst. Sign. Proc., 66, 43-61.
  59. Zhang, F.L., Ni, Y.C., Au, S.K. and Lam, H.F. (2016), "Fast Bayesian approach for modal identification using free vibration data, Part I-Most probable value", Mech. Syst. Sign. Proc., 70, 209-220.