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Clustering and classification to characterize daily electricity demand

시간단위 전력사용량 시계열 패턴의 군집 및 분류분석

  • Park, Dain (Department of Statistics, Daegu University) ;
  • Yoon, Sanghoo (Department of Statistics and Computer Science, Daegu University & Institute of Basic Science, Daegu University)
  • 박다인 (대구대학교 일반대학원 통계학과) ;
  • 윤상후 (대구대학교 전산통계학과, 대구대학교 기초과학연구소)
  • Received : 2017.02.28
  • Accepted : 2017.03.27
  • Published : 2017.03.31

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to identify the pattern of daily electricity demand through clustering and classification. The hourly data was collected by KPS (Korea Power Exchange) between 2008 and 2012. The time trend was eliminated for conducting the pattern of daily electricity demand because electricity demand data is times series data. We have considered k-means clustering, Gaussian mixture model clustering, and functional clustering in order to find the optimal clustering method. The classification analysis was conducted to understand the relationship between external factors, day of the week, holiday, and weather. Data was divided into training data and test data. Training data consisted of external factors and clustered number between 2008 and 2011. Test data was daily data of external factors in 2012. Decision tree, random forest, Support vector machine, and Naive Bayes were used. As a result, Gaussian model based clustering and random forest showed the best prediction performance when the number of cluster was 8.

전력 공급 시스템의 효율적인 운영을 위해 전력수요예측은 필수적이다. 본 연구에서는 군집분석과 분류분석을 이용하여 일 단위 시간별 전력수요량 시계열 패턴의 유형을 살펴보고자 한다. 전력거래소에서 수집된 2008년 1월 1일부터 2012년 12월 31일까지의 일 단위 시간별 전력수요량 데이터를 추세성분, 계절성분, 오차 성분으로 구성된 시계열 자료로 변환하여 사용하였다. 추세성분을 제거한 시계열 자료의 패턴을 구분하기 위한 군집 분석방법은 k-평균 군집분석 (k-means), 가우시안혼합모델 혼합 모델 군집분석 (Gaussian mixture model), 함수적 군집분석 (functional clustering)을 고려하였다. 주성분분석을 통해 24시간 자료를 2개의 요인로 축소한 후 k-평균 군집분석과 가우시안 혼합 모델, 함수적 군집분석을 수행하였다. 군집분석 결과를 토대로 2008년부터 2011년까지 총 4년간 데이터를 4가지 분류분석방법인 의사결정나무, RF (random forest), Naive bayes, SVM (support vector machine)을 통해 훈련시켜 2012년 군집을 예측하였다. 분석 결과 가우시안 혼합 분포기반 군집분석과 RF를 이용한 군집예측 결과의 성능이 가장 우수하였다.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 대구대학교

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