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Sarcopenia: Nutrition and Related Diseases

  • Du, Yang (Dept. of Food & Nutrition, Kyungsung University) ;
  • No, Jae Kyung (Dept. of Food & Nutrition, Kyungsung University)
  • Received : 2017.01.04
  • Accepted : 2017.01.23
  • Published : 2017.01.31

Abstract

"Sarcopenia", sarcopenia is an old age syndrome, and used to describe the reduction of skeletal muscle. Initially, it was thought that sarcopenia was only a senile disease characterized by degeneration of muscle tissue. However, its cause is widely regarded as multifactorial, with neurological decline, hormonal changes, inflammatory pathway activation, declines in activity, chronic illness, fatty infiltration, and poor nutrition, all shown to be contributing factors. Skeletal muscle mass can be measured by a variety of methods, currently, the commonly used methods are dual-energy X-ray scanning (DXA), computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), etc. Muscular skeletal disorders can also be assessed by measuring appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM), particularly muscle tissue content. At the same time, sarcopenia refers to skeletal muscle cell denervation, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, hormone synthesis and secretion changes and a series of consequences caused by the above process and is a progressive loss of skeletal muscle syndrome, which can lead to the decrease of muscle strength, physical and functional disorders, and increase the risk of death. Sarcopenia is mainly associated with the aging process, but also related to other causes such as severe malnutrition, neurodegenerative diseases, and disuse and endocrine diseases associated with muscular dystrophy, and it is the comprehensive results of multi-factors, so it is difficult to define that sarcopenia is caused by a specific disease. With the aging problem of the population, the incidence of this disease is increasingly common, and seriously affects the quality of the life of the elderly. This paper reviews the etiology and pathogenesis of myopathy, screening methods and diagnosis, the influence of eating habits, etc, and hopes to provide reference for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. At present, adequate nutrition and targeted exercise remain the gold standard for the therapy of sarcopenia.

Keywords

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