DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Nutritional Quality and Physicochemical Characteristics of Defatted Bovine Liver Treated by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Organic Solvent

  • Kang, Sung-Won (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, Hye-Min (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Rahman, M. Shafiur (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, Ah-Na (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Yang, Han-Sul (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Choi, Sung-Gil (Division of Food Science and Technology (Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences), Gyeongsang National University)
  • Received : 2016.11.15
  • Accepted : 2016.12.15
  • Published : 2017.02.28

Abstract

Defatted bovine liver (DBL) is a potential source of protein and minerals. Supercritical carbon dioxide ($SC-CO_2$) and a traditional organic solvent method were used to remove lipid from bovine liver, and the quality characteristics of a control bovine liver (CBL), bovine liver defatted by $SC-CO_2$ ($DBLSC-CO_2$) at different pressures, and bovine liver defatted by organic solvent (DBL-OS) were compared. The $DBLSC-CO_2$ samples had significantly higher (p<0.05) protein, amino acid, carbohydrate, and fiber contents than CBL and DBL-OS. There was a higher yield of lipid from CBL when using $SC-CO_2$ than the organic solvent method. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that the CBL and $DBLSC-CO_2$ had protein bands of a similar intensity and area, whereas DBL-OS appeared extremely poor bands or no bands due to the degradation of proteins, particularly in the 50 to 75 kDa and 20 to 25 kDa molecular weight ranges. In addition, $DBLSC-CO_2$ was shown to have superior functional properties in terms of total soluble content, water and oil absorption, and foaming and emulsification properties. Therefore, $SC-CO_2$ treatment offers a nutritionally and environmentally friendly approach for the removal of lipid from high protein food sources. In addition, $SC-CO_2$ may be a better substitute of traditional organic solvent extraction for producing more stable and high quality foods with high-protein, fat-free, and low calorie contents.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food and Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

References

  1. Abdalbasit, A. M., Bertrand, M., and Maznah, I. (2010) Comparison of supercritical fluid and hexane extraction methods in extracting kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seed oil lipids. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88, 931-935.
  2. Abdelkarder, A. N., Kim, S. B., Lee, Y. B., and Chun, B. S. (2012) Digestive enzymes characterization of krill (Euphausia superba) residues deoiled by supercritical carbon dioxide and organic solvents. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 18, 1314-1319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2012.01.026
  3. Adebowale, Y. A., Deyemi, I. A. A., and Oshodi, A. A. (2005) Functional and physico-chemical properties of flours of six Mucuna species. Afr. J. Biochem. Res. 4, 1461-1468.
  4. AOAC. (2000) Official methods of analysis of AOAC Intl. 17th ed, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
  5. Asaduzzaman, A. K. M. and Chun, B. S. (2015) Characterization of digestive enzymes from de-oiled mackerel (Scomber japonicus) muscle obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide and n-hexane extraction as a comparative study. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52, 3494-3503.
  6. Chandi, G. K. and Sogi, D. S. (2007) Functional properties of rice bran protein concentrates. J. Food Eng. 79, 592-597. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.02.018
  7. Choi, Y. S., Choi, J. H., Han, D. J., Kim, H. Y., Lee, M. A., Jeong, J. Y., Chung, H. J., and Kim, C. J. (2010) Effects of replacing pork back fat with vegetable oils and rice bran fiber on the quality of reduced-fat frankfurters. Meat Sci. 84, 557-563. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.10.012
  8. Christianson, D. D., Friedrich, J. P., List, G. R., Warner, K., Bagley, E. B., Stringfellow, A. C., and Inglett, G. E. (1984) Supercritical fluid extraction of dry milled corn germ with carbon dioxide. J. Food Sci. 49, 229-232. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb13714.x
  9. Devatkal, S., Mendiratta, S. K., Kondaiah, N., Sharma, M. C., and Anjaneyulu A. S. R. (2004) Physicochemical, functional and microbiological quality of buffalo liver. Meat Sci. 68, 79-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.02.006
  10. Estévez, M., Ventanas, J., Cava, R., and Puolanne, E. (2005) Characterisation of a traditional Finnish liver sausage and different types of Spanish liver pâtés: A comparative study. Meat Sci. 71, 657-669. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.05.018
  11. Friedman, M. (1996) Nutritional value of food proteins from different food sources: A review. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 6-29. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9400167
  12. Herrero, M., Cifuentes, A., and Ibanez, E. (2006) Sub- and supercritical fluid extraction of functional ingredients from different natural sources: Plants, food-by-products, algae and microalgae: A review. Food Chem. 98, 136-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.058
  13. Hultin, H. O. (1994) Oxidation of lipids in seafoods. In: Seafoods; chemistry, processing technology and quality. Shahidi, F. and Botta, J. R. (eds) Springer, US, pp. 49-74.
  14. Imison, B. and Daryl, U. (2000) Adding value to essential oils and other natural ingredients. rural industries research and Development Corporation. Available from: http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/EOI/00-40.pdf. Accessed Sep. 2016.
  15. Jeong, C. H. and Shim, K. H. (2004) Quality characteristics of sponge cakes with addition of Pleurotus eryngii mushroom powders. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 33, 716-722. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2004.33.4.716
  16. Jyothirmayi, T., Prabhakara Rao, P. G., and Walde, S. G. (2006) Nitrogen extractability and functional properties of defatted Erythrina variegata flour. Food Chem. 96, 242-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.02.023
  17. Khorshid, N., Hossain, M. M., and Farid, M. M. (2007) Precipitation of food protein using high pressure carbon dioxide. J. Food Eng. 79, 1214-1220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.04.037
  18. Kinsella, J. E. (1976) Functional properties of proteins in foods: A survey. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 7, 219-232. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408397609527208
  19. Kiran, E. and Zhuang, W. (1997) Miscibility and phase separation of polymers in near-and supercritical fluids. In Supercritical fluids: Extraction and pollution prevention. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. pp. 2-36.
  20. Konak, U. I., Ercili-Cura, D., Sibakov, J., Sontag-Strohm, T., Certel, M., and Loponen, J. (2014) $CO_2$-defatted oats: Solubility, emulsification and foaming properties. J. Cereal Sci. 60, 37-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2014.01.013
  21. Laemmli, U. K. (1970). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680-685. https://doi.org/10.1038/227680a0
  22. Li, R. R., Yu, Q. L., Han, L., and Cao, H. (2014) Nutritional characteristics and active components in liver from Wagyu$\times$Qinchuan cattle. Korean J. Food Sci. 34, 214-220. https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.214
  23. Lim, G. B., Lee, S. Y., Lee, E. K., Haam, J. S., and Kim, W. S. (2002) Separation of astaxanthin from red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Biochem. Eng. J. 11, 181-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-703X(02)00023-2
  24. Ogunwolu, S. O., Henshaw, F. O., Mock, H. P., Santros, A., and Awonorin, S. O. (2009) Functional properties of protein concentrates and isolates produced from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut. Food Chem. 115, 852-858. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.01.011
  25. Pariser, E. R., Wallerstein, M. B., Corkery, C. J., and Brown, N. L. (1978) Fish protein concentrate, panacea for protein malnutrition? In: International nutrition policy series. Mass. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 3, 296.
  26. Park, J. Y., Back, S. S., and Chun, B. S. (2008) Protein properties of mackerel viscera extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Env. Biol. 29, 443-448.
  27. Pedroche, J., Yust, M., Lqari, H., Giron-Calle, J., Alaiz, M., Vioque, J., and Millan, F. (2004) Brassica carinata protein isolates: Chemical composition, protein characterization and improvement of functional properties by protein hydrolysis. Food Chem. 88, 337-346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.01.045
  28. Rodriguez-Ambriz, S., Martinez-Ayala, A., Millan, F., and Davila-Ortiz, G. (2005) Composition and functional properties of Lupinus campestris protein isolates. Plant Food Hum. Nutr. 60, 99-107.
  29. Rubio-Rodriguez, N., Sara, M., de Diego, D., Beltran, S., Jaime I., Sanz, M. T., and Jordi, R. (2012) Supercritical fluid extraction of fish oil from fish by-products: A comparison with other extraction methods. J. Food Eng. 109, 238-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.10.011
  30. Siwaporn, J., Hongsuwankul, J., and Tananuwong, K. (2008) Chemical compositions, functional properties, and microstructure of defatted macadamia flours. J. Food Chem. 110, 23-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.01.050
  31. Sparks, D., Hernandez, R., Zappi, M., Blackwell, D., and Flaming, T. (2006) Extraction of rice bran oil using supercritical carbon dioxide and propane. JAOCS 83, 10.
  32. Staby, A. and Mollerup, J. (1993) Separation of constituents of fish oil using supercritical fluids: A review of experimental solubility, extraction, and chromatographic data. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 91, 349-386. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(93)85109-Y
  33. Stahl, E., Erwin Schutz, E., and Mangold, H. K. (1980) Extraction of seed oils with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Agric. Food Chem. 28, 1153-1157. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60232a023
  34. Sun, M., Xu, L., Saldana, M. D. A., and Temelli, F. (2008) Comparison of canola meals obtained with conventional methods and supercritical $CO_2$ with and without ethanol. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 667-675. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-008-1239-5
  35. Uddin, M. S., Ahn, H. M., Kishimura, H., and Chun, B. S. (2009) Comparative study of digestive enzymes of squid (Todarodes pacificus) viscera after supercritical carbon dioxide and organic solvent extraction. J. Biotechnol. Bioproc. Eng. 14, 338-344. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12257-008-0271-5

Cited by

  1. Comparative study of the quality characteristics of defatted soy flour treated by supercritical carbon dioxide and organic solvent vol.54, pp.8, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-2691-8
  2. Perilla Oil Decreases Aortic and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation by Modulating Lipogenesis and Lipolysis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice pp.1557-7600, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2018.4226