Antioxidant Activity of Korean Traditional Soy Sauce

한국 전통 간장의 항산화 활성

  • Lee, Sangki (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University) ;
  • Jeong, Yoonhwa (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University) ;
  • Yim, Seoung Been (Department of Culinary Art, Woosong University) ;
  • Yu, Sungryul (Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Semyung University)
  • 이상기 (단국대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 정윤화 (단국대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 임성빈 (우송대학교 외식조리학부) ;
  • 유성률 (세명대학교 임상병리학과)
  • Received : 2015.05.14
  • Accepted : 2015.08.10
  • Published : 2015.09.30


The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of Korean traditional soy sauce and its relationship with physicochemical properties. Seventeen samples of soy sauce prepared by using a Korean traditional method were obtained from six provinces of Korea. The most powerful antioxidant activity of soy sauce was ranging from 8.96 to 63.39% for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, from 0.12 to 2.41 AE mg/mL for ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value, and from 8.42 to 115.69 TE mg/mL for oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Protease activity and total polyphenol contents were highly correlated with antioxidant activities such as DPPH radical scavenging activity and FRAP value (R=0.97). The contents of amino nitrogen were also correlated with DPPH radical scavenging activity (R=0.92), FRAP (R=0.93), and ORAC values (R=0.80). Based on these results, antioxidant activities were highly influenced by protease activity, contents of total polyphenols, and amino nitrogen.

본 연구에서는 전국 17지역에서 생산한 한국 전통 간장의 이화학적 분석, 색도 및 갈색도, 총 질소 및 아미노태 질소, 총 폴리페놀의 함량, protease 활성과 항산화 활성을 측정하고, 이들 사이의 상관관계를 분석하였다. pH는 4.34~5.37, 염도는 16.77~34.71%, 환원당은 3.00~32.04 mg/mL, 총 고형분 함량은 19.95~36.86%, 가용성 고형분 함량은 23.10~41.70oBrix의 범위를 보였다. 총 질소 함량은 무주(JMJ) 간장이 12.60%로 가장 높았고, 평창(GPC) 간장이 2.23%로 가장 낮았다. 아미노태 질소는 JMJ 간장에서 139.30mg%로 가장 높은 함량을 보였고, GPC 간장에서 28.23mg%로 가장 낮은 함량을 보였다. Protease 활성은 JMJ 간장에서 2.20 U/mL로 가장 높은 활성을 나타냈고, GPC 간장에서 0.35 U/mL로 가장 낮은 활성을 나타냈다. 총 폴리페놀 함량은 JMJ 간장에서 11.20 GAE mg/mL로 가장 많이 포함되었고, GPC 간장에서 2.37 GAE mg/mL로 가장 적게 포함되었다. DPPH 라디칼 소거 활성은 JMJ 간장에서 63.39%로 가장 높은 활성을 보였고, GPC 간장에서 8.96%로 가장 낮은 활성을 보였다. FRAP는 JMJ 간장에서 2.41 AE mg/mL로 가장 높은 활성을 보였고, GPC 간장에서 0.12 AE mg/mL로 가장 낮은 활성을 보였다. ORAC는 JMJ 간장에서 115.69 TE mg/mL로 가장 높은 항산화 활성을 보였고, GPC 간장에서 8.42 TE mg/mL로 가장 낮은 항산화 활성을 보였다. 실험항목 간 상관관계를 본 결과 protease 활성이 총 폴리페놀 함량과 0.995로 가장 높은 상관성을 보였고, 총 폴리페놀 함량은 DPPH 라디칼 소거 활성과 0.973으로 상관성이 높았다.


Supported by : 세명대학교


  1. Choi NS, Chung SJ, Choi JY, Kim HW, Cho JJ. 2013. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of commercial Korean traditional soy sauce of mass produced vs. small scale farm produced in the Gyeonggi area. Korean J Food & Nutr 26: 553-564.
  2. Kang S, Lee S, Ko JM, Hwang I. 2011. Comparisons of the physicochemical characteristics of Korean traditional soy sauce with varying soybean seeding periods and regions of production. Korean J Food & Nutr 24: 761-769.
  3. Korean Society of Food Science and Technology. 2008. Encyclopedia of food science and technology. Kwangil Pub, Seoul, Korea. p 27-29.
  4. Kim HS, Lim JM, Kwon HJ, Yoo JY, Park PS, Choi YH, Choi JH, Park SY. 2013. Antioxidant activity and quality characteristics on the maturation period of the soy sauce containing Astragalus memvranaceus and oak mushroom (Lentinus edodes). Korean J Food Preserv 20: 467-474.
  5. Kim DH. 1995. Food chemistry, Maillard reaction. Tamgudang, Seoul, Korea. p 403-416.
  6. Park KY, Moon SH, Baik HS, Cheigh HS. 1990. Antimutagenic effect of doenjang (Korean fermented soy paste) toward aflatoxin. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 19: 156-162.
  7. Kwon HJ, Kim HS, Choi YH, Choi JH, Choi HS, Song J, Park SY. 2014. Antioxidant activity and quality characteristics on the maturation period of the soy sauce with Gastrodia elata and oak mushroom (Lentinus edodes). Korean J Food Preserv 21: 231-238.
  8. Shin YJ, Lee CK, Kim HJ, Kim HS, Seo HG, Lee SC. 2014. Preparation and characteristics of low-salt soy sauce with anti-hypertensive activity by addition of miduduk tunic, mulberry, and onion extracts. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 43: 854-858.
  9. Kang JH. 1999. Functional characterization of soy protein hydrolysate. Food Industry and Nutrition 4(3): 66-72.
  10. Lee NK, Ryu YJ, Yeo IC, Kwon KO, Suh EM, Hahm YT. 2012. Physiological activities of Korean traditional soybeanfermented royal court soy sauce, Gungjungjang. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 41: 149-155.
  11. Park JW, Lee YJ, Yoon S. 2007. Total flavonoids and phenolics in fermented soy products and their effects on antioxidant activities determined by different assays. Korean J Food Culture 22: 353-358.
  12. Chae SH. 2000. Color characteristics and antioxidizing ability of Korean traditional soy sauces prepared from different conditions. MS Thesis. Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
  13. Shin JH, Kang MJ, Yang SM, Lee SJ, Ryu JH, Kim RJ, Sung MJ. 2010. Comparison of physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of Korean traditional kanjang and garlic added kanjang. Journal of Agriculture & Life Science 44: 39-48.
  14. Chae SK, Kang GS, Ma SJ, Bang KW, Oh MH. 2006. Analysis of standard food. 3rd ed. Jigu Publishing Co., Seoul, Korea. p 299-300,460-463.
  15. Miller GL. 1959. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem 31: 426-428.
  16. AOAC. 2005. Official methods analysis. 18th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA. Method 970.59.
  17. Moon GS, Cheigh HS. 1990. Separation and characteristics of antioxidative substances in fermented soybean sauce. Korean J Food Sci Technol 22: 461-465.
  18. Park SK, Han CG, Kyung KH, Yoo YJ. 1990. Effect of oxygen on the browning of soy sauce during storage. Korean J Food Sci Technol 22: 307-311.
  19. NREL. Standard Procedures for Biomass Compositional Analysis. (accessed Jul 2013).
  20. Yoon KH, Shin HY. 2010. Medium optimization for the protease production by Bacillus licheniformis isolated from Cheongkookjang. Kor J Microbiol Biotechnol 38: 385-390.
  21. Song SB, Ko JY, Kim JI, Lee JS, Jung TW, Kim KY, Kwak DY, Oh IS, Woo KS. 2013. Changes in physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of adzuki bean and adzuki bean tea depending on the variety and roasting time. Korean J Food Sci Technol 45: 317-324.
  22. Ahn JB, Park JA, Jo HJ, Woo IH, Lee SH, Jang KI. 2012. Quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of commercial Doenjang and traditional Doenjang in Korea. Korean J Food & Nutr 25: 142-148.
  23. Thaipong K, Boonprakob U, Crosby K, Cisneros-Zevallos L, Byrne DH. 2006. Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extract. J Food Comp Anal 19: 669-675.
  24. Ou B, Hampsch-Woodill M, Prior RL. 2001. Development and validation of an improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe. J Agric Food Chem 49: 4619-4626.
  25. Jeong JK, Zheng Y, Choi HS, Han GJ, Park KY. 2010. Catabolic enzyme activities and physiological functionalities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Korean traditional Meju. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 39: 1854-1859.
  26. Jeon MS, Sohn KH, Chae SH, Park HK, Jeon HJ. 2002. Color characteristics of Korean traditional soy sauces prepared under different processing conditions. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 31: 32-38.
  27. Park OJ. 1995. Studies on the nitrogen and flavor components in traditional Korean soy sauce by two difference fermentation jars. MS Thesis. Younsei University, Seoul, Korea.
  28. Kim YA, Kim H, Chung MJ. 1996. Physicochemical analysis of Korean traditional soy sauce and commercial soy sauce. Korean J Soc Food Sci 12: 273-279.
  29. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Korean Food Standards Codex. (accessed Feb 2015).
  30. Kim ND. 2007. Trend of research papers on the soy sauce tastes in Japan. Food Industry and Nutrition 12(1): 40-50.
  31. You MJ. 2008. A study on the quality characteristics of Chungukjang with different condition of bean roasting. MS Thesis. Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.
  32. Kim BS, Lee CH, Hong YA, Kwon TH, Shin MK, Kim JH, Woo CJ, Kim YB, Park HD. 2008. Changes of enzyme activity and physiological functionality of traditional Kanjang (soy sauce) during fermentation in the using Bacillus sp. SP-KSW3. Korean J Food Preserv 15: 293-299.
  33. Ki WK, Kim JK, Kang DH, Cho YU. 1987. Development of excellent mutants for manufacture of ordinary Korean soy sauce and soybean paste. Kor J Appl Microbiol Bioeng 15: 21-28.
  34. Kim JK, Kim SD. 1988. Genetic breading of Korean soy sauce-fermenting Bacillus by UV mutation. J Korean Agric Chem Soc 31: 346-350.
  35. Lee SY, Baik SH, Ahn YJ, Song J, Kim JH, Choi HS. 2013. Quality characteristics of commercial Korean types of fermented soybean sauces in China. Korean J Food Sci Technol 45: 796-800.
  36. Kim HE, Han SY, Jung JB, Ko JM, Kim YS. 2011. Quality characteristics of doenjang (soybean) prepared with germinated regular soybean and black soybean. Korean J Food Sci Technol 43: 361-368.
  37. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239: 70-76.
  38. Prior RL, Hoang H, Gu L, Wu X, Bacchiocca M, Howard L, Hampsch-Woodill M, Huang D, Ou B, Jacob R. 2003. Assays for hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACFL)) of plasma and other biological and food samples. J Agric Food Chem 51: 3273-3279.
  39. Hwang JH, Park KY, Oh YS, Lim SB. 2013. Phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of citrus peels. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 42: 153-160.
  40. Kwon OJ, Kim MA, Kim T, Kim DG, Son DH, Choi UK, Lee SH. 2010. Changes in the quality characteristics of soy sauce made with salts obtained from deep ocean water. Korean J Food Preserv 17: 820-825.
  41. Lee YJ, Kim DB, Cho JH, Baik SO, Lee OH. 2013. Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of bioresource juices from Jeju. Korean J Food Sci Technol 45:293-298.
  42. Pratt DE, Di Pietro C, Porter WL, Giffee JW. 1981. Phenolic antioxidants of soy protein hydrolyzates. J Food Sci 47:24-35.

Cited by

  1. Assessment of Validation Method for Bioactive Contents of Fermented Soybean Extracts by Bioconversion and Their Antioxidant Activities vol.45, pp.5, 2016,