DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Disinfection of Penicillium-infected Wheat Seed by Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide

  • Jeon, Young-ah (National Agrobiodiversity Center, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Lee, Ho-sun (National Agrobiodiversity Center, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Lee, Young-yi (National Agrobiodiversity Center, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Lee, Sokyoung (National Agrobiodiversity Center, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Sung, Jung-sook (National Agrobiodiversity Center, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration)
  • Received : 2014.10.28
  • Accepted : 2015.03.21
  • Published : 2015.06.30

Abstract

Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Olgeurumil) were infected with Penicillium sp. at mean infection rate of 83%. Penicillium sp. was detected in endosperm with bran but not in embryo. Gaseous chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) effectively inhibited growth of Penicillium sp. at concentration of 5 to $20{\mu}g/ml$. As treatment duration was extended from 1 to 3 h, growth of Penicillium sp. was completely suppressed even at $10{\mu}g/ml$. There was no significant reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. at 30% relative humidity (RH). However, the incidence of Penicillium sp. was 27.7% at 50% RH, further those were 3.5% and 0.2% at 70% and 80% RH, respectively. Seed germination was not affected by $ClO_2$ treatment at all the RH conditions. Water-soaked seeds (30% seed moisture content) showed a drastic reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. when treated at more than $10{\mu}g/ml$ of $ClO_2$. The incidences of Penicillium sp. were 3.3, 1.8 and 1.2% at 10, 15 and $20{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. The incidence of Penicillium sp. in dry seeds with 9.7% seed moisture content did not reduce when treated with 5 and $10{\mu}g/ml$ at 50% RH although it tended to decrease as $ClO_2$ concentration increased to $20{\mu}g/ml$. Seed germination was not affected by $ClO_2$ treatment at the tested concentrations. These results indicated that gaseous $ClO_2$ was effective disinfectant to wheat seeds infected with Penicillium sp. and that the effectiveness of $ClO_2$ strongly increased when moisture content around or inside of the seed was increased.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Academy of Agricultural Science

References

  1. Agarwal, V. K. and Sinclair, J. B. 1996. Control of seedborne pathogens. In: Principles of Seed Pathology, eds. by V. K. Agarwal and J. B. Sinclair, pp. 409-514. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  2. Beuchat, L. R. 1998. Mitigating the risk of disease. In: Surface Decontamination of Fruits and Vegetables Eaten Raw: a Review, ed. by L. R. Beuchat, pp. 15-26. World Health Organization.
  3. Cuero, R. G., Smith, J. E. and Lacey, J. 1986. The influence of gamma irradiation and sodium hypochlorite sterilization on maize seed microflora and germination. Food Microbiol. 3: 107-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0740-0020(86)80034-X
  4. Dietrich, A. M., Orr, M. P., Gallagher, D. L. and Hoehn, R. C. 1992. Tastes and ordors associated with chlorine dioxide. J. Am. Water Works Ass. 84: 82-88.
  5. Errampalli, D., Peters, R. D., MacIsaac, K., Darrach, D. and Boswall, P. 2006. Effect of a combination of chlorine dioxide and thiophanate-methyl pre-planting seed tuber treatment on the control of black scurf of potatoes. Crop Protec. 25: 1231-1237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2006.03.002
  6. Hikada, T., Kirigara, T., Kamijo, M., Kawamura, T. and Kawauchi, S. 1992. Disappearance of residual chlorine and formation of chloroform in vegetables treated with sodium hypochlorite. J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan 33: 267-273. https://doi.org/10.3358/shokueishi.33.267
  7. Lee, S. Y., Dandcer, G. I., Chang, S. S., Rhee, M. S. and Kang, D. H. 2006. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores on apple surfaces. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 108: 364-368.
  8. Mahovic, M. J., Tenney, J. D. and Bartz, J. A. 2007. Application of chlorine dioxide gas for control of bacterial soft rot in tomatoes. Plant Dis. 91: 1316-1320. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-91-10-1316
  9. Maity, J. P, Chakraborty, A. and Santra, S. C. 2009. Effect of sterilization by gamma irradiation of edible stored Vigna mungo L. and Triticum aestivum L. seed infested with surface microflora in India. J. Food Safety 29: 443-459. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4565.2009.00168.x
  10. Mattheis, J. P. and Roberts, R. G. 1993. Fumigation of sweet cherry (Prunus avium 'Bing') fruit with low molecular weight aldehyde with acetic acid. HortScience 31: 414-416.
  11. Mendiburu, F. 2014. agricolae: Statistical procedures for agricultural research. R package version 1.1-8. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=agricolae.
  12. R Core Team. 2014. R: A language and environment for statistical computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.R-project.org/.
  13. Sauer, D. B. and Burroughs, R. 1986. Disinfection of seed surfaces with sodium hypochlorite. Phytopathology 76: 745-749. https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-76-745
  14. Sittisuang, P. and Nakakita, H. 1985. The effect of phosphine and methyl bromide on germination of rice and corn seeds. J. Pesticide Sci. 10: 461-468. https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.10.461
  15. Trinetta, V., Vaidya, N., Linton, R. and Morgan, M. 2011. A comparative study on the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide gas, ozone gas and e-beam irradiation treatments for inactivation of pathogens inoculated onto tomato, cantaloupe and lettuce seeds. Int. J. Food Micriobiol. 146: 203-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.02.014
  16. Wondergem, E. and van Dijk-Looijaard, A. M. 1991. Chlorine dioxide as a post-disinfectant for Dutch drinking water. Sci. Total Environ. 102: 101-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(91)90309-3
  17. Zoffoli, J. P., Latorre, B. A., Daire, N. and Viertel, S. 2005. Effectiveness of chlorine dioxide as influenced by concentration, pH, and exposure time on spore germination of Botrytis ciberea, Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer. Cien. Inv. Agr. 32: 142-148.