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Evaluation of Cytotoxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity of Diploid and Tetraploid Platycodon grandiflorum

  • Boo, Hee-Ock (WELLPHYTO Co. Ltd., BI Center, GIST) ;
  • Kim, Young-Sun (Department of Korean Food, Jeonnam Provincial College) ;
  • Kim, Hag-Hyun (Faculty of Food Nutrition and Cookery, Woosong Information College) ;
  • Kwon, Soo-Jeong (Faculty of Food Nutrition and Cookery, Woosong Information College) ;
  • Woo, Sun-Hee (Department of Crop Science, Chungbuk National University)
  • Received : 2015.06.01
  • Accepted : 2015.06.04
  • Published : 2015.06.30

Abstract

This experiment was conducted to obtain the have higher contents of pharmaceutical constituents as well as higher yield from colchicine induced diploid and tetraploid extracts of Platycodon grandiflorum. In order to determine the biological activity, this study was focused to evaluate the cytotoxicity, antimicrobial on the bronthus disease bacteria, antioxidant enzyme activity of diploid and tetraploid extracts in P. grandiflorum. The activities of antioxidant enzyme according to different solvent extracts were measured as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of P. grandiflorum showed significant differences between tetraploid and diploid. That is, the cytotoxic effect against human cancer cell was higher in tetraploid than in diploid. At all extracts concentration, tetraploid samples showed high toxicity and the $IC_{50}$ (concentration causing 50% cell death) value showed the highest on HCT-116 cell ($105.91{\mu}g/mL$), and exhibited significant activity against the Hep 3B cell ($140.67{\mu}g/mL$), SNU-1066 cell ($154.01{\mu}g/mL$), Hela cell ($158.37{\mu}g/mL$), SNU-601 cell ($182.67{\mu}g/mL$), Calu-6 cell ($190.42{\mu}g/mL$), MCF-7 cell ($510.19{\mu}g/mL$). Antimicrobial activities of diploid P. grandiflorum were relatively low compared to tetraploid P. grandiflorum on most of the bacterial strains. In tetraploid P. grandiflorum, K. pneumoniae showed the clear zone formation (18~19 mm) of growth inhibition, followed by the clear zone formation of 13~15 mm on C. diphtheria and S. pyogenes. The antimicrobial activities in diploid P. grandiflorum were the highest on K. pneumonia (14~15 mm), and showed the clear zone formation of 11~12 mm on C. diphtheria and 12~13 mm on S. pyogenes. The antimicrobial activity is thought to look different depending on the bacterial strains and the polyploidy of P. grandiflorum. The root extract of P. grandiflorum had the highest (97.2%) SOD enzyme activity in ethyl acetate partition layer of tetraploid while water partition layer of diploid showed the lowest (48.6%) SOD enzyme activity. The activity of CAT showed higher values in the root of tetraploid than in the diploid of P. grandiflorum in all partition layers except butyl alcohol. The activities of APX and POD showed higher values in the root of tetraploid than in the diploid of P. grandiflorum in all fraction solvents except water layer. These results indicate that the tetraploid P. grandiflorum can be used as a source for developing cytotoxic agent and antimicrobials which can act against bronchus diseases bacterial strains.

Keywords

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