Metabolic risk and nutritional state according to breakfast energy level of Korean adults: Using the 2007~2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

한국 성인의 아침식사 에너지 수준에 따른 대사적 위험과 영양상태: 2007~2009년 국민건강영양조사 자료 이용

  • Jang, So-Hyoun (Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Suh, Yoon Suk (Graduate School of Education, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Chung, Young-Jin (Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chungnam National University)
  • 장소현 (충남대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학과) ;
  • 서윤석 (충남대학교 교육대학원 영양교육전공) ;
  • 정영진 (충남대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학과)
  • Received : 2014.12.08
  • Accepted : 2015.02.10
  • Published : 2015.02.28


Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine an appropriate energy level of breakfast with less risk of chronic disease for Korean adults. Methods: Using data from the 2007~2009 Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey, from a total of 12,238 adults aged 19~64, the final 7,769 subjects were analyzed except subjects who were undergoing treatment for cancer or metabolic disorder. According to the percent of breakfast energy intake versus their estimated energy requirement (EER), the subjects were divided into four groups: < 10% (very low, VL), 10~20% (low, L), 20~30% (moderate, M), ${\geq}30%$ (sufficient, S). All data were analyzed on the metabolic risk and nutritional state after application of weighted value and adjustment of sex, age, residential area, income, education, job or jobless, and energy intake using a general linear model or logistic regression. Results: The subjects of group S were 16.9% of total subjects, group M 39.2%, group L 37.6%, and group VL 6.3%. The VL group included more male subjects, younger-aged (19 to 40 years), urban residents, higher income, higher education, and fewer breakfasts eaters together with family members. Among the 4 groups, the VL group showed the highest waist circumference, while the S group showed the lowest waist circumference, body mass index, and serum total cholesterol. The groups of VL and L with lower intake of breakfast energy showed high percent of energy from protein and fat, and low percent of energy from carbohydrate. With the increase of breakfast energy level, intake of energy, most nutrients and food groups increased, and the percentage of subjects consuming nutrients below EAR decreased. The VL group showed relatively higher intake of snacks, sugar, meat and eggs, oil, and seasonings, and the lowest intake of vegetable. Risk of obesity by waist circumference was highest in the VL group by 1.90 times of the S group and the same trend was shown in obesity by BMI. Risk of dyslipidemia by serum total cholesterol was 1.84 times higher in the VL group compared to the S group. Risk of diabetes by Glu-FBS (fasting blood sugar) was 1.57 times higher in the VL group compared to the S group. Conclusion: The results indicate that higher breakfast energy level is positively related to lower metabolic risk and more desirable nutritional state in Korean adults. Therefore, breakfast energy intake more than 30% of their own EER would be highly recommended for Korean adults.


Supported by : Chungnam National University


  1. Lee SH, Shim JS, Kim JY, Moon HA. The effect of breakfast regularity on eating habits, nutritional and health status in adults. Korean J Nutr 1996; 29(5): 533-546.
  2. Kim SH. Children's growth and school performance in relation to breakfast. J Korean Diet Assoc 1999; 5(2): 215-224.
  3. Ma Y, Bertone ER, Stanek EJ 3rd, Reed GW, Hebert JR, Cohen NL, Merriam PA, Ockene IS. Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 158(1): 85-92.
  4. Ruxton CH, Kirk TR. Breakfast: a review of associations with measures of dietary intake, physiology and biochemistry. Br J Nutr 1997; 78(2): 199-213.
  5. Lee YN, Lee JS, Ko YM, Woo JS, Kim BH, Choi H. Study on the food habits of college students by residences. Korean J Community Nutr 1996; 1(2): 189-200.
  6. Morgan KJ, Zabik ME, Leveille GA. The role of breakfast in nutrient intake of 5- to 12-year-old children. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34(7): 1418-1427.
  7. Walker AR, Walker BF, Jones J, Ncongwane J. Breakfast habits of adolescents in four South African populations. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36(4): 650-656.
  8. Nicklas TA, Bao W, Webber LS, Berenson GS. Breakfast consumption affects adequacy of total daily intake in children. J Am Diet Assoc 1993; 93(8): 886-891.
  9. Schlundt DG, Hill JO, Sbrocco T, Pope-Cordle J, Sharp T. The role of breakfast in the treatment of obesity: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55(3): 645-651.
  10. Alexander KE, Ventura EE, Spruijt-Metz D, Weigensberg MJ, Goran MI, Davis JN. Association of breakfast skipping with visceral fat and insulin indices in overweight Latino youth. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; 17(8): 1528-1533.
  11. Sakata K, Matumura Y, Yoshimura N, Tamaki J, Hashimoto T, Oguri S, Okayama A, Yanagawa H. Relationship between skipping breakfast and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the national nutrition survey data. Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2001; 48(10): 837-841.
  12. Farshchi HR, Taylor MA, Macdonald IA. Deleterious effects of omitting breakfast on insulin sensitivity and fasting lipid profiles in healthy lean women. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81(2): 388-396.
  13. Cho S, Dietrich M, Brown CJ, Clark CA, Block G. The effect of breakfast type on total daily energy intake and body mass index: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Am Coll Nutr 2003; 22(4): 296-302.
  14. Shim JE, Paik HY, Moon HK. Breakfast consumption pattern, diet quality and health outcomes in adults from 2001 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Korean J Nutr 2007; 40(5): 451-462.
  15. Min C, Noh H, Kang YS, Sim HJ, Baik HW, Song WO, Yoon J, Park YH, Joung H. Breakfast patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. Nutr Res Pract 2012; 6(1): 61-67.
  16. Kent LM, Worsley A. Breakfast size is related to body mass index for men, but not women. Nutr Res 2010; 30(4): 240-245.
  17. Hyun WJ, Lee JW, Kwak CS, Song KH. Energy value of breakfast and its relation to total daily nutrient intake and serum lipid in Korean urban adults. Korean J Community Nutr 1998; 3(3): 368-379
  18. Kim YJ, Lee JG, Yi YH, Lee SY, Jung DW, Park SK, Cho YH. The influence of breakfast size to metabolic risk factors. J Life Sci 2010; 20(12): 1812-1819.
  19. Timlin MT, Pereira MA. Breakfast frequency and quality in the etiology of adult obesity and chronic diseases. Nutr Rev 2007; 65(6 Pt 1): 268-281.
  20. van der Heijden AA, Hu FB, Rimm EB, van Dam RM. A prospective study of breakfast consumption and weight gain among U.S. men. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007; 15(10): 2463-2469.
  21. Deshmukh-Taskar PR, Nicklas TA, O'Neil CE, Keast DR, Radcliffe JD, Cho S. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. J Am Diet Assoc 2010; 110(6): 869-878.
  22. Wyatt HR, Grunwald GK, Mosca CL, Klem ML, Wing RR, Hill JO. Long-term weight loss and breakfast in subjects in the National Weight Control Registry. Obes Res 2002; 10(2): 78-82.
  23. Min C, Noh H, Kang YS, Sim HJ, Baik HW, Song WO, Yoon J, Park YH, Joung H. Skipping breakfast is associated with diet quality and metabolic syndrome risk factors of adults. Nutr Res Pract 2011; 5(5): 455-463.
  24. Purslow LR, Sandhu MS, Forouhi N, Young EH, Luben RN, Welch AA, Khaw KT, Bingham SA, Wareham NJ. Energy intake at breakfast and weight change: prospective study of 6,764 middleaged men and women. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167(2): 188-192.

Cited by

  1. Breakfast Intake Status and Demand of School Breakfast Between High School Students Living in Dormitory and Family Home in Iksan City vol.25, pp.1, 2016,
  2. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Young Women according to Breakfast Frequency in Seoul vol.23, pp.2, 2018,