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High-Resolution Numerical Simulations with WRF/Noah-MP in Cheongmicheon Farmland in Korea During the 2014 Special Observation Period

2014년 특별관측 기간 동안 청미천 농경지에서의 WRF/Noah-MP 고해상도 수치모의

  • Received : 2015.09.01
  • Accepted : 2015.12.20
  • Published : 2015.12.30

Abstract

In this paper, the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting/Noah-MultiParameterization (WRF/Noah-MP) modeling system is configured for the Cheongmicheon Farmland site in Korea (CFK), and its performance in land and atmospheric simulation is evaluated using the observed data at CFK during the 2014 special observation period (21 August-10 September). In order to explore the usefulness of turning on Noah-MP dynamic vegetation in midterm simulations of surface and atmospheric variables, two numerical experiments are conducted without dynamic vegetation and with dynamic vegetation (referred to as CTL and DVG experiments, respectively). The main results are as following. 1) CTL showed a tendency of overestimating daytime net shortwave radiation, thereby surface heat fluxes and Bowen ratio. The CTL experiment showed reasonable magnitudes and timing of air temperature at 2 m and 10 m; especially the small error in simulating minimum air temperature showed high potential for predicting frost and leaf wetness duration. The CTL experiment overestimated 10-m wind and precipitation, but the beginning and ending time of precipitation were well captured. 2) When the dynamic vegetation was turned on, the WRF/Noah-MP system showed more realistic values of leaf area index (LAI), net shortwave radiation, surface heat fluxes, Bowen ratio, air temperature, wind and precipitation. The DVG experiment, where LAI is a prognostic variable, produced larger LAI than CTL, and the larger LAI showed better agreement with the observed. The simulated Bowen ratio got closer to the observed ratio, indicating reasonable surface energy partition. The DVG experiment showed patterns similar to CTL, with differences for maximum air temperature. Both experiments showed faster rising of 10-m air temperature during the morning growth hours, presumably due to the rapid growth of daytime mixed layers in the Yonsei University (YSU) boundary layer scheme. The DVG experiment decreased errors in simulating 10-m wind and precipitation. 3) As horizontal resolution increases, the models did not show practical improvement in simulation performance for surface fluxes, air temperature, wind and precipitation, and required three-dimensional observation for more agricultural land spots as well as consistency in model topography and land cover data.

본 연구에서는 청미천 농경지를 중심으로 고해상도 지형 및 토지피복 자료 기반의 WRF/Noah-MP 결합시스템을 구축하고 수치모의 한 결과를 2014년 8월 21일부터 9월 10일까지의 청미천 하계 특별관측 자료와 비교하여, 농경지에서의 지면 및 대기모의 성능을 평가하였다. 지면 및 대기 변수의 단기 및 중기모의에 있어서 Noah-MP의 동적 식생 가동이 얼마나 유용한지를 살펴보기 위하여, 동적 식생을 포함하지 않은 실험(CTL)과 포함한 실험(DVG)을 관측기간에 대해 양방향 6중 둥지격자 시스템으로 수행하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 크게 세 가지로서 다음과 같다. 1) CTL 실험은 낮 동안의 순단파 복사 에너지를 과대 모의 함에 따라 현열 및 잠열 플럭스와 보웬비도 관측에 비해 과대 모의하는 경향을 보였다. CTL 실험의 기온은 관측을 대체로 잘 따라갔으나 일출 후 기온의 상승 속도가 관측에 비해 빠른 모습을 보였다. 최저 기온 및 최고 기온의 시점은 잘 모의하였는데, 특히 일 최저기온의 모의는 관측과 $0.3^{\circ}C$ 오차 이내의 성능을 보여, 동해 및 병해충과 연관된 엽면수분 지속시간 예측에 고무적인 결과로 평가되었다. CTL 실험의 10m 바람은 동서 및 남북 풍속 모두 대체로 과대 모의하는 경향을 보였고, 강수 또한 과대 모의하는 경향을 보였으나 강수의 시작 종료시점은 대체로 잘 포착하였다. 2) Noah-MP의 동적 식생을 구동시킨 DVG 실험은 CTL 실험에 비해 엽면적지수, 단파 복사, 지표면 플럭스, 보웬비, 기온, 바람, 강수의 모의를 전반적으로 관측에 더 가깝게 생산하는 것으로 나타났다. 강수, 온도, 복사, 가용 영양소 등의 변동에 대응하여 엽면적지수를 예단하는 DVG 실험은 CTL 실험보다 더 큰 엽면적지수를 생산했으며, 이는 실측에 더 가까운 결과였다. DVG 실험에서도 일출 후 기온 상승률은 관측에 비해 높았는데, 이는 CTL와 DVG 실험 모두에서 공통으로 사용한 YSU 경계층 방안이 갖는 혼합층의 조기 성장 특성과 관련이 있는 것으로 분석되었다. CTL 실험이 보인 바람과 강수의 과대모의 경향도 DVG 실험에서는 어느 정도 완화되는 개선점을 보였다. 3) 수평 해상도의 증가에 따른 청미천 농경지의 수치모의 성능 향상은 지표면 플럭스, 기온, 바람 강수 모두에서 미비하거나 거의 없는 것으로 나타났으며, 보다 정확한 평가를 위해서는 농경지 상의 여러 지점에서 입체적인 관측이 이뤄져야 하고, 모형에 사용되는 지형 및 토지피복 자료의 도메인 간 일관성이 확보되어야 할 것이다.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 기상청

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