DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Are Bladder Neoplasms More Aggresive in Patients with a Smoking-related Second Malignancy?

  • Otunctemur, Alper (Department of Urology, Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital) ;
  • Koklu, Ismail (Department of Urology, Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital) ;
  • Ozbek, Emin (Department of Urology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Katip Celebi University) ;
  • Dursun, Murat (Department of Urology, Bahcelievler State Hospital) ;
  • Sahin, Suleyman (Department of Urology, Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital) ;
  • Besiroglu, Huseyin (Department of Urology, Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital) ;
  • Erkoc, Mustafa (Department of Urology, Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital) ;
  • Danis, Eyyup (Department of Urology, Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital) ;
  • Bozkurt, Muammer (Department of Urology, Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital) ;
  • Gurbuz, Ahmet (Department of Urology, Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital)
  • Published : 2014.05.15

Abstract

Background: Relationships between smoking and bladder neoplasms, one of the common malignancies, are well-known. Different smoking-related malignancies may occur together. In this study, we evaluated the stage and grade of bladder neoplasms in patients also featuring lung or larynx cancer. Materials and Methods: From January 2006 to February 2012, patients who underwent surgery for bladder neoplasms in our clinic were screened retrospectively. In the evaluation, 5 patients had larynx cancer and 20 patients have lung cancer in addition, all having been smoking for a long time. The bladder tumor stage and grade were investigated in these 25 cases. Results: Mean age of patients was 66.8 (49-78). In the evaulation, all of 5 patients who had larnyx cancer also had high grade urothelial cancer. One had T2 urothelial, and 3 T1 urothelial cancer. In the same way, all of the 20 patients with lung cancer also have high grade urothelial cancer, three T2, and 13 T1. Bladder cancer stage and grade were determined to be significantly increased in patients with concomitant bladder and lung or larynx cancer. Conclusions: In the patients who have smoking releated second malignancy, bladder cancer prognosis appears more aggressive. We now need a larger series and multi-center studies for understanding relevant pathophysiology.

References

  1. Ahmadi M1, Ranjbaran H, Amiri MM, et al (2012). Epidemiologic and socioeconomic status of bladder cancer in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 5053-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5053
  2. Alberg AJ, Samet JM (2003). Epidemiology of lung cancer. Chest, 123, 21-49. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.123.1_suppl.21S
  3. Anon (2004). Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum, 83, 1-1438.
  4. Berber U, Yilmaz I, Yilmaz O, et al (2013). CYP1A1 (Ile462Val), CYP1B1 (Ala119Ser and Val432Leu), GSTM1 (null), and GSTT1 (null) polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk in a Turkish population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3925-9. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.6.3925
  5. Cao W, Cai L, Rao J-Y, et al., (2005). Tobacco smoking, GSTP1 polymorphism, and bladder carcinoma. Cancer, 104, 2400-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.21446
  6. Cheng L, Davison DD, Adams J, et al (2013). Biomarkers in bladder cancer: translational and clinical implications. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol, 89, 73-111.
  7. Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I (2005). Mortality from cancer in relation to smoking: 50 years observations on British doctors. Bri J Cancer, 92, 426-9. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6602359
  8. Ezzati M, Lopez AD (2003). Estimates of global mortality attributable to smoking in 2000. Lancet, 362, 847-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14338-3
  9. Figueroa JD, Malats N, Real FX, et al (2007). Genetic variation in the base excision repair pathway and bladder cancer risk. Human Genetics, 121, 233-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-006-0294-y
  10. Gandini S, Botteri E, Iodice S, et al (2008). Tobacco smoking and cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer, 122, 155-64. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.23033
  11. Garcia-Closas M, Malats N, Silverman D, et al (2005). NAT2 slow acetylation, GSTM1 null genotype, and risk of bladder cancer: results from the Spanish bladder cancer study and meta-analyses. Lancet, 366, 649-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67137-1
  12. Garcia-Perez J, Pollan M, Boldo E, et al (2009). Mortality due to lung, laryngeal and bladder cancer in towns lying in the vicinity of combustion installations. Sci Total Environ, 407, 2593-602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.12.062
  13. Gonzalez CA, Lopez-Abente G, Errezola M, et al (1989). Occupation and bladder cancer in Spain: a multi-centre case-control study. Int J Epidemiol, 18, 569-77. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/18.3.569
  14. Gormally E, Vineis P, Matullo G, et al (2006). TP53 and KRAS2 mutations in plasma DNA of healthy subjects and subsequent cancer occurrence: a prospective study. Cancer Res, 66, 6871-6. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-4556
  15. Hashibe M, Brennan P, Benhamou S, et al (2007). Alcohol drinking in never users of tobacco, cigarette smoking in never drinkers, and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. J Natl Cancer Inst, 99, 777-89. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djk179
  16. Izarzugaza MI, Ardanaz E, Chirlaque MD, et al (2010). Tobacco-related tumours of the lung, bladder and larynx: changes in Spain. Ann Oncol, 21, 52-60.
  17. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al (2011). Global Cancer Statistics: 2011. CA: Cancer J Clin, 61, 69-90. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.20107
  18. Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E (2010). Cancer statistics, 2010. CA: Cancer J Clin, 60, 277-300. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.20073
  19. Jha P, Jacob B, Gajalakshmi V, et al (2008). A nationally representative case-control study of smoking and death in India. N Engl J Med, 358, 1137-47. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa0707719
  20. Kirkali Z, Chan T, Manoharan M, et al (2005). Bladder cancer: epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis. Urology, 66, 4-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-4295(05)00945-3
  21. Kobeissi LH, Yassine IA, Jabbour ME, Moussa MA, Dhaini HR (2013). Urinary bladder cancer risk factors: a Lebanese case- control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3205-11. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3205
  22. Lammers RJM, Witjes WPJ, Hendricksen K, et al (2011). Smoking status is a risk factor for recurrence after transurethral resection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Eur Urol, 60, 713-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2011.07.010
  23. Lin J, Spitz MR, Dinney CP, et al (2006). Bladder cancer risk as modified by family history and smoking. Cancer, 107, 705-11. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22071
  24. Martignoni G (2013). Discovering smoking-related pathway alterations in urothelial cell carcinoma pathogenesis. Cell Cycle, 12, 1483. https://doi.org/10.4161/cc.24852
  25. Menvielle G, Luce D, Goldberg P, Bugel I, Leclerc A (2004). Smoking, alcohol drinking and cancer risk for various sites of the larynx and hypopharynx. A case-control study in France. Eur J Cancer Prev, 13, 165-72. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.cej.0000130017.93310.76
  26. Millan-Rodriguez F, Chechile-Toniolo G, Salvador-Bayarri J, et al (2000). Primary superficial bladder cancer risk groups according to progression, mortality and recurrence. J Urol, 164, 680-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(05)67280-1
  27. Perera F, Li TY, Lin C, Tang D (2012). Effects of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and environmental tobacco smoke on child IQ in a Chinese cohort. Envir Res, 114, 40-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2011.12.011
  28. Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A (2013). Cancer Statistics, 2013. CA Cancer J Clin, 63, 11-30. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21166
  29. Smith AH, Handley MA, Wood R (1990). Epidemiological evidence indicates asbestos causes laryngeal cancer. J Occup Med, 32, 499-507. https://doi.org/10.1097/00043764-199006000-00005
  30. Strope SA, Montie JE (2008). The causal role of cigarette smoking in bladder cancer initiation and progression, and the role of urologists in smoking cessation. J Urol, 180, 31-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2008.03.045
  31. Tuyns AJ, Esteve J, Raymond L, et al (1988). Cancer of the larynx/hypopharynx, tobacco and alcohol: IARC international case-control study in Turin and Varese (Italy), Zaragoza and Navarra (Spain), Geneva (Switzerland) and Calvados (France). Int J Cancer, 41, 483-91. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.2910410403
  32. Vineis P, Hoek G, Krzyzanowski M, et al (2007). Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study. Environ Health, 6, 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-6-7
  33. Yafi FA, Aprikian AG, Chin JL, et al (2011). Contemporary outcomes of 2287 patients with bladder cancer who were treated with radical cystectomy: a Canadian multicentre experience. BJU Int, 108, 539-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09912.x

Cited by

  1. Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Bladder Cancer in the Iranian Population vol.15, pp.18, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7869
  2. High Expression Level of Preoperative Serum Uroplakin III is Associated with Biologically Aggressive Bladder Cancer vol.16, pp.4, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.4.1539