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Impact of iron deficiency anemia on chronic periodontitis and superoxide dismutase activity: a cross-sectional study

  • Chakraborty, Souvik (Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantology, Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences) ;
  • Tewari, Shikha (Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantology, Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences) ;
  • Sharma, Rajinder Kumar (Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantology, Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences) ;
  • Narula, Satish Chander (Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantology, Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences) ;
  • Ghalaut, Pratap Singh (Department of Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Ghalaut, Veena (Department of Biochemistry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences)
  • Received : 2013.12.19
  • Accepted : 2014.02.28
  • Published : 2014.04.30

Abstract

Purpose: Both chronic periodontitis (CP) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) induce oxidative stress in the body and cause an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). This study explored the SOD enzyme activity of saliva and serum in CP patients with and without IDA and analyzed the impact of IDA on CP. Methods: A total of 82 patients were divided into four groups: control group (CG, 22), periodontally healthy IDA patients (IDA-PH, 20), CP patients (CP, 20), and IDA patients with CP (IDA-CP, 20). After clinical measurements and samplings, serum and salivary SOD levels were determined using an SOD assay kit. Results: IDA-CP patients exhibited a higher gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, and percentage (%) of sites with a clinical attachment loss (CAL) of ${\geq}6mm$ (P<0.008) than CP patients. The mean salivary and serum SOD levels were significantly lower in the IDA-PH, CP, and IDA-CP patients than in the CG group (P<0.008). A significant positive correlation between salivary and serum SOD activity was observed in IDA (P<0.05). Furthermore, serum and salivary SOD levels were significantly and negatively correlated with all periodontal parameters including the percentage of sites with CAL of 4-5 and ${\geq}6mm$ (P<0.05) except the significant correlation between salivary SOD activity and mean CAL and the percentage of sites with CAL of 4-5 mm (P>0.05) in these patients. Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, it may be suggested that IDA patients with chronic periodontitis have more periodontal breakdowns than patients with chronic periodontitis. Serum and salivary SOD activity levels were lower in the IDA-PH, CP and IDA-CP groups than in the CG. Iron deficiency anemia influenced the serum SOD activity but did not seem to affect the salivary SOD activity in these patients.

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