A Relational Analysis among Color Marketing, Brand Charisma and Marketing Outcome

컬러마케팅, 브랜드 카리스마와 마케팅성과 간의 관계연구

  • Kim, Shine (Division of Liberal Arts & Teaching, Sungkyul University) ;
  • Kwon, Ki-Dae (Dept. of Channels & Logistics, Kongju National University)
  • 김신애 (성결대학교 교양교직부) ;
  • 권기대 (공주대학교 산업유통학과)
  • Received : 2013.10.22
  • Accepted : 2014.01.09
  • Published : 2014.01.31


This study analyzes effects of color marketing on brand charisma and marketing outcomes, specifically focused on agricultural goods co brand. that is color marketing refers to the extent to which people like color marketing and consists of symbolization, association and discrimination, and so called variables of marketing outcome is defined as the extent to which a color evokes meaning (loyalty, satisfaction, and switching barrier of brand). We collected statistically usable data from 266 questionnaire respondents who live in national provinces and analyzed them with SPSS 20.0 and Amos 5.0 to achieve research's goals. Based on the past studies, a total of three hypothesis are addressed in the study. Analysis results revealed that, first, color marketing of symbolization and association had a positive impacts on brand charisma. Second, the survey found that symbolization has q positive influence on brand loyalty and satisfaction except for switching barrier, association had an effect on brand loyalty, and discrimination had an effect on brand satisfaction. Third, brand charisma had an effect on brand loyalty and satisfaction. specially switching cost had not meaning on all hypothesis by reason of do not fully understand meaning of switching barrier. Summary and strategy implication will be mention in conclusion.

본 연구는 고객의 감성에 의한 개성이 중요시되고 브랜드와 제품에 다양한 컬러를 반영한 지속가능한 경쟁 우위차원에서 컬러마케팅과 브랜드 카리스마 그리고 마케팅 성과 간의 영향관계를 분석하였다. 정제된 266개의 설문을 분석한 결과 첫째, 컬러마케팅의 상징성과 연상성은 브랜드 카리스마에 유의한 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으며, 둘째, 컬러마케팅의 상징성은 마케팅성과의 브랜드충성도와 브랜드만족에, 연상성은 마케팅성과의 브랜드충성도에, 식별성은 마케팅성과의 브랜드만족에 유의적인 관계로 분석되었다. 셋째, 브랜드 카리스마는 전환장벽을 제외한 마케팅성과의 브랜드충성도와 브랜드만족에 긍정적인 관계인 것으로 확인되었다. 본 연구의 유용성은 첫째, 기업들이 소비자의 라이프스타일 분석에 의한 개성있는 표적고객들에게 컬러마케팅으로 고객유인전략에 활용할 수 있는 동시에 브랜드 카리스마가 고객과의 지속적 경쟁우위 관계강화의 접착제 역할을 담당할 수 있음을 시사하며, 둘째, 브랜드컬러는 고객들에게 기업의 이미지를 인지 및 연상시키고 브랜드 카리스마를 낳아 충성도로 연결되는 소위 고객관계관리의 무기로 활용할 수 있다.



  1. Aaker, A.D., Managing brand equity; capitalizing on the value of a brand name. New York: The Free Press, 1991.
  2. Adams, F.M. & C.E. Osgood, "A cross-cultural study of the affective meanings of color", Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 4(2), pp. 135-156, 1973. DOI:
  3. Baeyens, F., Crombez, G., Van den Bergh, O., P. Eelen, "Once in contact always in contact: evaluative conditioning is resistant to extinction", Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 10, pp. 179-199, 1988. DOI:
  4. Bagozzi, R.P. & Y.Yi., "On the evaluation of structural equation models", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), pp. 74-94, 1988. DOI:
  5. Bass, B.M., Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: The Free Press, 1985.
  6. Birren, F., Color & human response. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1984.
  7. Blackston, M., "Observations: building brand equity by managing the brand's relationships", Journal of Advertising Research, 40(6), pp. 101-105, 2000.
  8. Bottomley, P.A. & J.R. Doyle, "The interactive effects of color and products on perceptions of brand logo appropriateness", Marketing Theory, 6(1), pp. 63-83, 2006. DOI:
  9. Brady, M.K. & J.J. Jr. .Cronin, "Some new thoughts on conceptualizing perceived service quality: a hierarchical approach", Journal of Marketing, 65(3), pp. 34-49, 2001. DOI:
  10. Burke, C.M., "Strategic choice and marketing managers: an examination of business level marketing objectives", Journal of Marketing Research, 21(4), pp. 345-359, 1984. DOI:
  11. Chaudhuri, A., "The effects of brand attitudes and brand loyalty on brand performance", in E-European Advances in Consumer Research, 4, eds. Bernard Dubois, T.M. Lowrey, & L.J. Shrum, Marc Vanhuele, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, p. 276, 1999.
  12. Chaudhuri, A. & M.B. Holbrook. "The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance the role of brand loyalty", Journal of Marketing, 65(2), pp. 81-93, 2001. DOI:
  13. Choo, SY., & J.Y. Cho, "The characteristics of colors in domestic saengwhalhanbok brands", Journal of the Korean Society of Design Culture, 10(4), pp. 64-71, 2004.
  14. Cooper, M. & A. Matthews. Color smart: how to use color to enhance your business and personal life. Illinois: Pocket Books, 2002.
  15. Dick, A.S. & K. Basu,. "Customer loyalty: toward an integrated conceptual framework", Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), pp. 99-113, 1994. DOI:
  16. Dube, J.P., Hitsch, G.J. & P.E. Rossi, "Do switching costs make markets less competitive?", Journal of Marketing Research, 46(4), pp. 435-445, 2009. DOI:
  17. Eisenhardt K.M. & S.L. Brown, "Patching: restitching business portfolios in dynamic markets", Harvard Business Review, 77(3), pp. 72-82, 1999.
  18. Elliot, A.J. & M.A. Maier, "Color and psychological functioning", Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(5), pp. 250-254, 2007. DOI:
  19. Fournier, S., "Consumers and their brands: developing relationship theory in consumer research", Journal of Consumer Research, 24(1), pp. 343-373, 1998.
  20. Fornell, C., Johnson, M., Anderson, E. W., Cha, J. & B.E. Bryant, "The american customer satisfaction index: nature, purpose, and findings", Journal of Marketing, 60(4), pp.7-18, 1996. DOI:
  21. Garber, L.L. & E.M. Hyatt, Color as a tool for visual persuasion. in Linda M. Scott and Rajeev Batra, Persuasive imagery: a consumer response perspective, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2003.
  22. Gifford. D. Jr., "Brand management: moving beyond loyalty", Harvard Business Review, 75(2), pp. 9-11, 1997.
  23. Gorn, G.J. "The effects of music in advertising on choice behavior: a classical conditioning approach", Journal of Marketing, 46(1), pp. 94-101, 1982. DOI:
  24. Gorn, G.J., A. Chattopadhyay, T. Yi &D.W. Dahl. "Effects of color as an executional cue in advertising: they're in the shade", Management Sciences, 43(10), pp.: 1387-1400, 1997. DOI:
  25. Guilford, J.P. & P.C. Smith.. "A system of color preferences", American Journal of Psychology, 72(4), pp. 487-502, 1959. DOI:
  26. Han, BJ. & JA. Nam, "A study on color and image of brand design: inter-brand selected 100 companies around the world in 2009", A Journal of Brand Design Association of Korea, 8(2), pp. 63-74, 2010.
  27. Helson, H & T. Landsford, "The role of spectral energy of source and background color in the pleasantness of object colors", Applied Optics, 9(7), pp. 1513-1562, 1970. DOI:
  28. Hong, BS., Lee EJ. & MH. Yoo, "The effect of color marketing of the fashion brands on brand personality, brand awareness and purchase intention", Life Science Review, 27, pp. 15-27, 2008.
  29. Hwang, IS., & HJ. Lee, "Effects of preference and fit of product color on purchase intention", Journal of Korean Marketing Association, 27(1), pp. 27-43, 2012.
  30. Jackson, B.B., Winning and Keeping Industrial Customers. Lexington: Lexington Books, pp. 27-45, 1985.
  31. Jacobs, K.W., & JF. Suess, "Effects of four psychological primary colors on anxiety state", Perceptual and Motor Skills, 41(1), pp. 207-210, 1975. DOI:
  32. Jang, HJ., & YS. Kim, "A study on development of color and image marketing strategies for the lohas & nomadic consumer in food service industry", The Korean Journal of Culinary Research, 10(4), pp. 50-66, 2004.
  33. Jang, HY., & MJ. Noh, "The relationship beteen market orietation and business performance in retail industry", The Korean Journal of Business Research, 42(1), pp. 241-267, 2013.
  34. Jeon, IS., & EW. Kim, "A three stage model of reputation brand: ppca model", Journal of Consumer Studies, 16(1), pp. 209-227, 2005.
  35. Kellaris, J.J. Cox, A.D. & D. Cox. "The effect of background music on ad processing: a contingency explanations", Journal of Marketing, 57(4), pp. 114-125, 1993. DOI:
  36. Keller, K.L., Building, measuring, and managing brand equity, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998.
  37. Kim, JW., "A study on the effect of perceived brand benefits on brand loyalty: an Integrated approach to mediators", Hanyang University Dissertation Thesis, 2007.
  38. Kim HR. "The study relationship brand association and color sensibility", Communication Design Korean Journal of Visual Design, 24, pp. 103-110, 2007.
  39. Kim, SA. & KD. Kwon,, "An empirical study on effect of color marketing upon brand charisma and brand loyalty: focused on goodtrae brand", Korean Journal of Strategic Marketing Research, 19(1), pp. 109-126, 2011.
  40. Kim, SA & JS. .Lee, "An exploratory study decision factors on korea's cheong marketing: the case of food firms in korea", Korean Business Education Review, 28(4), pp. 1-27, 2013.
  41. Kim, SA. Choi, HG. & KD. Kwon,, "A relational study among color marketing strategy, brand charisma & customer's brand satisfaction", Korean Journal of Food Marketing & Economics, 29(1), pp. 37-56, 2012.
  42. Kim, SH. & SY. Shin, "Color analysis of domestic and foreign cosmetic brands for men", Journal of the Korean Beauty Art Society, 6(4), pp. 33-44, 2012.
  43. Kim, SJ, Yoon, HK. & HS. Lee, "A study on the website color represented by the brand personality", Journal of Korean Society Color Studies, 17(2), pp. 1-13, 2003.
  44. Kim, YI, Jo, MY., Lee, HJ. & SJ. .Kim, "The characteristics of colors of makeup brands", Journal of Korean Society Of Color Studies, 18(2), pp. 91-101, 2004.
  45. Kim, YM., Seo, HJ. & JH. Jung, "The influence of brand personality and perceived quality of sport goods on brand loyalty through the brand charisma", Korean Journal of Sport Management, 10(4), pp. 31-43, 2005.
  46. Ko, EJ. & JH. .Lee, "A case study on color marketing in fashion industries", Fashion Business, 7(1), pp. 55-71, 2003.
  47. Kuk, SY & BJ. Kim, "A study on images of agricultural products common brand: focused on shapes and colors", Korean Journal of Visual Design, 30, pp. 76-86, 2009.
  48. Lee, CS., "Relation of package design color and purchase psychology", A Journal of Brand Design Association of Korea, 3(1), pp. 103-119, 2005.
  49. Lee H.. "Charismatic and instrumental leadership: an exploratory study for the compatibility of two leaderships", Korean Management Review, 25(1), pp. 183-201, 1996.
  50. Lee, HJ., "Color system of the domestic insurer's C.I", A Journal of Brand Design Association of Korea , pp. 127-140, 2011.
  51. Lee, HJ., & SK., Kwon, "A case study of city color brand design as a public marketing for eco oriented city", Life Science Review, 27, pp. 61-75, 2008.
  52. Lee, HS., & JH. Lim, "Brand charisma, its antecedents, and its effects: the moderating role of symbolic/functional involvement", Journal of Korean Marketing Association,, 19(3), pp. 137-177, 2004.
  53. Lee, JH., "Research about the influence of color communication on brand images: based on industrial logos", The Korea Contents Association, 12(5), pp. 154-162, 2012.
  54. Lee, J.S. & S. Kim, "An empirical study on antecedents and consequences of relational trust upon bank of customer", Korean Business Education Review, 28(2), pp. 429-458, 2013.
  55. Lee, MG., "A study on the determinants of service loyalty", Journal of Korean Marketing Association, 14(1), pp. 21-45, 1999.
  56. Lee, SE. & SY. Kim, "The effect of color incongruity on brand attitude: moderating effect of self-image congruence", Journal of Korean Marketing Association, 11(4), pp. 69-93, 2010.
  57. Lee, SH., & JK. Kim, "A study of the influence of investment tendency on the color marketing of securities company's brand", Journal & Article Management System, 11(4), pp. 599-612, 2008.
  58. MacInnis, D.J. & C.W. Park, "The differential role of characteristics of music on high and low involvement consumers' processing of ads", Journal of Consumer Research, 18(2), pp. 161-173, 1991. DOI:
  59. Madden, T.J., K. Hewett & M.S. Roth,. "Managing images in different cultures: a cross national study of color meanings and preferences", Journal of International Marketing, 8(4), pp. 90-107, 2000. DOI:
  60. Mark, M.T. & J.B. Hoeksma, "Colors and emotions: preferences and combinations", Journal of General Psychology, 122(1), pp. 5-17, 2001.
  61. McGuire, W.J., Attitudes and Attitude Change. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (eds) Handbook of Social Psychology, 3rd ed., 2. New York: Random House, 1985.
  62. Miller, E.G. & B.E. Kahn,."Shades of meaning: the effect of color and flavor names on consumer choice", Journal of Consumer Research, 32(1), pp. 86-92, 2005. DOI:
  63. Moore, R.S., C.A. Stammerjohan & R.A. Coulter, "Banner advertising web site context congruity and color effects on attention and attitudes", Journal of Advertising, 34(2), pp. 71-84, 2005. DOI:
  64. Mowen, J.C. & M.S. Minor, Consumer behavior: a framework. Prentice-Hall, 2002.
  65. Mundell, H., "How the color mafia chooses your clothes",. American Demographics, 15(11), pp. 21-23, 1993.
  66. Murphy, K.R. & C.O. Davidshofer, Psychological testing: principles and applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.
  67. Oliver, L.R.,."Whence consumer loyalty?", Journal of Marketing, 63(4), pp. 33-44, 1999.
  68. Oliver, L. R. Satisfaction: a behavioral perspective on the consumer. New York: McGraw Hill, 1997.
  69. Park, C.W. & S.M. Young, "Consumer response to television commercials: the impact of involvement and background music on brand attitude formation", Journal of Marketing Research, 23(1), pp. 11-24, 1986. DOI:
  70. Park, HS. & YR. Kim, "Understanding and application of color marketing: focused on men's wear for domestic market", The Journal of the Korea Society of Craft, 9(2), pp. 151-173, 2006.
  71. Park, K.W. & J.Y. ,Hong, "A study on the color expressions for package design of agricultural products co-brand", Journal of the Korean Society of Design Culture, 13(4), pp. 157-169, 2007.
  72. Ping, R.A., Jr., "The effects of satisfaction and structural constraints on retailer exiting, voice, loyalty, opportunism, and neglect", Journal of Retailing, 69(3), pp. 320-352, 1993. DOI:
  73. Pomp, M. & S. Victoria, "Switching costs in netherlands energy markets: can liberalization bring benefits to small customer", De Economist, 155(3), pp. 305-321, 2007. DOI:
  74. Russel, C.A., "Investigating the effectiveness of product placements in television. shows: the role of modality and plot connection congruence on brand. memory and attitude", Journal of Consumer Research, 29(3), pp. 306-317, 2002. DOI:
  75. Rust, R.T., K.N., Lemon & V.A. Zeithaml, "Return on marketing: using customer equity to focus marketing strategy", Journal of Marketing, 68(1), pp. 109-127, 2004. DOI:
  76. Schaie, K.W. & R. Heiss. Color and personality. Berne, Switzerland: Hans Huber, 1964.
  77. Seo, SH. & JI. Chen, "A study on the influence of colors on brand values", Korean Journal of Visual Design, 14, pp.18-31, 2003.
  78. Sharpe, D.T., The psychology of color and design, Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1974.
  79. Shim, JY. & SH. Lee, "The effects of consumer-brand relationships on brand charisma and brand loyalty", Family and Environment Research, 47(8), pp.:101-107, 2009.
  80. Shin, HY., Shim, YW. & MY. Choi, "Research on color application of domestic brands", Journal of Korean Society of Color Studies, 18(2), pp. 67-81, 2004.
  81. Shin, KC., Koo, YA. & SH. Choi, "The study on the influence of consumers' value that affects brand charisma, brand attitude and purchase intention: with relevance to masstige brand", Journal of the Korean society for Quality Management, 39(4), pp. 486-499, 2011.
  82. Sivik, L., "Measuring the meaning of colors: reliability and stability", Psychological Reports, 4(2), pp. 14-24, 1974.
  83. Smothers, N., Can products and brands have charisma? in brand equity and advertising: advertising's role in building Ssrong brands, ed., David A. Aaker and Alexander L. Biel, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 97-111, 1993.
  84. Tavassoli, T.N., "Language in multimedia: interaction of spoken and written information", The Journal of Consumer Research, 25(1), pp. 26-38, 1998. DOI:
  85. Tripp, C., Jensen, T.D., & L. Carlson, "The effect of multiple product endorsements by celebrities on consumers' attitudes and intentions", Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4), pp. 533-547, 1994.
  86. Volgel, V. H. Evanschitzky, B. Ramaseshan, "Customer equity drives and future sales. Journal of Marketing, 72(6), pp. 98-108, 2008. DOI:
  87. Wolfe, J. M., "Guided search 2.0: a revised model of visual search", Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1: pp. 202-238, 1994. DOI:
  88. Won, KM.., & YI. Kim, "Characteristics of color and color name in korea fashion apparel industries", Journal of Korean Society of Color Studies, 15(1), pp. 37-48, 2001.
  89. Yoon, SG., "The effects of color naming on color responses, brand attitudes, and product attributes perception: an empirical study", Journal of Advertising, 15(4), pp. 231-247, 2004.
  90. You, CK.., "A study on the emotional expression of product design through new application technology of CMF(color, material, finishing)", The Treatise on The Plastic Media, 15(3), pp. 129-134, 2012.
  91. Yun, EY. & SK. Park, "A study on the domestic dye companies' utilitarian color marketing", Journal of The Korean Society of Fashion Design, 5(1), pp. 53-67, 2005.
  92. Zaltman, G. "Metaphorically speaking: new technique uses multidisciplinary ideas to improve qualitative research. marketing research", A Quarterly Business Management Publication of the American Marketing Association, 8(2), pp. 13-20, 1996.
  93. Zeithaml, A.V., L.L. Berry, & A Parasuraman.. "The behavioral consequences of service quality", Journal of Marketing, 60(2), pp. 31-46, 1996. DOI:
  94. Color marketing, 2013.